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tt    of  Toronto 








BY   C    BLACK  IE 






/£>.     5      SI 




THE  Introduction,  by  which  the  present  work  is  ushered 
into  public  notice,  renders  any  lengthened  Preface  on 
my  part  quite  unnecessary.  Yet  I  wish  to  say  a  few 
words  with  regard  to  the  design  and  plan  of  this  little 

The  subject,  though  no  doubt  possessing  a  peculiar 
interest  to  the  general  reader,  and  especially  to  tourists 
in  these  travelling  days,  falls  naturally  under  the  head 
of  historical  and  geographical  instruction  in  schools  ; 
and  for  such  use  the  book  is,  in  the  first  place,  specially 

When  I  was  myself  one  of  a  class  in  this  city  where 
Geography  and  History  were  taught,  no  information 
connected  with  etymology  was  imparted  to  us.  We 
learned,  with  more  or  less  trouble  and  edification,  the 
names  of  countries,  towns,  etc.,  by  rote  ;  but  our  teacher 
did  not  ask  us  who  gave  the  names  to  these  places, 
nor  were  we  expected  to  inquire  or  to  know  if  there 
was  any  connection  between  their  names  and  their 


histories.  Things  are  changed  now ;  and  I  believe 
the  first  stimulus  to  an  awakening  interest  in  Geo- 
graphical Etymology  was  given  by  the  publication  of 
the  Rev.  Isaac  Taylor's  popular  work,  Words  and 
Places.  About  ten  years  ago,  I  found  that  the  best 
teachers  in  the  English  schools  of  Edinburgh  did  ask 
questions  on  this  subject,  and  I  discovered,  at  the  same 
time,  that  a  book  specially  bearing  upon  it  was  a 
desideratum  in  school  literature.  As  no  one  better 
qualified  came  forward,  I  was  induced  to  make  the 
attempt ;  and  I  hope  the  following  pages,  the  result  of 
much  research  and  in  the  face  of  no  small  discourage- 
ment, may  prove  useful  to  teachers,  as  well  as  to  their 

The  Index  at  the  end  of  the  volume,  although  it 
contains  many  names  not  included  in  the  body  of  the 
work,  does  by  no  means  include  all  that  I  have  given 
there.  This  did  not  seem  necessary,  because,  the  root 
words  being  alphabetically  arranged,  an  intelligent 
teacher  or  pupil  will  easily  find  the  key  to  the  explana- 
tion of  any  special  name  by  referring  to  the  head  under 
which  it  is  naturally  classed.  I  must,  however,  premise 
that,  with  regard  to  names  derived  from  the  Celtic 
languages,  the  root  word  is  generally  placed  at  the 
beginning  of  the  name — that  is,  if  it  contain  more  than 
one  syllable.  This  is  the  case  with  such  vocables  as 
pen,  ben,  dun,  Us,  rath,  strath,  etc.;  e.g.  Lismore,  Ben- 
more,  Dungarvan,  Strath-Allan.  On  the  other  hand, 


in  names  derived  from  the  Teutonic  or  Scandinavian 
languages,  the  root  word  comes  last,  as  will  be  found 
with  regard  to  ton,  dale,  burg,  berg,  stadt,  dorf,  ford, 

The  index,  therefore,  may  be  expected  to  include 
principally  such  names  as,  either  through  corruption  or 
abbreviation,  have  materially  changed  their  form,  such 
as  are  formed  from  the  simple  root,  like  Fiirth,  Ennis, 
Delft,  or  such  as  contain  more  than  one,  as  in  Portrush, 
it  being  uncertain  under  which  head  I  may  have  placed 
such  names.  Along  with  the  root  words,  called  by  the 
Germans  Grundwb'rter,  I  have  given  a  number  of 
defining  words  (Be stimmnngsw  drier} — such  adjectives 
as  express  variety  in  colour,  form,  size,  etc. 

It  is  to  be  regretted  that  many  names  have  neces- 
sarily been  omitted  from  ignorance  or  uncertainty  with 
regard  to  their  derivation.  This  is  the  case,  unfortu- 
nately, with  several  well-known  and  important  towns — 
Glasgow,  Berlin,  Berne,  Madrid,  Paisley,  etc.  With 
regard  to  these  and  many  others,  I  shall  be  glad  to 
receive  reliable  information. 

And  now  it  only  remains  for  me  to  express  my 
obligations  to  the  gentlemen  who  have  kindly  assisted 
me  in  this  work,  premising  that,  in  the  departments 
which  they  have  revised,  the  credit  of  success  is  due 
mainly  to  them  ;  while  I  reserve  to  myself  any  blame 
which  may  be  deservedly  attached  to  failures  or  omis- 
sions. The  Celtic  portion  of  my  proof-sheets  has  been 


revised  by  Dr.  Skene,  the  well-known  Celtic  scholar  of 
this  city,  and  by  Dr.  Joyce,  author  of  Irish  Names  of 
Places.  I  have  also  to  thank  the  Rev.  Isaac  Taylor, 
author  of  Words  and  Places,  for  the  help  and  encour- 
agement which  he  has  given  me  from  time  to  time  ; 
and  Mr.  Paterson,  author  of  the  Magyars,  for  valuable 
information  which  I  received  from  him  regarding  the 
topography  of  Hungary.  I  appreciate  the  assistance 
given  me  by  these  gentlemen  the  more,  that  it  did  not 
proceed  from  personal  friendship,  as  I  was  an  entire 
stranger  to  all  of  them.  It  was  the  kindness  and 
courtesy  of  the  stronger  and  more  learned  to  one  weaker 
and  less  gifted  than  themselves  ;  and  I  beg  they  may 
receive  my  grateful  thanks,  along  with  the  little  volume 
which  has  been  so  much  their  debtor. 

C.  B. 

EDINBURGH,  July  1887. 


AMONG  the  branches  of  human  speculation  that,  in 
recent  times,  have  walked  out  of  the  misty  realm  of 
conjecture  into  the  firm  land  of  science,  and  from  the 
silent  chamber  of  the  student  into  the  breezy  fields 
of  public  life,  there  are  few  more  interesting  than 
Etymology.  For  as  words  are  the  common  counters, 
or  coins  rather,  with  which  we  mark  our  points  in 
all  the  business  and  all  the  sport  of  life,  any  man 
whose  curiosity  has  not  been  blunted  by  familiarity, 
will  naturally  find  a  pleasure  in  understanding  what 
the  image  and  superscription  on  these  markers  mean  ; 
and  amongst  words  there  are  none  that  so  powerfully 
stimulate  this  curiosity  as  the  names  of  persons  and 
places.  About  these  the  intelligent  interest  of  young 
persons  is  often  prominently  manifested  ;  and  it  is  a 
sad  thing  when  parents  or  teachers,  who  should  be  in 
a  position  to  gratify  this  interest,  are  obliged  to  waive 
an  eager  intelligence  aside,  and  by  repeated  negations 
to  repel  the  curiosity  which  they  ought  to  have  en- 
couraged. Geography  indeed,  a  subject  full  of  interest 



to  the  young  mind,  has  too  often  been  taught  in  such  a 
way  as  neither  to  delight  the  imagination  with  vivid 
pictures,  nor  to  stimulate  inquiry  by  a  frequent  reference 
to  the  history  of  names  ;  and  this  is  an  evil  which,  if 
found  to  a  certain  extent  in  all  countries,  is  particularly 
rank  in  Great  Britain,  where  the  language  of  the  country 
is  composed  of  fragments  of  half  a  dozen  languages, 
which  only  the  learned  understand,  and  which,  to  the 
ear  of  the  many,  have  no  more  significance  than  if  they 
were  Hebrew  or  Coptic.  The  composite  structure  of 
our  English  speech,  in  fact,  tends  to  conceal  from  us 
the  natural  organism  of  language  ;  so  that  in  our  case, 
it  requires  a  special  training  to  make  us  fully  aware  of 
the  great  truth  announced  by  Home  Tooke,  that  "  in 
language  there  is  nothing  arbitrary."  Nevertheless,  the 
curiosity  about  the  meaning  of  words,  though  seldom 
cherished,  is  not  easily  extinguished  ;  and,  in  this  age  of 
locomotion,  there  are  few  scraps  of  information  more 
grateful  to  the  intelligent  tourist  than  those  which 
relate  to  the  significance  of  topographical  names. 
When,  for  instance,  the  London  holiday-maker,  in  his 
trip  to  the  West  Highlands,  setting  foot  in  one  of  Mr. 
Hutchinson's  steamboats  at  Oban,  on  his  way  to  the 
historic  horrors  of  Glencoe,  finds  on  his  larboard  side  a 
long,  low  island,  green  and  treeless,  called  Lismore,  he 
will  be  pleased,  no  doubt,  at  first  by  simply  hearing  so 
euphonious  a  word  in  a  language  that  he  had  been 
taught  to  believe  was  harsh  and  barbarous,  but  will  be 
transported  into  an  altogether  different  region  of  intel- 


ligent  delight  when  he  is  made  to  understand  that  this 
island  is  wholly  composed  of  a  vein  of  limestone,  found 
only  here  in  the  midst  of  a  wide  granitic  region  skirted 
with  trap ;  that,  by  virtue  of  this  limestone,  the  island, 
though  treeless,  is  more   fertile  than  the   surrounding 
districts ;  and  that  for  this  reason  it  has  received  the 
Celtic    designation    of  Liosmor,   or    the  great  garden. 
Connected  with  this  etymology,  not  only  is  the  topo- 
graphical name  made  to  speak  reasonably  to  a  reason- 
able being,  but  it  contains  in  its  bosom  a  geological 
fact,  and   an  ceconomical  issue,  bound  together  by  a 
bond    of  association   the   most  natural   and  the   most 
permanent.     The   pleasant  nature   of  the   intelligence 
thus  awakened  leads  us  naturally  to  lament  that,  except 
to  those  who  are  born  in  Celtic  districts  and  speak  the 
Celtic  language,  the  significance  of  so  many  of  our  most 
common  topographical  names  in  the  most  interesting 
districts  is  practically  lost ;  and  it  deserves  consideration 
whether,  in  our  English  and  classical  schools,  so  much 
at  least  of  the  original  speech  of  the  country  should 
not  be  taught  as  would  enable  the  intelligent  student 
to  know  the  meaning  of  the  local  names,  to  whose 
parrot-like  repetition  he  must  otherwise  be  condemned. 
Some  of  the   Celtic  words   habitually  used   in  the 
designation  of  places — such  as  Ben,  Glen,  Strath,  and 
Loch — have  been  incorporated  into  the  common  English 
tongue  ;  and  the  addition  to  this  stock  is  not  very  large, 
which  would  enable  an  intelligent  traveller  to  hang  the 
points  of  his  picturesque  tour  on  a  philological  peg  that 


would  most  materially  insure  both  their  distinctness  and 
their  permanence.  Nay,  more  ;  the  germ  of  apprecia- 
tion thus  begotten  might  lead  a  sympathetic  nature 
easily  into  some  more  serious  occupation  with  the  old 
language  of  our  country ;  and  this  might  lead  to  a 
discovery  full  of  pleasant  surprise,  that  in  the  domain 
of  words,  as  of  physical  growth,  the  brown  moors,  when 
examined,  often  produce  flowers  of  the  most  choice 
beauty  with  which  the  flush  of  the  most  cultivated 
gardens  cannot  compete,  and  that  a  venerable  branch 
of  the  old  Indo-European  family  of  languages,  generally 
ignored  as  rude  and  unlettered,  is  rich  in  a  popular 
poetry,  as  fervid  in  passion,  and  as  healthy  in  hue,  as 
anything  that  Homer  or  Hesiod  ever  sang. 

In  the  realm  of  etymology,  as  everybody  now  knows, 
before  Bopp  and  Grimm,  and  other  great  scholars,  laid 
the  sure  foundation  of  comparative  philology  on  the  prin- 
ciples of  a  philosophy,  as  all  true  philosophy  is,  at  once 
inductive  and  deductive,  the  license  of  conjecture  played 
a  mad  part — a  part,  it  is  only  too  evident,  not  yet  fully 
played  out — and  specially  raised  such  a  glamour  of 
illusion  about  topographical  etymology,  that  the  theme 
became  disgusting  to  all  sober-minded  thinkers,  or 
ludicrous,  as  the  humour  might  be.  We  must,  there- 
fore, approach  this  subject  with  a  more  than  common 
degree  of  caution,  anxious  rather  to  be  instructed  in 
what  is  solid,  than  to  be  amazed  with  what  is  ingenious. 
It  shall  be  our  endeavour  to  proceed  step  by  step  in 
this  matter — patiently,  as  with  the  knowledge  that  our 


foot  is  on  the  brink  of  boggy  ground,  starting  from 
obvious  principles  given  by  the  constitution  of  the 
human  mind,  and  confirmed  by  a  large  induction  of 
unquestioned  facts. 

The  most  natural  and  obvious  reason  for  naming  a 
place  so-and-so  would  be  to  express  the  nature  of  the 
situation  by  its  most  striking  features,  with  the  double 
view  of  impressing  its  character  on  the  memory,  and 
conveying  to  persons  who  had  not  seen  it  an  idea  of 
its  peculiarity ;  i.e.  the  most  obvious  and  natural 
topographical  names  are  such  as  contain  condensed 
descriptions  or  rude  verbal  pictures  of  the  object.  Thus 
the  notion  of  the  highest  mountain  in  a  district  may 
be  broadly  conveyed  by  simply  calling  it  the  big  mount, 
or,  according  to  the  order  of  words  current  in  the 
Celtic  languages,  mount  big ;  which  is  exactly  what 
we  find  in  BENMORE,  from  mor,  big,  the  name  of 
several  of  the  highest  mountains  in  the  Highlands  of 
Scotland,  specially  of  one  in  the  south  of  Perthshire, 
near  Killin,  of  another  in  Mull,  the  highest  trap  moun- 
tain in  Scotland,  and  a  third  in  Assynt.  Again,  to 
mark  the  very  prominent  feature  of  mountains  elevated 
considerably  above  the  normal  height,  that  they  are 
covered  with  snow  all  the  year  round,  we  find  LEBANON, 
in  the  north  of  Palestine,  named  from  the  Hebrew 
leban,  white ;  MONT  BLANC,  in  Switzerland,  in  the 
same  way  from  an  old  Teutonic  word  signifying  the 
same  thing,  which  found  its  way  into  Italian  and  the 
other  Romanesque  languages,  fairly  ousting  the  Latin 


albus ;  OLYMPUS,  from  the  Greek  \dfji7r o/j,ai,  to  shine  ; 
the  SCHNEEKOPPE,  in  Silesia,  from  schnee,  snow,  and 
koppe,  what  we  call  kip  in  the  Lowland  topography  of 
Scotland,  Le.  a  pointed  hill,  the  same  radically  as  the 
Latin  caput,  the  head.  In  the  same  fashion  one  of 
the  modern  names  of  the  ancient  Mount  Hermon  is 
Jebel-eth-TJielj,  the  snowy  mountain,  just  as  the  Hima- 
layas receive  their  names  from  the  Sanscrit  haima  = 
Greek  %et/ta,  winter. 

The  most  obvious  characteristic  of  any  place,  whether 
mountain  or  plain  or  valley,  would  be  its  shape  and 
size,  its  relative  situation  high  or  low,  behind  or  in  the 
front,  its  colour,  the  kind  of  rock  or  soil  of  which  it  is 
composed,  the  climate  which  it  enjoys,  the  vegetation 
in  which  it  abounds,  and  the  animals  by  which  it  is 
frequented.  Let  us  take  a  few  familiar  examples  of 
each  of  these  cases  ;  and,  if  we  deal  more  largely  in 
illustrations  from  the  Scottish  Highlands  than  from 
other  parts  of  the  world,  it  is  for  three  sufficient  reasons 
— because  these  regions  are  annually  visited  by  the 
greatest  number  of  tourists  ;  because,  from  the  general 
neglect  of  the  Celtic  languages,  they  stand  most  in  need 
of  interpretation  ;  and  because  they  are  most  familiar 
— not  from  book -knowledge  only,  but  by  actual  in- 
spection— to  the  present  writer.  In  the  matter  of  size, 
the  tourist  will  find  at  GLENELG  (from  sealg,  to  hunt), 
in  Inverness-shire,  opposite  Skye,  where  there  are  two 
well-preserved  circular  forts,  the  twin  designations  of 
GLENMORE  and  GLENBEG  ;  that  is,  Glenbig  and  Glen- 


little — a  contrast  constantly  occurring  in  the  Highlands  ; 
the  word  beag,  pronounced  vulgarly  in  Argyleshire  peek, 
signifying  little,  evidently  the  same  as  piic  in  the  Greek 
pi/epos.  As  to  relative  situation,  the  root  ard,  in  Latin 
arduus,  frequently  occurs ;  not,  however,  to  express 
any  very  high  mountain,  but  either  a  bluff  fronting  the 
sea,  as  in  ARDNAMORCHUAN  (the  rise  of  the  great 
ocean,  cuan,  perhaps  from  w/ceai/o?),  or  more  frequently 
a  slight  elevation  on  the  shore  of  a  lake,  what  they 
call  in  England  a  rise,  as  in  ARDLUI,  near  the  head 
of  Loch  Lomond,  ARDVOIRLICH,  and  many  others. 
The  word  lui,  Gaelic  laogh — the  gh  being  silent,  as  in 
the  English  sigh — signifies  a  calf  or  a  fawn,  and  gives 
name  to  the  lofty  mountain  which  the  tourist  sees  on 
his  right  hand  as  he  winds  up  where  the  railway  is 
now  being  constructed  from  Dalmally  to  Tyndrum. 
Another  frequent  root  to  mark  relative  situation  is  CUL, 
behind,  Latin  culus,  French  cul,  a  word  which  gives 
name  to  a  whole  parish  in  Aberdeenshire,  to  the 
famous  historical  site  of  Culross,  the  reputed  birthplace 
of  St.  Kentigern,  and  many  others.  This  word  means 
simply  behind  tJie  headland,  as  does  also  CULCHENZIE 
(from  ceann,  the  head),  at  the  entrance  to  Loch  Leven 
and  Glencoe,  which  the  tourist  looks  on  with  interest, 
as  for  two  years  the  summer  residence  of  the  noble- 
minded  Celtic  evangelist  Dr.  Norman  Macleod.  But 
the  most  common  root,  marking  relative  situation,  which 
the  wanderer  through  Celtic  countries  encounters  is 
inver,  meaning  below,  or  the  bottom  of  a  stream,  of 


which  aber  is  only  a  syncopated  form,  a  variation 
which,  small  as  it  appears,  has  given  rise  to  large  con- 
troversy and  no  small  shedding  of  ink  among  bellicose 
antiquarians.  For  it  required  only  a  superficial  glance 
to  observe  that  while  Abers  are  scattered  freely  over 
Wales,  they  appear  scantly  in  Scotland,  and  there  with 
special  prevalence  only  in  the  east  and  south-east  of 
the  Grampians — as  in  ABERDEEN,  ABERDOUR,  ABER- 
LEMNO  in  Fife,  and  others.  On  this  the  eager  genius 
of  archaeological  discovery,  ever  ready  to  poise  a 
pyramid  on  its  apex,  forthwith  raised  the  theory,  that 
the  district  of  Scotland  where  the  Abers  prevailed  had 
been  originally  peopled  by  Celts  of  the  Cymric  or 
Welsh  type,  while  the  region  of  Invers  marked  out  the 
ancient  seats  of  the  pure  Caledonian  Celts.  But  this 
theory,  which  gave  great  offence  to  some  fervid  High- 
landers, so  far  as  it  stood  on  this  argument,  fell  to  the 
ground  the  moment  that  some  more  cool  observer  put 
his  finger  on  half  a  dozen  or  a  whole  dozen  of  Invers, 
in  perfect  agreement  hobnobbing  with  the  Abers,  not  far 
south  of  Aberdeen  ;  while,  on  the  other  hand,  a  zealous 
Highland  colonel,  now  departed  to  a  more  peaceful 
sphere,  pointed  out  several  Abers  straggling  far  west 
and  north-west  into  the  region  of  the  Caledonian  Canal 
and  beyond  it.  But  these  slippery  points  are  wisely 
avoided  ;  and  there  can  be  no  doubt,  on  the  general 
principle,  that  relative  situation  has  everywhere  played  a 
prominent  part  in  the  terminology  of  districts.  North- 
umberland and  Sutherland,  and  Cape  DEAS  or  Cape 


South,  in  Cantire,  are  familiar  illustrations  of  this 
principle  of  nomenclature.  In  such  cases  the  name, 
of  course,  always  indicates  by  what  parties  it  was 
imposed  ;  Sutherland,  or  Southern-land,  having  received 
this  appellation  from  the  Orkney  men,  who  lived  to  the 
north  of  the  Pentland  Firth. 

The  next  element  that  claims  mention  is  Colour. 
In  this  domain  the  most  striking  contrasts  are  black 
and  white.  In  ancient  Greece,  a  common  name  for 
rivers  was  MELAS,  or  Black-water  ;  one  of  which,  that 
which  flows  into  the  Malaic  Gulf,  has  translated  itself 
into  modern  Greek  as  MAURO-NERO,  pavpo  in  the 
popular  dialect  having  supplanted  the  classical  /zeXa?  ; 
and  vepo,  as  old,  no  doubt,  as  Nereus  and  the  Nereids, 
having  come  into  its  pre-Homeric  rights  and  driven  out 
the  usurping  vScop.  In  the  Scottish  Highlands,  dubh, 
black  or  dark,  plays,  as  might  be  expected,  a  great 
figure  in  topographical  nomenclature  ;  of  this  let  BEN- 
MUIC  DUBH,  or  the  mount  of  the  black  sow,  familiar  to 
many  a  Braemar  deer-stalker,  serve  as  an  example  ; 
while  CAIRNGORM,  the  cradle  of  many  a  golden-gleaming 
gem,  stands  with  its  dark  blue  (gorwi)  cap  immediately 
opposite,  and  recalls  to  the  classical  fancy  its  etymo- 
logical congeners  in  the  CYANEAN  rocks,  so  famous 
in  early  Greek  fable.  Of  the  contrasted  epithet  white, 
LEUCADIA  (Xeu #09),  where  the  poetess  Sappho  is  famed 
to  have  made  her  erotic  leap,  is  a  familiar  example. 
In  the  Highlands,  ban  (fair),  or  geal  (white),  is  much 
less  familiar  in  topographical  nomenclature  than  dubh  ; 


BuiDHE,  on  the  other  hand  (yellow),  corresponding  to 
the  %av06s  of  the  Greeks,  is  extremely  common,  as  in 
LOCHBUIE  at  the  south-east  corner  of  Mull,  one  of  the 
few  'remaining  scattered  links  of  the  possessions  of  the 
Macleans,  once  so  mighty  and  latterly  so  foolish,  in 
those  parts.  Among  other  colours,  glas  (gray)  is  very 
common  ;  so  is  dearg  (red),  from  the  colour  of  the 
rock,  as  in  one  of  those  splendid  peaks  that  shoot  up 
behind  the  slate  quarries  at  the  west  end  of  Glencoe. 
Breac,  also  (spotted  or  brindled),  is  by  no  means  un- 
common, as  in  BEN  VRACKIE,  prominent  behind  Pit- 
lochrie,  in  Perthshire,  in  which  word  the  initial  b  has 
been  softened  into  a  v  by  the  law  of  aspiration  peculiar 
to  the  Celtic  languages. 

There  remain  the  two  points  of  climate  and  vegeta- 
tion, of  which  a  few  examples  will  suffice.  In  Sicily, 
the  town  of  SELINUS,  whose  magnificence  remains  pre- 
served in  indelible  traces  upon  the  soil,  took  its  name 
from  the  wild  parsley,  cre\ivov,  which  grew  plentifully 
on  the  ground,  and  which  appears  on  the  coins  of  the 
city.  In  the  Scottish  Highlands,  no  local  name  is  more 
common  than  that  which  is  familiarly  known  as  the 
designation  of  one  of  the  most  genuine  of  the  old  Celtic 
chiefs,  the  head  of  the  clan  Macpherson — we  mean  the 
word  CLUNY  (Gaelic  cluain  ;  possibly  only  a  variety  of 
grun,  green),  which  signifies  simply  a  green  meadow,  a 
vision  often  very  delightful  to  a  pedestrian  after  a  long 
day's  tramp  across  brown  brae  and  gray  fell  in  those 
parts.  The  abundance  of  oak  in  ancient  Celtic  regions, 


where  it  is  not  so  common  now,  is  indicated  by  the 
frequency  of  the  termination  darach  (from  which  DERRY, 
in  Ireland,  is  corrupted  ;  Greek  Spvs  and  Sopv),  as  in 
the  designation  of  one  of  the  Campbells  in  Argyle, 
AUCHIN-DARROCH,  i.e.  oak-field.  The  pine,  giubhas, 
appears  in  KlNGUSSiE,  pine-end,  in  the  midst  of  that 
breezy  open  space  which  spreads  out  to  the  north-west 
of  the  Braemar  Grampians.  In  BEITH  and  AULTBEA 
(birch-brook)  we  have  death,  Latin  betula,  a  birch-tree  ; 
elm  and  ash  are  rare  ;  heather,  fraoch,  especially  in  the 
designation  of  islands,  as  ElLEANFRAOCH,  in  Loch  Awe, 
and  another  in  the  Sound  of  Kerrera,  close  by  Oban. 
Of  climate  we  find  traces  in  AuCHNASHEEN  (sian),  on 
the  open  blasty  road  between  Dingwall  and  Janetown, 
signifying  the  field  of  wind  and  rain  ;  in  MEALFOUR- 
VONIE,  the  broad  hill  of  the  frosty  moor,  composed  of 
the  three  roots  maol  (broad  and  bald),  fuar  (cold),  and 
mhonaid  (upland)  ;  in  BALFOUR  (cold  town),  and  in  the 
remarkable  mountain  in  Assynt  called  CANISP,  which 
appears  to  be  a  corruption  of  Ceann-uisge,  or  Rainy- 

Lastly,  of  animals :  madadh,  a  fox,  appears  in 
LOCHMADDY  and  ARDMADDY;  coin,  of  a  dog,  in  ACHNA- 
CHOIN,  or  Dog's-field,  one  of  the  three  bloody  spots 
that  mark  the  butchery  of  the  false  Campbell  in  Glen- 
coe ;  and,  throwing  our  glance  back  two  thousand 
years,  in  CYNOSCEPHAI^E,  or  the  Dog's-head,  in  Thes- 
saly,  where  the  sturdy  Macedonian  power  at  last  bowed 
in  submission  before  the  proud  swoop  of  the  Roman 


eagles  ;  the  familiar  cow  (baa,  Lat.  bos]  gives  its  name 
to  that  fair  loch,  which  sleeps  so  quietly  in  the  bosom 
of  beautiful  Mull ;  while  the  goat,  famous  also  in  the  sad 
history  of  Athenian  decline  at  AlGOSPOTAMi,  or  the 
Goat's-river,  gives  its  name  to  the  steepy  heights  ot 
ARDGOUR  (from  gobhar,  Lat  caper),  a  fragment  of  the 
old  inheritance  of  the  Macleans,  which  rise  up  before 
the  traveller  so  majestically  as  he  steams  northward 
from  Ballachulish  to  Fort  William  and  Banavie. 

In  a  country  composed  almost  entirely  of  mountain 
ridges,  with  intervening  hollows  of  various  kinds,  it 
is  only  natural  that  the  variety  in  the  scenery,  produced 
by  the  various  slopes  and  aspects  of  the  elevated 
ground,  should  give  rise  to  a  descriptive  nomenclature 
of  corresponding  variety.  This  is  especially  remarkable 
in  Gaelic  ;  and  the  tourist  in  the  Scottish  Highlands 
will  not  travel  far  without  meeting,  in  addition  to  the 
Ben  and  Ard  already  mentioned,  the  following  specific 
designations  : — 

Drum — a  ridge. 

Scour — a  jagged  ridge  or  peak. 

Cruach — a  conical  mountain. 

Mam — a  slowly  rising  hill. 

Maol — a  broad,  flat,  bald  mountain. 

Monagh — an  upland  moor. 

Tulloch  or  Tilly— -a  little  hill,  a  knoll. 

Tom — a  hillock,  a  mound. 

Tor — a  hillock,  a  mound. 

Bruach — a  steep  slope  (Scotch  brae). 

Craig — crag,  cliff. 

Cairn — a  heap  of  stones. 


Lairg — a  broad,  low  slope. 

Letter — the  side  of  a  hill  near  the  water. 

Croit — a  hump. 

Clack — a  stone. 

Lech — a  flagstone. 

In  the  Lowlands,  pen,  law,  fell,  brce,  hope,  rise,  edge, 
indicate  similar  varieties.  Among  these  pen,  as  dis- 
tinguished from  the  northern  ben,  evidently  points  to  a 
Welsh  original.  Hope  is  a  curious  word,  which  a 
south-country  gentleman  once  defined  to  me  as  "  the 
point  of  the  low  land  mounting  the  hill  whence  the 
top  can  be  seen."  Of  course,  if  this  be  true,  it  means 
an  elevation  not  very  far  removed  from  the  level  ground, 
because,  as  every  hill-climber  knows,  the  top  of  a  huge 
eminence  ceases  to  be  visible  the  moment  you  get 
beyond  what  the  Greeks  call  the  "fore -feet"  of  the 

In  the  designation  of  the  intervening  hollows,  or 
low  land,  the  variety  of  expression  is  naturally  less 
striking.  Glen  serves  for  almost  all  varieties  of  a 
narrow  Highland  valley.  A  very  narrow  rent  or 
fissured  gorge  is  called  a  glachd.  The  English  word 
dale,  in  Gaelic  dail,  means  in  that  language  simply  a 
field,  or  flat  stretch  of  land  at  the  bottom  of  the  hills. 
It  is  to  be  noted,  however,  that  this  word  is  both  Celtic 
and  Teutonic  ;  but,  in  topographical  etymology,  with 
a  difference  distinctly  indicative  of  a  twofold  origin. 
In  an  inland  locality  where  the  Scandinavians  never 
penetrated,  Dal  is  always  prefixed  to  the  other  element 
of  the  designation,  as  in  DALWHINNIE,  DALNACARDOCH, 


and  DALNASPIDAL,  the  field  of  meeting,  the  field  of  the 
smithy,  and  the  field  of  the  hospital,  all  in  succession 
within  a  short  distance  on  the  road  between  the  Spey 
uplands  and  Blair  Athol.     On  the  other  hand,  a  post- 
fixed  dale,  as  in  BORROWDALE,  EASDALE,  and  not  a 
few  others,  indicates  a    Saxon  or  Norse  origin.     The 
word  den  or  dean,  as  in  the  DEAN  BRIDGE,  Edinburgh, 
and  the  DEN   BURN,  Aberdeen,  is  Anglo-Saxon  denn, 
and  appears   in   the   English  TENTERDEN,  and   some 
others.       Another    Celtic   name    for    field   is    ack,   the 
Latin  ag-er,  which  appears  in  a  number  of  Highland 
places,  as  in  ACH-NA-CLOICHE  (stone  field),  in  Argyle- 
shire.     A  hollow  surrounded  by  mountains  is  called  by 
the  well-known  name  of  LAGGAN,  which  is  properly  a 
diminutive  from  lag,  in   Greek  Xa/c/co?,  in   Latin  lacus, 
a  hollow  filled  with  water,  and  in  German  a  mere  loch, 
or  hole,  into  which  a  mouse  might  creep.     A  special 
kind  of  hollow,  lying  between  the  outstretched  arms  of 
a  big  Ben,  and  opening  at  one  end  into  the  vale  below, 
is  called  in  Gaelic  coire,  literally  a  cauldron — a  word 
which  the  genius  of  Walter  Scott  has  made  a  permanent 
possession  of  the  English  language.      In  England  such 
mountain  hollows  are  often  denominated  combs,  as  in 
ADDISCOMBE,  ASHCOMB,  a  venerable  old  British  word 
of  uncorrupted  Cornish  descent,  and  which,  so  far  as 
I  know,  does  not  appear  in  Scottish  topography,  unless 
it   be  in  CUMMERTREES   (on   the   shore,  traigJi),  near 
Annan,  and  CUMBERNAULD  ;  but  this  I  am  not  able 
to  verify  by  local  knowledge.     The  word  cumar  appears 


in  O'Reilly's  Irish  dictionary  as  "the  bed  of  a  large 
river  or  a  narrow  sea,  a  hollow  generally,"  but  seems 
quite  obsolete  in  the  spoken  Gaelic  of  to-day.  The 
termination  holm  is  well  known  both  in  English  and 
Scotch  names,  and  proclaims  itself  as  characteristically 
Scandinavian,  in  the  beautiful  ^metropolis  of  the  Swedes. 
In  Gaelic  districts  a  holm,  that  is,  a  low  watery  meadow, 
is  generally  called  a  Ion,  a  word  which  has  retained 
its  place  in  Scotch  as  loan — LOANING,  LOANHEAD, 
LOANEND,  and  is  fundamentally  identical  with  the 
English  lane  and  lawn.  The  varieties  of  sea-coast  are 
expressed  by  the  words  traigh,  cladach,  camus,  corran, 
wick,  loch,  rutha,  ross,  caolas,  stron,  salen,  among  which, 
in  passing,  we  may  specially  note  caimis,  from  the  root 
cam,  Greek  /ca/iTrrw,  to  bend :  hence  MORECAMBE 
BAY,  near  Lancaster,  signifies  the  great  bend  ;  corran, 
a  scythe,  evidently  allied  to  the  Latin  curvtis,  and  used 
in  the  Highlands  to  denote  any  crescent-shaped  shore, 
as  at  Corranferry,  Ardgour,  in  Lochfinne ;  wick,  a 
familiar  Scandinavian  word  signifying  a  bay,  and  which, 
with  the  Gaelic  article  prefixed,  seems  to  have  blundered 
itself  into  NIGG  at  Aberdeen,  and  near  Fearn  in  Ross- 
shire  ;  caolas,  a  strait,  combining  etymologically  the 
very  distant  and  very  different  localities  of  CALAIS  and 
BALLACHULISH  ;  stron  or  sron,  a  nose,  which  lends  its 
name  to  a  parish  near  the  end  of  Loch  Sunart,  in 
Morvern,  and  thence  to  a  famous  mineral  found  in  its 
vicinity  ;  lastly,  salen  is  nothing  but  salt,  and  appears 
in  the  south  of  Ireland  and  the  north-west  of  Scotland, 


under  the  slightly  varied  forms  of  KlNSALE  and  KlN- 
TAIL,  both  of  which  words  signify  the  head  of  the  salt 
water  ;  for  Irish  and  Gaelic  are  only  one  language  with 
a  slightly  different  spelling  here  and  there,  and  a 
sprinkling  of  peculiar  words  now  and  then. 

The  only  other  features  of  natural  scenery  that  play 
a  noticeable  part  in  topographical  etymology  are  the 
rivers,  lakes,  wells,  and  waterfalls  ;  and  they  need  not 
detain  us  long.  The  Gaelic  uisge,  water,  of  which  the 
Latin  aqua  is  an  abraded  form,  appears  in  the  names 
of  Scottish  rivers  as  Esk,  and  of  Welsh  rivers  as  Use. 
The  familiar  English  Avon  is  the  Gaelic  amhainn, 
evidently  softened  down  by  aspiration  from  the  Latin 
amnis.  This  avon  often  appears  at  the  end  of  river 
names  curtailed,  as  in  GARONNE,  the  rough  river,  from 
the  Gaelic  root  garbh,  rough.  The  DON,  so  common 
as  a  river  name  from  the  Black  Sea  to  Aberdeen, 
means  either  the  deep  river  or  the  brown  river.  A 
small  river,  brook  in  English,  gives  name  to  not  a  few 
places  and  persons.  In  the  Scottish  Highlands,  and 
in  those  parts  of  the  Lowlands  originally  inhabited  by 
the  Celtic  race,  the  word  alt  performs  the  same  functions. 
Loch,  in  Gaelic,  answering  to  the  English  mere  (Latin 
mare],  appears  most  commonly  in  the  Highlands,  as 
KiNLOCH,  i.e.  the  town  or  house  at  the  head  of  the 
lake;  and  tobar,  a  well/ frequently,  as  in  HOLYWELL, 
connected  with  a  certain  religious  sanctity,  appears  in 
TOBERMORY,  i.e.  the  well  of  the  Virgin  Mary,  one  of 
the  most  beautiful  quiet  bits  of  bay  scenery  in  Great 


Britain.  Of  places  named  from  waterfalls  (eas,  from 
esk\  a  significant  element  in  Highland  scenery,  INVER- 
NESS, and  MONESS  near  Aberfeldy,  are  the  most  notable, 
the  one  signifying  "  the  town  at  the  bottom  of  the  river, 
which  flows  from  the  lake  where  there  is  the  great 
waterfall,"  i.e.  FOYERS  ;  and  the  other,  "  the  waterfall 
of  the  moorish  uplands,"  which  every  one  understands 
who  walks  up  to  it. 

So  much  for  the  features  of  unappropriated  nature, 
stereotyped,  as  it  were,  at  once  and  for  ever,  in  the 
old  names  of  local  scenery.  But  as  into  a  landscape 
an  artist  will  inoculate  his  sentiment  and  symbolise 
his  fancy,  so  on  the  face  of  the  earth  men  are  fond  to 
stamp  the  trace  of  their  habitation  and  their  history. 
Under  this  influence  the  nomenclature  of  topography 
becomes  at  once  changed  from  a  picture  of  natural 
scenery  to  a  record  of  human  fortunes.  And  in  this 
department  it  is  plain  that  the  less  varied  and  striking 
the  features  of  nature,  the  greater  the  necessity  of 
marking  places  by  the  artificial  differentiation  produced 
by  the  presence  of  human  dwellings.  Hence,  in  the 
flat,  monotonous  plains  of  North  Germany,  the  abun- 
dance of  places  ending  in  hausen  and  heim,  which  are 
only  the  Saxon  forms  of  our  English  house  and  home. 
Of  the  termination  hausen,  SACHSENHAUSEN,  the  home 
of  the  Saxons,  and  FRANKENHAUSEN,  the  home  of  the 
Franks,  are  amongst  the  most  notable  examples.  Heim 
is  pleasantly  associated  with  refreshing  draughts  in 
HOCHHEIM,  i.e.  high  home,  on  the  north  bank  of  the 


Rhine  a  little  below  Mainz,  whence  a  sharp,  clear  wine 
being  imported,  with  the  loss  of  the  second  syllable, 
and  the  transformation  of  ch  into  k,  produced  the 
familiar  hock.  This  heim  in  a  thousand  places  of 
England  becomes  ham,  but  in  Scotland,  where  the  Celtic 
element  prevails,  appears  only  rarely  in  the  south-east 
and  near  the  English  border,  as  in  COLDINGHAM  and 
EDNAM — the  birthplace  of  the  poet  Thomson — con- 
tracted from  Edenham.  Another  root  very  widely 
expressive  of  human  habitation,  under  the  varying  forms 
of  beth,  bo,  and  by,  is  scattered  freely  from  the  banks  of 
Jordan  to  the  islands  of  the  Hebrides  in  the  north-west 
of  Scotland.  First  under  this  head  we  have  the  great 
army  of  Hebrew  bet/is,  not  a  few  of  which  are  familiar 
to  our  ear  from  the  cherished  teachings  of  early 
childhood,  as — BETHABARA,  the  house  of  the  ferry; 
BETHANY,  the  house  of  dates :  BETHAVEN,  the  house 
of  naughtiness  ;  BETHCAR,  the  house  of  lambs  ;  BETH- 
DAGON,  the  house  of  the  fish-god  Dagon  ;  BETHEL,  the 
house  of  God  ;  BETHSHEMESH,  the  house  of  the  sun 
(like  the  Greek  Heliopolis)  ;  and  a  score  of  others.  Bo 
is  the  strictly  Danish  form  of  the  root,  at  least  in  the 
dictionary,  where  the  verb  boe,  to  dwell,  also  appears. 
Examples  of  this  are  found  in  SKIBO,  in  Ross-shire, 
and  BUNESS,  at  the  extreme  end  of  Unst,  the  seat  of 
the  Edmonstones,  a  family  well  known  in  the  annals 
of  Shetland  literature ;  but  more  generally,  in  practice, 
it  takes  the  softened  form  of  by,  as  in  hundreds  of  local 
designations  in  England,  specially  in  Lincolnshire, 


where  the  Danes  were  for  a  long  time  at  home.  Near 
the  English  border,  as  in  LOCKERBY,  this  same  termina- 
tion appears  ;  otherwise  in  Scotland  it  is  rare.  In  the 
Sclavonic  towns  of  Mecklenburg  and  Prussia,  it  takes 
the  form  of  bus,  as  in  PYBUS,  while  in  Cornish  it  is  bos, 
which  is  a  later  form  of  bod  (German  bude,  English 
booth,  Scotch  bothy),  which  stands  out  prominently  in 
Bodmin  and  other  towns,  not  only  in  Cornwall,  but  in 
Wales.  The  termination  bus  appears  likewise  in  not  a 
few  local  designations  in  the  island  of  Islay,  where  the 
Danes  had  many  settlements.  In  Skye  it  appears  as 
bost,  as  in  SKEABOST,  one  of  the  oldest  seats  of  the 
Macdonalds.  The  other  Saxon  or  Scandinavian  terms 
frequently  met  with  throughout  England  and  in  the 
north-east  of  Scotland  are — ton,  setter  or  ster,  stead, 
stow,  stoke,  hay,  park,  worth,  btiry,  thorp,  toft,  thwaite. 
In  Germany,  besides  heim  and  hausen,  as  already 
mentioned,  we  have  the  English  hay,  under  the  form 
hagm,  a  fence  ;  and  thorp  under  the  form  dorf,  a  village ; 
and  worth  under  the  forms  worth  and  werth,  which  are 
merely  variations  of  the  Greek  ^0/3x09,  English  yard, 
and  the  Sclavonic  gard  and  gorod,  and  the  Celtic  garad, 
the  familiar  word  in  the  Highlands  for  a  stone  wall  or 
dyke.  In  Germany,  also,  weiler,  from  weilen,  to  dwell, 
and  leben,  to  live,  are  thickly  sprinkled  ;  hof,  also,  is 
extremely  common,  signifying  a  court  or  yard — a  suffix 
which  the  French,  in  that  part  of  Germany  which  they 
stole  from  the  Empire,  turned  into  court  or  ville,  as  in 
Thionville  from  Diedenhofen. 


So  much  for  the  Teutonic  part  of  this  branch  of 

topographical  designation.      In  the  Highlands  tigh  and 

bail  are   the   commonest   words    to   denote   a   human 

dwelling,  the  one  manifestly  an  aspirated  form  of  the 

Latin    tignum  (Greek  o-reyo?,   German  dacJi),  and   the 

other  as  plainly  identical  with  the  TroXt?  which  appears 

in   Sebastopol,  and  not  a  few  cities,  both  ancient  and 

modern,  where  Greek    influence   or    Greek   affectation 

prevailed.      With  regard  to  balt  it  is  noticeable  that  in 

Ireland  it  generally  takes  the  form  of  bally,  which  is 

the  full  form  of  the  word  in  Gaelic  also,  baile,  there 

being  no  final  mute  vowels  in  that  language  ;  but  in 

composition  for  topographical  use  final  e  is  dropped,  as 

in  BALMORAL,  the  majestic  town  or  house,  from  morail, 

magnificent,  a  very  apt  designation  for  a  royal  residence, 

by  whatever  prophetic  charm  it  came  to  be  so  named 

before  her  present  Majesty  learned  the  healthy  habit  of 

breathing  pure  Highland  air  amid  the  fragrant  birches 

and  clear  waters  of  Deeside.      Tighy  though  less  common 

than  bal,  is  not  at  all  unfrequent  in  the  mountains  ;  and 

tourists  in  the  West  Highlands  are  sure  to  encounter 

two  of  the  most  notable  between  Loch  Lomond  and 

Oban.     The  first,  TYNDRUM,  the  house  on  the  ridge, 

at  the  point  where  the  ascent  ceases  as  you  cross  from 

Killin  to  Dalmally  ;  and  the  other  TAYNUILT,  or  the 

house  of  the  brook,  in   Scotch  burnhouse,  beyond  Ben 

Cruachan,  where  the  road  begins  to  wend  through  the 

rich  old  copsewood  towards  Oban.      I  remember  also  a 

curious  instance  of  the  word  tigh  in  a  local  designation, 


half-way  between  Inveraray  and  Loch  Awe.  In  that 
district  a  little  farmhouse  on  the  right  of  the  road  is 
called  TlGHNAFEAD,  i.e.  whistle-house  (fead,  a  whistle, 
Latin  fides],  which  set  my  philological  fancy  immediately 
on  the  imagination  that  this  exposed  place  was  so  called 
from  some  peculiar  whistling  of  the  blast  down  from 
the  hills  immediately  behind  ;  but  such  imaginations 
are  very  unsafe  ;  for  the  fact  turned  out  to  be,  if  some- 
what less  poetical,  certainly  much  more  comfortable, 
that  this  house  of  call,  in  times  within  memory,  stood 
at  a  greater  distance  from  the  road  than  it  now  does, 
which  caused  the  traveller,  when  he  came  down  the 
descent  on  a  cold  night,  sharp-set  for  a  glass  of  strong 
whisky,  to  make  his  presence  and  his  wish  known  by 
a  shrill  whistle  across  the  hollow. 

So  much  for  tigh.  The  only  other  remark  that  I 
would  make  here  is,  that  the  word  clachan,  so  well 
known  from  Scott's  Clachan  of  Aberfoyle,  does  not 
properly  mean  a  village,  as  Lowlanders  are  apt  to 
imagine,  but  only  a  churchyard,  or,  by  metonomy,  a 
church — as  the  common  phrase  used  by  the  natives, 
Di  domhnaich  dot  do'n  cJilachan,  "  going  to  church  on 
Sunday,"  sufficiently  proves — the  word  properly  meaning 
only  the  stones  in  the  churchyard,  which  mark  the 
resting-place  of  the  dead  ;  and  if  the  word  is  ever  used 
for  a  village,  it  is  only  by  transference  to  signify  the 
village  in  which  the  parish  church  is,  and  the  parish 

But  it  is  not  only  the  dwellings  of  men,  but  their 


actions,  that  make  places  interesting ;  and  as  the 
march  of  events  in  great  historical  movements  generally 
follows  the  march  of  armies,  it  follows  that  camps  and 
battle-fields  and  military  settlements  will  naturally  have 
left  strong  traces  in  the  topography  of  every  country 
where  human  beings  dwell.  And  accordingly  we  find 
that  the  Chester  and  the  caster,  added  as  a  generic  term 
to  so  many  English  towns,  are  simply  the  sites  of 
ancient  Roman  castra  or  camps  ;  while  Cologne,  on 
.  the  Rhine,  marks  one  of  the  most  prosperous  of  their 
settlements  in  Germany.  Curiously  analogous  to  this  is 
the  Coin,  a  well-known  quarter  of  Berlin,  on  the  Spree, 
where  the  German  emperors  first  planted  a  Teutonic 
colony  in  the  midst  of  a  Sclavonic  population.  In  the 
solemn  march  of  Ossianic  poetry,  the  word  blar  generally 
signifies  a  field  of  battle ;  but,  as  this  word  properly 
signifies  only  a  large  field  or  open  space,  we  have  no 
right  to  say  that  such  names  as  BLAIR  ATHOL  and 
BLAIRGOWRIE  have  anything  to  do  with  the  memory 
of  sanguinary  collisions.  ALEXANDRIA,  in  Egypt,  is 
one  of  the  few  remaining  places  of  note  that  took  their 
name  from  the  brilliant  Macedonian  Helleniser  of  the 
East.  ALEXANDRIA,  in  the  vale  of  Leven,  in  Dum- 
bartonshire, tells  of  the  family  of  Smollett,  well  known 
in  the  annals  of  Scottish  literary  genius,  and  still,  by 
their  residence,  adding  a  grace  to  one  of  the  most 
beautiful  districts  of  lake  scenery  in  the  world.  ADRIAN- 
OPLE  stereotypes  the  memory  of  one  of  the  most 
notable  of  the  Roman  emperors,  who  deemed  it  his 


privilege  and  pleasure  to  visit  the  extremest  limits  of 
his  vast  dominions,  and  leave  some  beneficial  traces  of 
his  kingship  there.  The  name  PETERSBURG,  whose 
Teutonic  character  it  is  impossible  to  ignore,  indicates 
the  civilisation  of  a  Sclavonic  country  by  an  emperor 
whose  early  training  was  received  from  a  people  of 
German  blood  and  breed ;  while  CONSTANTINOPLE 
recalls  the  momentous  change  which  took  place  in  the 
centre  of  gravity  of  the  European  world,  when  the 
declining  empire  of  the  Roman  Caesars  was  about  to 
become  Greek  in  its  principal  site,  as  it  had  long  been 
in  its  dominant  culture.  The  streets  of  great  cities,  as 
one  may  see  prominently  in  Paris,  in  their  designations 
often  contain  a  register  of  the  most  striking  events  of 
their  national  history.  Genuine  names  of  streets  in  old 
cities  are  a  historical  growth  and  an  anecdotal  record, 
which  only  require  the  pen  of  a  cunning  writer  to  make 
them  as  attractive  as  a  good  novel.  London,  in  this 
view,  is  particularly  interesting ;  and  Emerson,  I 
recollect,  in  his  book,  How  tJie  Great  City  grew 
(London,  1862),  tells  an  amusing  story  about  the  great 
fire  in  London,  which  certain  pious  persons  observed  to 
have  commenced  at  a  street  called  PUDDING  LANE, 
and  ended  at  a  place  called  PYE  CORNER,  in  memory 
of  which  they  caused  the  figure  of  a  fat  boy  to  be  put  up 
at  Smithfield,  with  the  inscription  on  his  stomach,  "  This 
boy  is  in  memory  put  up  for  the  late  fire  of  London, 
occasioned  by  the  sin  of  gluttony,  1666."  Many  a 
dark  and  odorous  close  in  Old  Edinburgh  also,  to  men 


who,  like  the  late  Robert  Chambers,  could  read  stones 
with  knowing  eyes,  is  eloquent  with  those  tales  of  Celtic 
adventure  and  Saxon  determination  which  make  the 
history  of  Scotland  so  full  of  dramatic  interest ;  while, 
on  the  other  hand,  the  flunkeyism  of  the  persons  who, 
to  tickle  the  lowest  type  of  aristocratic  snobbery,  bap- 
tized certain  streets  of  New  Edinburgh  with  BUCKING- 
HAM Terrace,  BELGRAVE  Crescent,  GROSVENOR  Street, 
and  such  like  apish  mimicry  of  metropolitan  West 
Endism,  stinks  in  the  nostrils  and  requires  no  comment. 
But  not  only  to  grimy  streets  of  reeking  towns,  but  to 
the  broad  track  of  the  march  of  the  great  lines  of  the 
earth's  surface,  there  is  attached  a  nomenclature  which 
tells  the  history  of  the  adventurous  captain,  or  the 
courageous  commander,  who  first  redeemed  these  regions 
from  the  dim  limbo  of  the  unknown,  and  brought  them 
into  the  distinct  arena  of  cognisable  and  manageable 
facts.  In  the  frosty  bounds  of  the  far  North- West,  the 
proclaim  the  heroic  daring  that  belongs  so  character- 
istically to  the  Celtic  blood  in  Scotland.  But  it  is  in 
the  moral  triumphs  of  religion,  which  works  by  faith  in 
what  is  noble,  love  of  what  is  good,  and  reverence  for 
what  is  great,  that  the  influence  of  history  over  topo- 
graphical nomenclature  is  most  largely  traced.  In 
ancient  Greece,  the  genial  piety  which  worshipped  its 
fairest  Avatar  in  the  favourite  sun-god  Apollo,  stamped 
its  devotion  on  the  name  of  ApOLLONiA,  on  the  Ionian 
Sea,  and  other  towns  whose  name  was  legion.  In 


CORNWALL,  almost  every  parish  is  named  after  some 
saintly  apostle,  who,  in  days  of  savage  vvildness  and 
wastefulness,  had  brought  light  and  peace  and  humanity 
into  these  remote  regions.  In  the  Highlands  of  Scot- 
land, the  KlLBRIDES  (kill  from  cella,  a  shrine),  KlL- 
MARTINS,  KlLMARNOCKS,  and  KlLMALLIES  everywhere 
attest  the  grateful  piety  of  the  forefathers  of  the  Celtic 
race  in  days  which,  if  more  dark,  were  certainly  not 
more  cold  than  the  times  in  which  we  now  live.  In 
the  Orkneys  the  civilising  influence  of  the  clergy,  or,  in 
some  cases,  no  doubt,  their  love  for  pious  seclusion,  is 
frequently  marked  by  the  PAPAS  or  priests'  islands.  In 
Germany,  MUNICH  or  MONACUM,  which  shows  a  monk 
in  its  coat-of-arms,  has  retained  to  the  present  day  the 
zeal  for  sacerdotal  sanctitude  from  which  it  took  its 
name  ;  and  the  same  must  be  said  of  MUENSTER,  in 
Westphalia  (from  fj,ova<TTfjpi,  in  modern  Greek  a 
cathedral,  English  minster),  the  metropolis  of  Ultra- 
montane polity  and  priestly  pretension  in  Northern 

But  it  is  not  only  in  commemorating,  like  coins, 
special  historical  events,  that  local  names  act  as  an 
important  adjunct  to  written  records ;  they  give  likewise 
the  clue  to  great  ethnological  facts  and  movements  of 
which  written  history  preserves  no  trace.  In  this  respect 
topographical  etymology  presents  a  striking  analogy  to 
geology  ;  for,  as  the  science  of  the  constitution  of  the 
earth's  crust  reveals  a  fossilised  history  of  life  in  sig- 
nificant succession,  long  antecedent  to  the  earliest  action 


of  the  human  mind  on  the  objects  of  terrestrial  nature, 
so  the  science  of  language  to  the  practised  eye  discloses 
a  succession  of  races  in  regions  where  no  other  sign 
of  their  existence  remains.  If  it  were  doubted,  for 
instance,  whether  at  any  period  the  Lowlands  of  Scot- 
land had  been  possessed  by  a  Celtic  race,  and  asserted 
roundly  that  from  the  earliest  times  the  plains  had 
been  inhabited  by  a  people  of  Teutonic  blood,  and 
only  the  mountain  district  to  the  west  and  north-west 
was  the  stronghold  of  the  Celt,  the  obvious  names  of 
not  a  few  localities  in  the  east  and  south-east  of  Scotland 
would  present  an  impassable  bar  to  the  acceptance  of 
any  such  dogma.  One  striking  instance  of  this  occurs 
in  Haddingtonshire,  where  a  parish  is  now  called  GARA- 
VALT — by  the  very  same  appellation  as  a  well-known 
waterfall  near  Braemar,  in  the  hunting  forest  of  the  late 
Prince  Consort ;  and  with  the  same  propriety  in  both 
cases,  for  the  word  in  Gaelic  signifies  a  rough  brook,  and 
such  a  brook  is  the  most  striking  characteristic  of  both 
districts.  Cases  of  this  kind  clearly  indicate  the  vanish- 
ing of  an  original  Celtic  people  from  districts  now 
essentially  Teutonic  both  in  speech  and  character.  The 
presence  of  a  great  Sclavonic  people  in  Northern 
Germany,  and  of  an  extensive  Sclavonic  immigration 
into  Greece  in  mediaeval  times,  is  attested  with  the 
amplest  certitude  in  the  same  way.  A  regular  fringe 
of  Scandinavian  names  along  the  north  and  north-west 
coast  of  Scotland  would,  to  the  present  hour,  attest 
most  indubitably  the  fact  of  a  Norse  dominion  in  those 


quarters  operating  for  centuries,  even  had  Haco  and  the 
battle  of  Largs  been  swept  altogether  from  the  record 
of  history  and  from  the  living  tradition  of  the  people. 
To  every  man  who  has  been  in  Norway,  LAXFIORD,  in 
West  Ross-shire,  a  stream  well  known  to  salmon-fishers, 
carries  this  Scandinavian  story  on  its  face  ;  and  no  man 
who  has  walked  the  streets  of  Copenhagen  will  have 
any  difficulty,  when  he  sails  into  the  beautiful  bay  of 
Portree,  in  knowing  the  meaning  of  the  great  cliff  called 
the  STORK,  which  he  sees  along  the  coast  a  little 
towards  the  north  ;  for  this  means  simply  the  great 
cliff,  storr  being  the  familiar  Danish  for  great,  as  mor  is 
the  Gaelic.  Ethnological  maps  may  in  this  way  be 
constructed  exactly  in  the  same  fashion  as  geological  ; 
and  the  sketch  of  one  such  for  Great  Britain  the  reader 
will  find  in  Mr.  Taylor's  well-known  work  on  Names 
and  Places. 

With  regard  to  the  law  of  succession  in  these  ethno- 
logical strata,  as  indicated  by  topographical  nomencla- 
ture, the  following  three  propositions  may  be  safely  laid 
down : — i.  The  names  of  great  objects  of  natural 
scenery,  particularly  of  mountains  and  rivers,  will 
generally  be  significant  in  the  language  of  the  people 
who  were  the  original  inhabitants  of  the  country.  2. 
Names  of  places  in  the  most  open  and  accessible  districts 
of  a  country  will  be  older  than  similar  names  in  parts 
which  are  more  difficult  of  access  ;  but — 3,  these  very 
places  being  most  exposed  to  foreign  invasion,  are  apt 
to  invite  an  adventurous  enemy,  whose  settlement  in 


the  conquered  country  is  generally  accompanied  with  a 
partial,  sometimes  with  a  very  considerable,  change  of 
local  nomenclature. 

In  reference  to  this  change  of  population,  Mr. 
Taylor  in  one  place  uses  the  significant  phrase,  "  The 
hills  contain  the  ethnological  sweepings  of  the  plains." 
Very  true  ;  but  the  effect  of  this  on  the  ethnological 
character  of  the  population  of  the  places  is  various,  and 
in  the  application  requires  much  caution.  It  is  right, 
for  instance,  to  say  generally  that  the  Celtic  language 
has  everywhere  in  Europe  retreated  from  the  plains  into 
the  mountainous  districts  ;  but  the  people  often  still 
remain  where  the  language  has  retreated,  as  the  ex- 
amination of  any  directory  in  many  a  district  of  Scotland, 
where  only  English  is  now  spoken,  will  largely  show. 
In  Greece,  in  the  same  way,  many  districts  present  only 
Greek  and  Sclavonic  names  of  places,  where  the  popu- 
lation, within  recent  memory,  is  certainly  Albanian. 
Inquiries  of  this  nature  always  require  no  less  caution 
than  learning  ;  otherwise,  as  Mr.  Skene  observes,  what 
might  have  been,  properly  conducted,  an  all-important 
element  in  fixing  the  ethnology  of  any  country,  becomes, 
in  rash  hands  and  with  hot  heads,  a  delusion  and  a 

But  the  science  of  language,  when  wisely  conducted, 
not  only  presents  an  interesting  analogy  to  geological 
stratification  ;  it  sometimes  goes  further,  and  bears 

1  Ancient  Books  of  Wales,  vol.  i.  p.    144,  with  reference  to 
the  famous  work  of  Chalmers,  the  Caledonia. 


direct  witness  to  important  geological  changes  as  con- 
clusive as  any  evidence  derived  from  the  existing 
conformation  of  the  earth's  crust.  How  this  comes  to 
pass  may  easily  be  shown  by  a  few  familiar  examples. 
The  words  wold  and  weald  originally  meant  wood  and 
forest,  as  the  Anglo-Saxon  Dictionary  and  the  living 
use  of  the  German  language — wald — alike  declare  ;  but 
the  wolds  at  present  known  in  Yorkshire,  Gloucester- 
shire, and  other  parts  of  England,  are  generally  bare 
and  treeless,  and  in  bad  weather  very  cheerless  places 
indeed.  If,  then,  "there  is  nothing  arbitrary  in  lan- 
guage," and  all  local  names  tell  an  historical  tale,  it  is 
certain  that,  at  the  time  when  those  names  were 
imposed,  these  same  sites  were  part  of  an  immense 
forest.  The  geologist,  when,  in  the  far-stretching  bogs 
east  of  Glencoe,  and  near  Kinloch  Ewe,  and  in  many 
other  places  of  Scotland,  he  calls  attention  to  the  fact 
of  layers  of  gigantic  trees  lying  now  deeply  embedded 
under  the  peat,  adduces  an  argument  with  regard  to  the 
primitive  vegetation  of  our  part  of  the  world  not  a  whit 
more  convincing.  The  same  fact  of  a  lost  vegetation 
is  revealed  in  not  a  few  places  of  England  which  end 
in  the  old  word  hurst,  signifying  a  forest.  Again,  there 
is  a  large  family  of  places  in  and  about  the  Harz 
Mountains,  in  Germany,  ending  in  ode,  as  OSTERODE, 
HASSELRODE,  WERNINGERODE,  and  so  forth.  Now 
most  of  these  places,  as  specially-  HASSELRODE,  are 
now  remarkably  free  from  those  leagues  of  leafy 
luxuriance  that  give  such  a  marked  character  to  the 


scenery  of  that  mountain  district  It  is  certain, 
however,  that  they  were  at  one  time  in  the  centre  of  an 
immense  forest ;  for  the  word  rode,  radically  the  same 
as  our  rid,  and  perhaps  the  Welsh  rhydd,  Gaelic  reidh, 
simply  means  "  to  make  clear  "  or  "  clean,"  and  teaches 
that  the  forest  in  that  part  had  been  cleared  for  human 

Once  more  :  it  is  a  well-known  fact  in  geology  that 
the  border  limit  between  sea  and  land  is  constantly 
changing,  the  briny  element  in  some  cliffy  places,  as  to 
the  north  of  Hull,  systematically  undermining  the  land, 
and  stealing  away  the  farmer's  acreage  inch  by  inch 
and  foot  by  foot ;  while  in  other  places,  from  the 
conjoint  action  of  river  deposits  and  tidal  currents,  large 
tracts  of  what  was  once  a  sea-bottom  are  added  to  the 
land.  The  geological  proof  of  this  is  open  often  to  the 
most  superficial  observer ;  but  the  philological  proof, 
when  you  once  hold  the  key  of  it,  is  no  less  patent. 
In  the  Danish  language — which  is  a  sort  of  half-way 
house  between  high  German  and  English — the  word  oe 
signifies  an  island.  This  oe,  in  the  shape  of  ay,  ea,  ey, 
or  y,  appears  everywhere  on  the  British  coast,  particu- 
larly in  the  West  Highlands,  as  in  COLONSAY,  TOROSAY, 
ORANSAY,  and  in  ORKNEY  ;  and  if  there  be  any  locality 
near  the  sea  wearing  this  termination,  not  now  sur- 
rounded by  water,  the  conclusion  is  quite  certain,  on 
philological  grounds,  that  it  once  was  so.  Here  the 
London  man  will  at  once  think  on  BERMONDSEY  and 
CHELSEA,  and  he  will  think  rightly;  but  he  must  not 


be  hasty  to  draw  STEPNEY  under  the  conditions  of  the 
same  category,  for  the  EY  in  that  word,  if  I  am  rightly 
informed,  is  a  corruption  from  kithe,  a  well-known 
Anglo-Saxon  and  good  old  English  term  signifying  a 
haven ;  and  generally,  in  all  questions  of  topographical 
etymology,  there  is  a  risk  of  error  where  the  old 
spelling  of  the  word  is  not  confronted  with  the  form 
which,  by  the  attritions  and  abrasions  of  time,  it  may 
have  assumed. 

These  observations,  which  at  the  request  of  the 
author  of  the  following  pages  I  have  hastily  set  down, 
will  be  sufficient  to  indicate  the  spirit  in  which  the 
study  of  topographical  etymology  ought  to  be  pursued. 
Of  course,  I  have  no  share  in  the  praise  which  belongs 
to  the  successful  execution  of  so  laborious  an  investiga- 
tion ;  neither,  on  the  other  hand,  can  blame  be  attached 
to  me  for  such  occasional  slips  as  the  most  careful 
writer  may  make  in  a  matter  where  to  err  is  easy,  and 
where  conjecture  has  so  long  been  in  the  habit  of 
usurping  the  place  of  science.  But  I  can  bear  the 
most  honest  witness  to  the  large  research,  sound  judg- 
ment, and  conscientious  accuracy  of  the  author  ;  and 
feel  happy  to  have  my  name,  in  a  subsidiary  way, 
connected  with  a  work  which,  I  am  convinced,  will 
prove  an  important  addition  to  the  furniture  of  our 
popular  schools. 

February  1875. 


Anc.  (ancient). 

Ar.  (Arabic). 

A.S.  (Anglo-Saxon). 

Bret,  or  Brez.  (Brezric). 

Cel.  (Celtic). 

Conf.  (confluence). 

Cym.-Cel.  (Cymro-Celtic,  includ- 
ing Welsh). 

Dan.  (Danish). 

Dut.  (Dutch). 

Fr.  (French). 

Gadhelic  (including  Gaelic,  Irish, 
and  Manx). 

Gael.  (Gaelic). 

Ger.  (German). 

Grk.  (Greek). 

Heb.  (Hebrew). 

Hung.  (Hungarian). 
Ind.  (Indian). 
It.  (Italian). 
Lat.  (Latin). 
Mt.  (mountain). 
Par.  (parish). 
Pers.  (Persian). 
Phoen.  (Phoenician). 
P.  N.  (personal  name). 
Port.  (Portuguese). 
R.  (river). 
Sansc.  (Sanscrit). 
Scand.  (Scandinavian). 
Sclav.  (Sclavonic). 
Span.  (Spanish). 
Teut.  (Teutonic). 
Turc.  (Turkish). 


A  (Old  Norse),  a  possession  ;l  e.g.  Craika, Torfa,  Ulpha  ;  A  (Scand.) 
also  means  an  island — v.  EA,  p.  71. 

AA,  A  (Scand.),  a  stream  ;  from  Old  Norse  a,  Goth,  aha,  Old  Ger. 
aha  (water).  The  word,  in  various  forms,  occurs  frequently 
in  river  names  throughout  Western  Europe,  especially  in 
Germany  and  the  Netherlands,  and  often  takes  the  form 
of  au  or  ach;  e.g.  the  rivers  Aa,  Ach,  Aach  ;  Saltach  (salt 
river)  ;  Wertach  (a  river  with  many  islands) — v.  WARID, 
etc. ;  Trupach  (troubled  stream) ;  Weser,  i.e.  Wesar-aha 
(western  stream)  ;  Lauter,  i.e.  Hlauter-aha  (clear  stream)  ; 
Danube  or  Donau,  i.e.  Tuon-aha  (thundering  stream)  ;  Main, 
i.e.  Magin-aha  (great  stream)  ;  Fisch-aha  (fish  stream)  ; 
Schwarza  (black  stream) ;  Zwiesel-au  (the  stream  of  the 
whirlpool)  ;  Erlach  (alder-tree  stream)  ;  Gron-aha  (green 
stream)  ;  Dachau  (the  clayey  stream)  ;  Fulda,  z.e.  Fold-aha 
(land  stream)  ;  Rod-aha  (reedy  stream)  ;  Saale  and  Saala 
from  salz  (salt  stream).  The  simple  a  or  <?,  with  a  prefix 
expressive  of  the  character  of  the  stream,  is  the  most 
frequent  form  of  the  word  in  Iceland  and  Scandinavia,  and 
in  the  districts  of  Great  Britain  colonised  by  Norsemen  or 
Danes ;  e.g.  Laxa  (salmon  river)  ;  Hvita  (white  river) ; 
Brora  (bridge  river)  ;  Rotha  (red  river)  ;  Greta  (weeping 
river)  ;  Storaa  (great  river)  ;  Thurso  (Thor's  river),  which 
gives  its  name  to  the  town  ;  Lossie,  anc.  Laxi-a  (salmon 

1  A,  signifying  in  possession,  seems  to  be  derived  from  a.  Old  Norse,  I 
have  ;  aga,  I  possess.  The  Old  English  awe,  to  own,  is  still  retained  in  the- 
north  of  England  and  in  Aberdeenshire. 


.     (  water ;    e.g.   Doab   (the    district    of  two   waters) ; 
AB  (Sansc  ) 

\p       /'  <  Menab  (the  mouth  of  the  water),  on  the  Persian 

'''  (  Gulf ;  Busheab  or  Khoshaub  (good  water),  a  river 
in  Hindostan,  also  an  island  in  the  Persian  Gulf ;  Neelab 
(blue  water)  ;  Punjaub  (the  district  of  the  five  streams)  ; 
Chinab  or  Chenaub  R.,  said  to  be  a  corrupt,  of  its  former 
name  Chaudra  Bhagee  (the  garden  of  the  moon),  so  called 
from  a  small  lake  of  that  name  from  which  it  proceeds. 
Cognate  with  this  root  is  the  Gadhelic  abh,  in  its  forms  of 
aw  or  ow.  Thus  in  Scotland  we  have  the  River  Awe  and 
Loch  Awe ;  in  Ireland,  Ow  and  Owbeg  (little  stream)  ; 
Ow-nageerah  (the  stream  of  the  sheep)  ;  Finnow  (clear 
stream).  Cognate  with  these  root-words  is  the  Lat.  aq^^a 
and  its  derivations  in  the  Romance  languages,  as  well  as 
ae  or  ea  (A.S.  water).  Forsteman  finds  river  names,  allied 
to  the  foregoing,  throughout  Germany  and  France,  in  such 
forms  as  ap,  op,  ep,  etc.,  as  in  the  Oppa,  Lennep,  Barop, 

ABAD  (Pers.  and  Sansc.),  a  dwelling  or  town,  generally  connected 
with  the  name  of  its  founder ;  e.g.  Hyderabad  (the  town  of 
Hyder  Ali,  or  of  the  Lion)  ;  Ahmedabad  (of  the  Sultan 
Ahmed)  ;  Furrackabad  (founded  by  Furrack  the  Fortunate) ; 
Agra  or  Akberabad  (founded  by  Akber) ;  Nujiabad  (of 
Nujibah-Dowlah)  ;  Auringabad  (founded  by  Aurungzebe)  ; 
Jafferabad  (the  city  of  Jaffier) ;  Jehanabad  (of  Shah  Jehan)  ; 
Jellabad  (of  Jellal,  a  chief)  ;  Moorshedabad  (the  town  of 
Moorshed  Khoolly-Khan)  ;  Moorabad  (named  after  Morad, 
the  son  of  Shah  Jehan)  ;  Shahabad  (of  the  Shah)  ;  Abbas- 
abad  (founded  by  Abbas  the  Great)  ;  Dowladabad  (the  town 
of  wealth)  ;  Hajiabad  (of  the  pilgrim)  ;  Meschdabad  (of  the 
mosque)  ;  Islamabad  (of  the  true  faith)  ;  Allah-abad  (of 
God)  ;  Secunderabad  (named  after  Alexander  the  Great)  ; 
Resoulabad  (of  the  prophet) ;  Asterabad  (on  the  River 
Aster)  ;  Futteabad  (the  town  of  victory)  ;  Sadabad  or  Suffi- 
abad  (the  town  of  the  sadi  or  suffi,  i.e.  the  sage). 

(  a  confluence  of  waters  ;    applied,  in 

ABER  (Cym.-Cel.),  '      , 

ff     i  \  <  topography,  to  places  at  the  conf.  of 
ABHIR  and  OBAIR  (Gael.),  )  r 

"  (  streams,  or  at  the  embouchure  of  a 

river.     The  derivation  of  the  term  has  been  traced  by  some 
etymologists  to  the  conjunction  of  ath  (Gael.),  a  ford,  and 

ABER  3 

bior,  water  ;  by  others  to  Cym.-Cel.  at  (at)  and  bior  (water). 
This  prefix  is  general  in  many  of  the  counties  of  Scotland, 
throughout  Wales,  and,  in  a  few  instances,  in  Ireland, 
although  in  the  latter  country  the  synonyms  inver  and 
cumar  are  more  frequent.  Both  words  are  found  in  the 
topography  of  the  Picts,  but  the  Scots  of  Argyleshire  used 
only  inver  before  they  came  from  Ireland  to  settle  in  that 
district.  The  word  aber  seems  to  have  become  obsolete 
among  them ;  and  as  there  are  no  abers  in  Ayrshire, 
Renfrew,  and  Lanarkshire,  the  word  had  probably  become 
obsolete  before  the  kingdom  of  Strathclyde  was  formed. 
Dr.  Joyce,  in  his  Irish  Names  of  Places,  traces  its  use  as 
prefix  or  affix  to  the  Irish  root  abar  (a  mire),  as  in  the 
little  stream  Abberachrinn  (i.e.  the  river  of  the  miry  place 
of  the  tree).  In  Wales  we  find  Aberconway,  Aberfraw, 
Aberistwyth,  Aberavon,  Aberayron,  Aberdare,  Aberdaron, 
Abergavenny,  at  the  embouchure  of  the  Conway,  Fraiv, 
Istiuyth,  Avon,  Aeron,  Dar,  Daron,  Gavenny.  Barmouth, 
corrupt,  from  Aber-Mowddy,  a  seaport  in  Merioneth,  at  the 
mouth  of  the  R.  Mowddy.  Berriew,  corrupt,  from  Aber- 
Rhiw  (at  the  junction  of  the  R.  Rhiw  with  the  Severn)  ; 
Aberdaugledden,  the  Welsh  name  for  Haverford-west,  at 
the  mouth  of  twin  rivers  resembling  two  swords  (gleddeti), 
which  unite  at  Milford  Haven.  It  is  called  by  the  Welsh 
now  Hwlford  (the  sailing  road)  because  the  tide  comes  up 
to  the  town.  Aberhonddu,  at  the  mouth  of  the  R.  Honddi 
or  Honddu  (the  county  town  of  Brecknock),  and  Aber- 
dovey,  at  the  embouchure  of  the  R.  Dovey  in  Wales.  In 
Scotland,  Aberbrothwick  or  Arbroath,  Abercorn,  anc.  Aeber- 
curnig,  Aberdour,  Abergeldie,  Abernethy,  at  the  embouchure 
of  the  Brothock,  Cornie,  Dour,  Geldie,  and  Nethy.  Aber- 
chirder  is  Abhir-chiar-ditr  (the  conf.  of  the  dark  water) ;  Aber- 
crombie  (the  curved  conf.)  ;  Aberfeldy,  i.e.  Abhir-feathaile 
(the  smooth  conf.) ;  Aberfoyle  (the  conf.  of  the  pool,  phuill} ; 
Aberlemno  (the  conf.  of  the  leaping  water,  leumnacK)  ; 
Arbirlot,  anc.  Aber-Elliot  (at  the  mouth  of  the  Elliot)  ; 
Applecross  for  Abhir - croisan  (the  conf.  of  trouble)  ;  Old 
Aberdeen  and  New  Aberdeen,  at  the  mouths  of  the  Don 
and  Dee,  Lat.  Devana-castra ;  Fochabers  (the  plain,  at 
the  river  mouth),  Gael,  faigh,  a  plain ;  Lochaber  (at  the 


mouth  of  the  loch)  ;  Barmouth,  in  Wales,  corrupt,  of  Aber- 
Mawdoch  or  Maw. 

ABI  (Turc.),  a  river  ;  e.g.  Abi-shiran  (sweet  river)  ;  Abi-shur  (salt 
river)  ;  Abi-gurm  (warm  river)  ;  Abi-gard  (yellow  river)  ; 
Abi-kuren  (the  river  of  Cyrus)  ;  Ab- Allah  (God's  river). 

_/-*_.»  ,,    .    T  ,,    ..      (  These  and  similar  words,  in 

ABT  (Teut.),  an  abbot,  Lat.  abbatis. 

/',  <  the  Romance  languages,  de- 

ABIE,  an  abbey. 

(  rived  from   the   Heb.   abba 

(father),  were  introduced  into  the  languages  of  Europe  in 
connection  with  the  monastic  system,  and  are  attached  to 
the  names  of  places  founded  for  monks,  or  belonging  to 
church  lands.  Thus — Absberg  (abbot's  hill)  ;  Apersdorf, 
for  Abbatesdorf  (abbot's  village)  ;  Absholz  (abbot's  wood)  ; 
Abtsroda  (abbot's  clearing),  in  Germany  ;  Appenzell,  anc. 
Abbatiscella  (abbot's  church),  founded  by  the  Abbot  of  St. 
Gall,  A.D.  647  ;  Abbeville  (abbot's  dwelling),  in  France  ; 
Abbotsbury  (the  abbot's  fortified  place),  Dorset ;  Abbey- 
dare  (the  abbey  on  the  R.  Dare  in  Hereford)  ;  Abbotshall, 
in  Fife,  so  called  from  having  been  the  occasional  residence 
of  the  abbots  of  Dunfermline ;  Abdie  (belonging  to  the 
abbey  of  Lindores) ;  Abingdon,  in  Berks  (abbot's  hill), 
Abington  (with  the  same  meaning),  the  name  of  two  parishes 
in  Cambridge  and  a  village  in  Lanarkshire,  and  of  two  parishes 
in  Ireland  ;  Abbotsford  (the  ford  of  the  Tweed  in  the  abbey 
lands  of  Melrose)  ;  Abbotsrule  (the  abbey  on  the  R.  Rule  in 
Roxburghshire)  ;  Abbeyfeale  (on  the  R.  Feale)  ;  Abbeyleix 
(the  abbey  of  Lewy),  an  Irish  chief  Abbeygormacan  (Irish 
mainister)  ;  Ua-g  Cormacain  (the  abbey  of  the  O'Corma- 
cans) ;  Abbeylara,  i.e.  Irish  abbey,  leath-rath  (the  abbey 
of  the  half-rath)  ;  Abbeyshrule,  anc.  Sruthair  (the  stream), 
named  for  a  monastery  founded  by  one  of  the  O'Farells  ; 
Abbeystro  wry  (with  the  same  meaning),  in  Ireland;  Abbensee 
(the  lake  of  the  abbey),  in  Upper  Austria ;  Newabbey,  a 
Par  in  Kirkcudbright  (named  from  an  abbey  founded  in 
1275  by  Devorgilla,  the  mother  of  John  Baliol)  ;  Badia- 
San-Salvatore  (the  abbey  of  the  Holy  Saviour)  ;  Badia- 
Torrita  (the  abbey  with  the  little  tower),  in  Italy  ;  Appin, 
in  Argyleshire,  anc.  Abbphon  (abbot's  land),  and  Appin, 
in  Dull,  indicating  probably  the  territory  of  a  Celtic 


ACH,  or  ICH,  a  form  of  the  Teut.  aha  (water),  p.  i,  as  in  Salzach 
(salt  stream),  but  it  is  also  a  common,  affix  to  words  in 
the  Teut.  and  Cel.  languages,  by  which  a  noun  is  formed 
into  an  adjective,  signifying  full  of,  or  abounding  in,  equi- 
valent to  the  Lat.  terminations  etum  and  iaciim.  Thus,  in 
German  topography,  we  find  Lindach,  Aichach,  Aschach, 
Buchach,  Tannich,  Fichtig,  i.e.  abounding  in  lime,  oak,  ash, 
beech,  fir,  and  pine  wood ;  Affaltrach  (in  apple-trees) ; 
Erlicht  (in  alders) ;  Heselicht  (in  hazels) ;  Laubach  (in 
leaves).  In  Ireland  :  Darach,  Farnach  (abounding  in  oaks 
and  alders) ;  Ounagh,  in  Sligo,  and  Onagh,  in  Wicklow 
(watery  place),  from  the  adjective  Abhnach  (abounding 
in  streams).  In  the  Sclav,  languages,  again,  the  affix  zig 
has  the  same  meaning,  as  in  Leipzig  (abounding  in  lime- 

*r   JT-  v  \      fa  field,  plain,  or  meadow;  e.g.  Aghinver 
ACHADH  (Gadhelic),     I  /4,     ,.  '/       '  \     A    u-   5 

v  J  (the  field  of  the  confluence);  Aghmdarragh 

'  )  (of  the  oak  wood) ;  Achonry,  anc.  Achadh- 

\  Chonaire  (Conary's  field)  ;  Ardagh  (high 
field)  ;  Aghabeg  (little  field)  ;  Aghaboy  (yellow  field)  ; 
Aghamore  (great  field)  ;  Aghaboe  (the  cow's  field)  ;  Agha- 
down  (of  the  fort)  ;  Aghadoe,  i.e.  Achadh-da-eo  (of  the  two 
yew-trees).  In  Scotland  :  Auchclach,  Auchinleck,  Auchna- 
cloich  (the  stony  field)  ;  Achray  (smooth  field) ;  Auchinleith 
(the  physician's  field) ;  Auchindoire  (the  field  of  the  oak 
grove)  ;  Auchinfad  (of  the  peats)  ;  Auchinrath  (of  the  fort)  ; 
Auchincruive  (of  the  tree,  craoibhe)  ;  Auchline  (of  the  pool)  ; 
Auchnacraig  (of  the  rock)  ;  Auchindinny  and  Auchteany 
(the  field  of  the  fire) — teine,  i.e.  probably  places  where  the 
Beltane  fires  were  kindled. 
„„  ,*  c  \  ( tne  ash-tree  ;  e.g.  Ashton,  Ashby,  Askham  (ash- 

ASK  CScancH     <  tree  dwellinS)  >  Ashrigg  (the  ash-tree  ridge),  in 
^    ,„    'i1      j  England.      In    Germany :    Eschdorf,   Eschweil, 
^       '''     (, Eschweiller    (ash-tree    dwelling);     Eschenbach 
(ash-tree  brook)  ;  Eschwege  (ash-tree  road). 

AESP  (A.S.),        (  the    aspen     or    poplar;    e.g.    Aspley,    Aspden 
ASP  (Scand.),      (  (poplar  field  or  valley). 

/c      v  \      ( a    fountain ;    e.g.   Aenon    (the    fountains) ;    En- 

AIN  (Semitic),    1    ,       .  ,    , ,      /        .        ,  v,  „    ' ',.  ,  , 

v  \  snemish  (the  fountain  of  the  sun) ;  Engedi  (of 

(  the  goat)  ;  Enrogel  (of  the  fuller's  field)  ;  Dothan 

6  AITE — AL 

(the  two  fountains)  ;  Aayn-el-kebira  (the  great  fountain)  ; 
Ain-halu  (the  sweet  fountain)  ;  Aayn-taiba  (the  good  foun- 
tain) ;  Engannim  (the  fountain  of  the  gardens)  ;  Enrimmon 
(of  the  pomegranates). 

//-  ju  r  \      (  a   place,   a    possession ;    e.g.    Daviot, 
AITE,  or  AIT  (Gadhehc),  •    _  '        \ .    . ,          '      &c   , 

AFRT    nr  FTP™  nVnt\     \  anC<  Damh-alte  (the  Place  of  the    ox)> 
AEHT,  Or  EIGEN  (ICUt.),      I   .        .  ,        ,  ,•  j       i         •       T 

"  [  in  Aberdeenshire,  and  also  in  Inver- 
ness ;  Tynet,  i.e.  ait-an-taimhu  (the  place  of  the  river),  in 
Banffshire.  In  Ireland  the  word  is  used  in  combination 
with  tigh  (a  house) ;  e.g.  Atty  (the  dwelling-place) ;  Atty- 
Dermot  (the  dwelling  of  Dermot) ;  Atti-duff  (the  dark 
dwelling)  ;  Oedt  (the  possession),  a  town  in  Prussia,  on  the 
Niers  ;  Iberstolfs-eigen  (the  possession  of  Iberstolf)  ;  Iber- 
stolfs-eigen,  Smurses-eigen  (i.e.  the  possession  of  Iberstolf 
and  Smurse)  ;  Souder-eygen  (south  possession). 
AITH,  or  AED,  or  EID  (Scand.),  a  headland  ;  e.g.  Aithsvoe  (the 
bay  of  the  headland)  ;  Aithsthing  (the  place  of  meeting  on 
the  headland)  ;  Eidfoss  (the  waterfall  on  the  headland). 

,.  „  .       f  an  oak  ;  e.g.  Acton,  Acworth  (oak  town  and 

EK'  or  EG  ( Scand  \  manor)  ;  Oakley  (oak  meadow)  ;  Oakham 
'  m  t  M  i  (oak  dwelling) ;  Auckland  (oakland) ;  Acrise 

\_  .^'  I  (oak  ascent);  Wokingham  or  Oakingham 

[  (the  dwelling  among  oaks) ;  Sevenoaks, 
anc.  Seovanacca,  named  from  some  oak-trees  which  once 
occupied  the  eminence  on  which  it  stands,  but  Okehampton, 
in  Devon,  is  on  the  R.  Oke.  In  Germany  and  in  Holland 
are  Eichstadt,  Eichdorf,  Eikheim  (oak  dwelling)  ;  Ekholta 
(oak  wood) ;  Eichhalden  (oak  height)  ;  Eichstegen  (oak 
path)  ;  Echehout,  in  Hainault  (oak  wood)  ;  Eykebusch  (oak 

AK  (Turc.),  white ;  e.g.  Ak-tag,  Ak-dagh  (the  white  mountains)  ; 
Ak-su  (white  river) ;  Ak-hissar  (white  castle)  ;  Ak- serai 
(white  palace) ;  Ak-shehr  (white  dwelling) ;  Ak-meschid 
(white  mosque)  ;  Ak-kalat  (white  fortress). 

AL  (the  Arabic  definite  article) ;  e.g.  Alkalat  (the  fortress) ;  Al- 
maden  (the  mine)  ;  Alcantara  (the  bridge) ;  Alkasar  (the 
palace)  ;  Almeida  (the  table)  ;  Almeria  (the  conspicuous)  ; 
Almazen  (the  storehouse)  ;  Alcarria  (the  farm) ;  Alcana 
(the  exchange) ;  Algezira  (the  island),  anc.  Mesopotamia 
(i.e.  between  the  rivers) ;  Algeciras  (the  islands),  in  Spain ; 

ALD — ALP  7 

Algarve  (the  west)  ;  Almansa  (the  plain) ;  Almazara  (the 
mill) ;  Alhambra  (the  red) ;  Alhucen  (the  beautiful) ;  Al- 
puxarras  (the  grassy  mountains). 

ALD   EALD  (A  S  )  ( °M  '  e&  ^™>  Oldham,  Althorpe,  Al- 

',„     .  ^       '''         J  caster, Aldwark  (old dwelling,  farm, camp, 

,'2\   T  ,„   .  ,  ,     }  fortress)  :  Audlem  (old  lyme  or  border)  ; 

OUDE,  OLDEN  (Dutch),     I    .      ,.       V  i J  £  u\    •     «e    j       j        T       r* 

'  vAudley  (old  field),  in  England.  In  Ger- 
many :  Altenburg,  Altendorf,  Oldenburg  (old  dwelling) ; 
Altenmarkt  (old  market)  ;  Altmark  (old  boundary) ;  Alt- 
stadt  (old  place)  ;  Altsattel  (old  seat)  ;  Altofen  (old  oven), 
so  called  from  its  warm  baths  ;  Oudenarde  (old  earth  or 
land)  ;  Oudenbosch  (old  thicket)  ;  Oude-capel  (old  chapel). 
ALDEA  (Span,  and  Port.,  from  the  Arabic),  a  village  ;  e.g.  Aldea- 
del-Cano  (the  dog's  village);  Aldea-vieya  (old  village); 
Aldea-el-Muro  (the  walled  village)  ;  Aldea-del-Rio  (of  the 
river)  ;  Aldea  Galliga  (of  the  Gauls). 

ATiT^rvm  rvn    (a  heiSht  or  diff;   *•£'  A1Itmaur  (the  Sreat 

ALT  (Irish)  ^height);    Builth,  in   Wales,  i.e.  Bu-allt   (the 

( steep    place    of  the   wild    oxen).     The    Alts 

(heights  or  glen-sides),   Monaghan  ;  Altachullion  (the  cliff 

of  the  holly)  ;  Altavilla,  i.e.  Alt-a-bhile  (the  glen-side  of  the 

old  tree) ;  Altinure  (the  cliff  of  the  yew-tree)  ;  Altanagh 

(abounding  in  cliffs)  ;  Altan  (the  little  cliff). 

ALP  \ILPE  (Celtic)     (  a  r°ck  °r  diff ;  e'g' the  Alps  ;  Albainn  (the 
h  <  hilly  or  high  land),  the  anc.  name  of  Scot- 

(  land ;  Albania,  with  the  same  meaning ; 
Alpenach  (the  mountain  stream),  at  the  foot  of  Mount 
Pilate  ;  Alva  and  Alvah  (the  rocky),  parishes  in  Scotland  ; 
Cantal  (the  head  of  the  rock),  in  France.  In  Ireland  the 
word  ail  takes  the  form  of  oil,  aspirated  foyle  or  faill; 
e.g.  Foilycleara  (O'Clery's  cliff)  ;  Foilnaman  (the  cliff  of  the 
women)  :  but  while  the  aspirated  form  of  ail  is  confined  to 
the  south,  aill  is  found  all  over  Ireland  ;  Ayleacotty,  i.e. 
Aill-a-choite  (the  cliff  of  the  little  boat) ;  Ailla-gower  (the 
goat's  cliff)  ;  Alleen  (the  diminutive)  is  found  in  Alleen- 
Hogan  and  Alleen-Ryan  (Hogan's  and  Ryan's  little  cliff). 
When,  however,  foyle  comes  in  as  a  termination,  it  is  com- 
monly derived  from  poll  (a  hole),  as  in  Ballyfoyle  and 
Ballyfoile  (the  town  of  the  hole).  The  anc.  name  of  Britain, 
Albion,  has  sometimes  been  traced  to  this  root,  but  more 


generally  to  the  -white  cliffs  (Lat.  albus)  on  the  coast  of 
Kent,  as  seen  first  by  the  Romans. 
/Aq\          (  ti16  alder-tree  ;  e.g.  Air-holt,  Aldershot  (alder-tree 

L  /T    *  \      )  wood)  ;  Alresford  (Alderford)  ;   Alrewas  (alder- 
ALNUS  (Lat.),     <  .  \       AIJ     •         /  u 

ATTNF  (V  \  )  e  Pasture)  '  Alderley  (alder-tree  meadow),  in 
'  "*  (England;  Aulney,  Aulnoy,  Aulnois,  Aunay, 
Auneau  (alder  grove),  in  France. 

ALT  (Gadhelic),  a  stream  ;  e.g.  the  Alt,  Aldan,  Alta  (river  names)  ; 
Alt-dowran  (otter  stream)  ;  Aultsigh  (gliding  stream)  ;  Alt- 
na-guish  (the  stream  of  the  fir-trees) ;  Aldivalloch,  i.e.  Allt- 
a-bhealaich  (the  stream  of  the  pass)  ;  Alness,  i.e.  Allt-an- 
casa  (of  the  cascade)  ;  Alltmore  (great  stream)  ;  Auldearn, 
i.e.  Allt-fearn  (alder-tree  stream)  ;  Cumbernauld,  corrupt, 
from  Cumar-nan-alta  (the  confluence  of  the  streams)  ;  Gara- 
vault  in  Aberdeenshire,  Garvault  in  East  Lothian,  and 
Garvald  in  Dumfriesshire  (rough  stream)  ;  Altderg  (red 

ALTUN,  or  ALTAN  (Tartar),  golden  ;  e.g.  the  Altai,  or  golden 
mountains  ;  Altanor  (golden  lake)  ;  Altan-su  (golden  river)  ; 
Alta-Yeen  (the  golden  mountains) ;  Altun-tash  (golden  rock) ; 
Altun-kupri  (golden  bridge). 

4.M,  or  AN,  contrac.  from  Ger.  an  den  (on  the,  or  at  the)  ;  e.g. 
Amberg  (at  the  hill) ;  Amdorf  or  Ambach,  Amsteg,  Amwalde 
(at  the  village,  brook,  path,  wood). 

AMAR  (Old  Ger.),  a  kind  of  grain  ;  e.g.  Amarbach,  Amarthal, 
Amarwang,  Amarveld  (the  brook,  valley,  strip  of  land, 
field  where  this  grain  grew). 

AMBACHT,  or  AMT  (Ger.),  a  district  under  the  government  of  an 
Amtman  or  bailiff;  e.g.  Amt-sluis  (the  sluice  of  the  Am- 
bacht) ;  Amthof  (the  court  of  the  Amtman) ;  Graven-Am- 
bacht  (the  duke's  district)  ;  Ambachtsbrug  (the  bridge  of 
the  Ambacht). 

AMBR,  an  Indo-Germanic  word,  signifying  a  river,  allied  to  the 
Sansc.  ambu  (water).  According  to  Forsteman  (v.  Deutsche 
Ortsnameti)  the  suffix  r  was  added  by  most  European  nations 
before  their  separation  from  the  Asiatic  tribes,  as  appears 
in  the  Greek  ombros  and  the  Lat.  imber  (a  shower).  The 
word  appears  in  the  names  of  tribes  and  persons,  as  well 
as  of  places,  on  the  European  continent ;  e.g.  the  Ambrones 
(or  dwellers  by  the  water),  and  perhaps  in  Umbria  ;  Am- 


berloo  and  Amersfoort  (the  meadow  and  ford  by  the  water), 
in  Holland ;  and  in  such  river  names  as  the  Ammer,  Em- 
mer,  Emmerich,  Ambra,  etc. 

ANGER  (Ger.),  a  meadow  or  field ;  e.g.  Rabenanger  (the  raven's 
field)  ;  Kreutzanger  (the  field  of  the  cross)  ;  Moosanger 
(mossy  field) ;  Wolfsanger  (the  wolfs  field,  or  of  Wolf,  a 
man's  name)  ;  Vogelsanger  (the  birds'  field)  ;  Angerhusen 
(the  field  houses) ;  Angerbach  (the  field  brook) ;  Anger 
(the  field),  a  town  in  Austria  ;  Angerburg  (the  fortress  in 
the  field). 

ANGRA  (Port.),  a  creek  or  bay ;  e.g.  Angra  (a  sea-port  in  the 
Azores)  ;  Angra-de-los-reyes  (the  king's  bay). 

AQUA(Lat),  [;7er;    '*   Aix'    anc •   AVM-S'*** 

AGUA  (Span   and  Port  )      '  (the  warm  sPrm§s>  said  to  have  been 
'"  •{  discovered  and  named  by  Sextus  Cal- 

ACQLA(lt. ),  s      •       T->  A- 

fFr  -Old  Fr  AX^>         V6nUS'  B'C'    12^>  m    Provence  5   Aix, 

tri.  ,    vyiu.  J7 1 •   AA.I.       I    .       -~          .  .  -  Tr  . 

[  in  Dauphmy,  anc.  Aqucz-  Vocontiorum 
(the  waters  of  the  Vocontii);  Aix-les-bains  (the  bath  waters), 
in  Savoy  ;  Aachen  or  Aix-la-Chapelle,  celebrated  for  its 
mineral  springs,  and  for  the  chapel  erected  over  the  tomb 
of  Charlemagne  ;  Plombieres,  anc.  Aqucs-plombarice  (waters 
impregnated  with  lead);  Veraqua,  in  New  Granada,  corrupt, 
from  Verdes-ag^tas  (green  waters)  ;  Aigue-perse  (the  bubbling 
water),  in  Auvergne ;  Aigue-vive  (the  spring  of  living  water) ; 
Aigue-belle  (beautiful  water);  Aigue-noire  (black  water,  etc.), 
in  France  ;  Dax,  celebrated  for  its  saline  springs,  corrupt, 
from  Civitas  aqitensis  (the  city  of  waters)  ;  Aigues-mortes 
(stagnant  waters) ;  Aguas-bellas  (beautiful  waters),  Portugal ; 
Aguas-calientes  (warm  waters),  Mexico;  Evaux,  Evreux 
(on  the  waters),  France ;  Evian,  anc.  Aquarum  (the 
waters),  Savoy  ;  Entreves  and  Entraigues  (between  the 
waters),  anc.  Interaqu/z;  Yvoire,  anc.  Aquaria  (the  watery 
district),  on  Lake  Geneva ;  Aas  or  Les  Eaux  (the  waters), 
Basses  Pyrenees ;  Nerac,  anc.  Aquce  Neriedum  (the  waters 
of  the  Nerii) ;  Amboise  and  Amboyna  (surrounded  by 
waters)  ;  Bordeaux  (the  dwelling  on  the  water),  borda,  Low 
Lat.  (a  dwelling)  ;  Vichy,  anc.  Agues  calidcz  (warm  waters), 
on  the  Allier ;  Bex  (upon  the  two  waters),  at  the  juncture 
of  the  Rhone  and  Avengon  ;  Outre  L'Eau  (beyond  the 
water) ;  Acalpulca,  in  Mexico,  corrupt,  from  Portus  aqua 

io  ARA — ARD 

pulchra  (the  port  of  beautiful  waters) ;  Agoa-fria  (cold 
water),  Brazil ;  Aqui,  in  North  Italy,  celebrated  for  its 
baths  ;  Acireale,  anc.  aguas  calientes  (the  warm  waters)  ; 
Agoa-quente  (hot  spring),  Brazil. 

ARA,  a  frequent  element  in  river  names,  with  various  and  even 
opposite  meanings.  Some  of  the  river  names  may  have 
come  from  the  Sansc.  ara  (swift,  or  the  flowing),  and  in 
Tamil  aar  means  simply  a  river.  There  is  another  San- 
scrit word  arb  (to  ravage  or  destroy),  with  which  the 
Gadhelic  words  garw,  garbh  (rough)  may  be  connected  ; 
and,  on  the  other  hand,  there  is  the  Welsh  araf  (gentle). 
According  to  the  locality  and  the  characteristics  of  the 
stream,  one  must  judge  to  which  of  these  roots  its  name 
may  belong.  There  are,  in  England,  the  Aire,  Arre,  Arro, 
Arrow ;  in  France,  the  Arve,  Erve,  Arveiron,  etc.  ;  in 
Switzerland  and  Germany,  the  Aar,  Are  ;  in  Spain  and 
Italy,  the  Arva,  Arno  ;  and  in  Scotland,  the  Ayr,  Aray,  Ir- 
vine, etc.  Many  of  these  names  may  signify  simply  flowing 
water  (the  river),  while  others  beginning  with  the  syllable 
ar  may  be  referred  to  the  adjectival  forms,  araf,  arb,  ara, 
or  garbh,  followed  by  another  root-word  for  water,  as  in 
Arrow  (the  swift  stream)  ;  Yarrow  (the  rough  stream)  ;  ow 
(water) ;  Arveiron  (the  furious  stream) ;  avon  (water)  ;  Arar 
(the  gentle  stream),  now  the  Saone. 

ARD,  AIRD  (Gadhelic),  a  height,  or,  as  an  adjective,  high  ;  e.g.  the 
Aird  (the  height)  on  the  south  coast  of  the  island  of  Lewis, 
also  in  Inverness-shire  ;  Aird  Point  in  the  island  of  Skye  ; 
Aird-dhu  (the  black  height),  a  hill  in  Inverness-shire  ;  the 
Airds  (high  lands  in  Argyleshire)  ;  Airdrie,  Gael.  Az'rd-righ 
(the  king's  height),  or,  perhaps,  Aird-reidh  (the  smooth 
height)  ;  Aird's  Moss  (a  muirland  tract  in  Ayrshire)  ; 
Ardbane  (white  height) ;  Ardoch  (high  field) ;  Ardclach 
(high  stony  ground)  ;  Ardach  and  Ardaghy  (high  field)  ; 
Ardmore  (great  height) ;  Ardeen  and  Arden  (the  little 
height)  ;  Ardglass  (green  height)  ;  Ardfert  (the  height  of  the 
grave  or  ditch,  Irish  ferf)  ;  Ardrishaig  (the  height  full  of 
briers,  driseach)  ;  Ardnamurchan  (the  height  of  the  great 
headland,  ceann,  or  of  the  great  ocean,  cuari)  ;  Ardgower 
(goat's  height)  ;  Ardtornish  (the  height  of  the  cascade,  cas 
and  torr)  ;  Ardross  (high  point)  ;  Ardrossan  (little  high 


point)  ;  Ardchattan  (St.  Cathan's  height)  ;  Ardersier,  Gael. 
Ard-ros-siar  (the  high  western  height)  ;  Ardlui  (the  height 
of  the  fawn,  laoidK)  ;  Ardentinny  (of  the  fire,  teine)  ;  Ardboe 
(of  the  cow)  ;  Ardbraccan  (of  St.  Brachan)  ;  Ardfinan  (St. 
Finan's  height)  ;  Armagh,  in  Ireland,  anc.  Ard-macha 
(the  height  of  Macha,  the  wife  of  one  of  the  early  Irish 
colonists)  ;  Arroquhar,  in  Dumbarton,  i.e.  Ardthir  (the  high 
land)  ;  Ardmeanach  (the  mossy  height  or  the  black  isle)  ; 
Ardgask  (the  hero's  height,  Gael,  gaisgeach,  a  hero)  ; 
Ardnacrushy  (of  the  cross) ;  Ardtrea  (St.  Trea's  height)  ; 
Ardnarea,  i.e.  Ard-na-riaghadh  (the  height  of  the  execu- 
tions, with  reference  to  a  dark  tale  of  treachery  and 
murder)  ;  Ardgay  (windy  height)  ;  Ardblair  (high  field)  ; 
Ardwick  (high  town,  a  suburb  of  Manchester).  The  Lat. 
root  arduus  (high)  is  found  in  Ardea,  in  Italy  ;  the  Ardes 
(or  heights),  in  Auvergne  ;  Auvergne  itself  has  been  traced 
to  Ar-fearann  (high  lands),  but  Cocheris,  A u  Noms  de  Lieu^ 
gives  its  ancient  name  as  Alverniacus  (i.e.  the  domain  of  the 
Auvergnt).  Ardennes,  Forest  of  (high-wooded  valleys)  ; 
Ardwick-le-street  (the  high  town  on  the  great  Roman 
road),  stratum.  Ard,  art,  and  artha  are  also  Persian  pre- 
fixes attached  to  the  names  of  places  and  persons  ;  e.g. 
Ardboodha  (the  high  place  of  Buddha)  ;  Aravalli  (the  hill 
of  strength) ;  and  such  personal  names  as  Artaxerxes, 
Artabanes,  Artamenes.  In  some  cases  it  may  refer  to  the 
agricultural  habits  of  the  Indo-Germanic  races  (Lat.  aro, 
Grk.  a/Dow,  Goth,  arfan,  Old  High  Ger.  aran,  Cel.  ar  (to 
plough),  hence  the  Aryan  tribes  are  those  belonging  to  the 
dominant  race — the  aristocracy  of  landowners,  as  distin- 
guished from  the  subject  races — v.  Taylor's  Names  of  Places. 

ARN   ERN  fTeut  )  f  a  plaCC' farm'  dweIlinS '  £&  Heddern  (hid- 

'  ing-place)  ;     Beddern    (sleeping-place)  ; 

Suthern   (south   place)  ;    Arne,   a   town 
ARA  (Lat.),  a  home,          .      ,,.    .   > .          A.T.  _1  /  u  it      i       \ 

v   ,     ", ,       .  <  m    Yorkshire ;    Chiltern  (chalk  place)  ; 

AREA,  bas  (Lat.),  i*n,-,.i,  •        117-    *.  AC       riJi  •* 

'  F    x  |  Whithorn,    in    Wigton,    A.S.    Whttern, 

\g,  Y'  I  Lat.    Candida-casa   (white   house)  ;    As- 

[  perne  (the  place  of  poplar-trees)  ;  Fe- 
mern  (of  cattle)  ;  Domern  (of  judgment)  ;  Thalern  (valley 
dwelling) ;  Mauthern  (toll  place) ;  Bevern  and  Bevergern 
(the  dwelling  on  the  R.  Bever)  ;  Aire,  Lat.  Area-Atrebatum 

12  ARN—ATH 

(the  dwelling  of  the  Atrebates),  on  the  Adour,  in  France ; 
also  Aire,  on  the  Lys  ;  Les  Aires  (the  farms)  ;  Airon,  etc.,  in 
France,  Bavaria,  Ger.  Baiern  (the  dwelling  of  the  Boii)  ; 
Aros,  Gael,  (the  dwelling),  in  Mull ;  Arosaig  (corner  dwell- 
ing), Argyle. 

ARN  COld  Ger}  (an  eagle'  This  WOrd  is  USed  in  toP°graPhy 
AT  \  )  either  with  reference  to  the  bird  itself,  or  to 

ARI  (Norse),          <  ,    .      ,  ,  . , , 

ERYR  (Welsh)  )  a  Personal  name  denved  from  ll ;  *-g-  Arnfels 
\  (eagle's  rock) ;  Arnberg,  Arnstein,  Arlberg 
(eagle  mountain  or  rock)  ;  Arisdale  (eagle  valley,  or  the 
valley  of  a  person  called  Arix)  ;  Arnau  (eagle  meadow)  ; 
Arnecke  (eagle  corner)  ;  Arendal  (eagle  valley)  ;  Arenoe 
(eagle  island) ;  Eryri  (the  eagle  mountain),  the  Welsh 
name  for  Snowdon. 

ARX  (Lat.),  a  fortress  ;  e.g.  Arce,  anc.  ATX,  a  town  in  Italy  with  a 
hill  fortress  called  Rocca  efArcd  (the  rock  of  the  fortress)  ; 
Arcis  sur  Aube  (the  fortress  on  the  R.  Aube),  in  France  ; 
Arcole  and  Arcola,  in  Lombardy  and  Sardinia ;  Saar-Louis, 
anc.  Arx-Ludovici-Sarum  (the  fortress  of  Louis  on  the 
Saar),  founded  by  Louis  XIV.,  1680;  Arx-fontana  or 
Fuentes  (the  fortress  of  the  fountain),  in  Spain ;  Monaco, 
anc.  Arx-Monceci  (the  fortress  of  the  Monaeci),  on  the  Gulf 
of  Genoa  ;  Thours,  anc.  Tiied<z-Arx  (the  fortress  on  the 
R.  Thouet),  in  France. 

AS,  or  AAS  (Scand.),  a  hill  ridge;  e.g.  Astadr  (ridge  dwelling); 
As  and  Aas,  the  names  of  several  towns  in  Sweden  and 
Norway ;  Aswick,  Aastrap,  Aasthorp  (the  village  or  farm 
on  the  ridge),  in  Shetland. 

ASTA  (Basque),  a  rock  ;  e.g.  Astorga,  in  Spain,  Lat.  Asturica- 
Augusta  (the  great  city  on  the  rocky  water,  ura) ;  Astiapa 
and  Estepa  (the  dwelling  at  the  foot  of  the  rock),  in 
Spain  ;  Astulez  and  Astobeza,  also  in  Spain  ;  Asti,  a  dis- 
trict in  Sardinia  which  was  peopled  by  Iberians  or  Basques  ; 
Astura  (the  rocky  river)  ;  Asturias  (the  country  of  the 
dwellers  by  that  river)  ;  Ecija,  in  Spain,  anc.  Astigi  (on 
the  rock)  ;  Estepa  and  Estepona  (rocky  ground). 

(  a  ford.     This  root-word  is  more  common 
ATH,  AGH  (Gadhehc),       .     T    ,      ,  .,        .     c     .,      ,        ,   . 

'     <  in  Ireland  than  in  Scotland,  and  is  cosr- 


(  nate    with    the    Lat.    vadum,    and    the 
A.S.   ivath  or  wade;   e.g.  Athy,  i.e.  Ath-Ae  (the  ford  of 


Ae,  a  Munster  chief  who  was  slain  at  the  spot)  ;  Athmore 
(great  ford) ;  Athdare  (the  ford  of  oaks)  ;  Athenry  (the 
king's  ford)  ;  Athlone,  i.e.  Ath  Luaen  (the  ford  of  St. 
Luan) ;  Athleague  (stony  ford) ;  Athane  (little  ford) ; 
Aghanloo  (Lewy's  little  ford) ;  the  town  of  Trim  is  in  Irish 
Athtruim  (the  ford  of  the  elder  trees) ;  Agolagh,  i.e.  Ath- 
goblach  (the  forked  ford)  ;  Aboyne  (the  ford  of  the  river), 
on  the  Dee  in  Aberdeenshire ;  Athgoe,  i.e.  Ath-goibhne 
(the  ford  of  the  smiths),  in  Dublin. 
..  ~  .  /noble,  or  the  nobles;  e.g.  Adelsdorf,  Adels- 

\   '   "''         I  heim,  Adelshofen,  Attelbury  (the  nobles'  dwell- 
ADEL  (Ger.),          <  .     .  '      .    ,          '       .  ,      ; \  ^ ,   .         ,. 

//-    i.-  \     I  mg)  >  Athelney  (the  island  of  the  nobles),  in 

ADELIG  (Gothic),     /C6>  ,.      V  ,,       ^,        /' 

'  ^  Somersetshire,  formerly  insulated  by  the  rivers 
Tone  and  Parret ;  Addelsfors  (the  nobles'  waterfall)  ;  Adels- 
berg  (the  nobles'  hill) ;  Adelsclag  (the  nobles'  wood-clear- 
ing) ;  Adelsoe  (the  nobles'  island)  ;  Adelmanns-felden  (the 
nobleman's  field). 

,„      >        (a.   meadow,    formed   from   aha   (water),    and 
AU,  AUE  (Ger.),      I  ,  j   .  v     ,     /J  . 

/TV    .    ''     <  frequently  annexed  to  the  name  of  a  river; 
AUGIA  (Lat.),          )  A  TI  r>u  •          ™  ^  n 

[  e.g.  Aarau,  Ilmenau,  Rhemau,  Wetterau,  Op- 

penau,  Muhrau  (the  meadow  of  the  Aar,  Ilmen,  Rhine, 
Wetter,  Oppa,  Muhr)  ;  Frankenau  (the  Franks'  meadow)  ; 
Lichtenau  (the  meadow  of  light)  ;  Reichenau  (rich  meadow) ; 
Schoenau  (beautiful  meadow)  ;  Greenau  (green)  ;  Langenau 
(long)  ;  Weidenau  (pasture-meadow)  ;  Rosenau  (the  meadow 
of  roses)  ;  Lindau  (of  lime-trees)  ;  Herisau,  Lat.  Augia- 
dominus  (the  Lord's  meadow)  ;  Eu,  anc.  Augia  (the 
meadow),  in  Normandy  ;  Hanau  (the  enclosed  meadow)  ; 
Nassau  (the  moist  meadow)  ;  Iglau  (the  meadow  of  the  R. 
Igla,  in  Moravia)  ;  Troppau,  in  Silesia  (the  meadow  of  the 
R.  Oppa). 

AUCHTER  orOCHTER(Gadhelic), 

UCHDER  (Welsh),  UPPe//   e*  Auchtertyre,  anc. 

(  Auchterardoiver   (the    summit 

on  the  water)  ;  Auchterarder  (the  upper  high  land)  ;  Auchter- 
blair  (upper  field)  ;  Auchtercairn  (upper  rock)  ;  Auchter- 
muchty  (the  upper  dwelling,  ttgh,  of  the  wild  boar,  muc)  ; 
Auchterau  (the  upper  water)  ;  Auchtertool  (the  upper  land 
on  the  R.  Tiel),  in  Fife  ;  Auchterless  (the  upper  side,  slios). 
In  Ireland  this  word  takes  the  form  of  Ottghter;  e.g. 

14  A  VON— BAAL 

Oughterard  (upper  height)  ;  Oughter-lough  (upper  lake,  in 
reference  to  Loch  Erne)  ;  Balloughter  (upper  town)  ;  Lis- 
soughter  (upper  fort)  ;  Killoughter  (upper  church).  The 
Irish  adjective  uachdar  is  not  unfrequently  Anglicised  water, 
as  in  Clowater  in  Carlow,  i.e.  Cloch-uachdar  (upper  stone 
or  castle)  ;  Watree,  in  Kilkenny,  i.e.  Uachdaraighe  (upper 
lands)  —  v.  Joyce's  Irish  Names  of  Places. 

AVON,  AFON  (Cym.-CeL),       (  ™ter'  T 

ABHAIN,  ABHUINNE  (Gael),  J  ^une,  Auney,  Inney,  Ewenny,  Aney, 
,T        _  /  \          1  Eveny,    river   names    m    England, 

AMNIS  (Lat.  Sansc.  ap.},        I  „,  ,  ,        . 

V  Wales,    and     Ireland  ;     Avengorm 

(red  river)  ;  Aven-banna  (white  river)  ;  Avenbui  (yellow 
river)  ;  Avonmore  (great  river),  in  Ireland  ;  the  Seine, 
anc.  Seimh-au  (smooth  river)  ;  the  Mayenne  or  Meduana 
(probably  the  middle  river,  from  Cel.  meadhoit).  In 
France  there  are  from  this  root  —  the  Ain,  Avenne,  Vilaine, 
Vienne  ;  the  Abona,  in  Spain.  In  Scotland  :  the  Almond 
or  Awmon;  Devon  (deep  river)  ;  Doon  (dark  river)  ; 
Kelvin  (woody  river)  ;  Annan  (quiet  river)  ;  the  Leith, 
Leithen,  Lethen  (the  broad  or  the  gray  river)  ;  the  Don,  in 
Scotland  and  England  (dark  or  brown  river)  ;  Irvine  and 
Earn  (the  west-flowing  river)  ;  Anwoth,  in  Kirkcudbright,  i.e. 
Avonwath  (the  course  of  the  river)  ;  the  Spey,  speach-abhain 
(swift  river)  ;  the  Allan  (beauteous  river,  aluinri)  ;  the 
Boyne,  anc.  Bouoninda  (perhaps  yellow  river,  buidhe). 
Many  towns  derive  their  names  from  their  rivers,  or  from 
their  vicinity  to  water  :  thus,  Avignon  and  Verona  (on  the 
water)  ;  Amiens,  the  cap.  of  the  Ambiani  (dwellers  on  the 
water,  i.e.  of  the  Samara  or  Somme).  Teramo,  anc. 
Interamnia  (between  the  rivers),  and  Terni,  with  the  same 
meaning  ;  Avenay,  anc.  Avenacum  (on  the  river)  ;  Avesnes, 
celebrated  for  its  mineral  springs.  But  such  names  as 
Avenay,  Avennes,  etc.,  may  have  been  derived  in  many 
cases  from  Lat.  avena,  Fr.  avoine  (oats)  —  v.  Cocheris's  Noms 
de  Lieu. 


BAAL,  a  prefix  in  Phoenician  names,  derived  from  the  worship  of 
the  sun-god  among  that  people  ;  e.g.  Baalath  and  Kirjath- 
Baal  (the  city  of  Baal)  ;  Baal-hazor  (Baal's  village)  ;  Baal- 

BAB — BAD  15 

Hermon  (near  Mount  Hermon)  ;  Baal-Judah,  etc.,  in  Pales- 
tine. Sometimes,  however,  the  word  is  used  as  synonymous 
with  beth  (a  dwelling),  as  Baal-tamar  and  Baal-Meon  (for 
Bethtamar  and  Beth  Meon).  But  Baal-Perazim,  we  are 
told,  means  the  place  of  breaches,  and  has  no  reference  to 
the  sun-god,  Baalbec  (the  city  of  the  sun),  in  Syria. 
BAB  (Ar.),  a  gate  or  court ;  Babel  and  Babylon,  according  to  the 
Arabic  (the  gate  of  God),  or  from  a  word  signifying  con- 
fusion, Gen.  xi.  9 ;  Baab  (the  gate),  a  town  in  Syria ; 
El-Baab  (the  gate),  in  the  Sahara  ;  Bab-el-Mandeb,  Strait 
of  (the  gate  of  tears),  so  called  by  the  Arabs  from  its 
dangerous  navigation  ;  Bab-el-estrecho  (the  gate  of  the 
narrow  passage),  the  Arabic  name  for  the  Strait  of  Gibraltar. 

,„,       .  fa    brook  ;    e.g.    Snail- 

BACH,  BATCH  (Teut.),  '  ,     f,   ,  ,, 

,c  v     ,  x  ''  batch     and     Caldbeck 

BEC,  BOEK  (Scand.),  ,     . ,    ,       ,                .,. 

,      '      7    ,  v        ,     . /J      ,    ,              ,  <  (cold    brook    or    swift 

but  bach,  by  mutation  jack  or  vacii,  I  >       ,  .            /7  .      A  0 

.     _     '   .J                                  .,    ,.',  brook);    snell  in  A.S. 

in  Welsh  names  means  small,  little,  ,  „,  j  ,,     ,.  , 

[  and  Old  English  means 

active,  sharp,  quick  ;  and  in  Scotland,  as  applied  to 
the  weather,  it  means  sharp  or  severely  cold ;  Crumbeck 
(crooked  brook)  ;  Lauterbach  (clear  brook)  ;  Skurbeck 
(dividing  brook)  ;  Griesbach  and  Sandbach  (sandy  brook)  ; 
Gronenbach  (green  brook) ;  Over-beck  (upper)  ;  Reichen- 
bach  (rich)  ;  Marbeck  (boundary)  ;  Schoenbach  (beautiful 
brook)  ;  Beckford  (the  brook  ford)  ;  Bacheim  and  Beckum 
(the  dwelling  at  the  brook)  ;  Beckermet  (the  meeting  of 
brooks)  ;  Bickerstith  (the  station  at  the  brook) ;  Laubach 
and  Laybach  (the  warm  brook) ;  but  Laubach  may  also 
mean  rich  in  leaves — v.  ACH.  Bee  in  Normandy  is  named 
from  a  brook  that  flows  into  the  Risle  :  Birkbeck  in  West- 
moreland (the  birch-tree  brook) ;  Ansbach  or  Anspach  (at 
the  stream  in  Bavaria)  ;  Schwalbach  (the  swallow's  brook), 
in  Nassau  ;  Houlbec,  in  Normandy,  Holbeck,  in  Lincoln  and 
in  Denmark  (the  brook  in  the  hollow)  ;  Fulbeck  (Lincoln) 
and  Foulbec,  in  Normandy  (muddy  brook). 
.,„  .  (  a  bath  or  mineral  spring  ;  e.g.  Baden,  anc. 

\  ir+        r«  i\      <  ThermcE-Austricce     (the     Austrian     warm 
BADD  (Cym.-Cel.),      )        •       \  ,-.   ., 

'       (  springs)  ;      Baden  -  Baden,     anc.     Livttas 

Aquenses  Aiirelia  (the  watering-place  of  Aurelius)  ;  Baden- 
bei-Wien  (the  baths  near  Vienna)  ;  Baden-ober  (the  upper 


baths) ;  Franzens-bad  (the  bath  of  the  Franks)  ;  Carlsbad 
or  Kaiser-bad  (the  bath-town  of  the  Emperor  Charles  IV. 
of  Bohemia)  ;  Marien-bad,  Lat.  Balneum  Maria  (the  bath- 
town  of  the  Virgin  Mary)  ;  Wiesbaden,  anc.  Fontes-Mattiaci 
(the  baths  or  springs  of  the  Mattiaci,  dwellers  on  the 
meadow) — v.  WIESE ;  Badborn  (bath  well)  ;  Wildbad  (wild 
bath,  i.e.  not  prepared  by  art),  in  the  Black  Forest ;  Slangen- 
bad  (the  bath  of  snakes),  so  called  from  the  number  of 
snakes  found  in  the  mineral  springs;  Badsdorf  (bath  village), 
Bohemia.  The  Celtic  name  of  the  English  city  Bath  was 
Caer-badon,  or  Bathan-ceaster  (bath  city  or  fortress)  ;  the 
Anglo-Saxons  made  it  Akeman-ceaster  (the  sick  man's 
camp),  or  Aqttce  Lulis  (dedicated  to  a  British  divinity, 
Lulis,  identified  with  Minerva). 

BAGH  (Ar.  and  Turc.),  a  garden  ;  e.g.  Bag,  or  Baug,  in  Hindostan. 
Bagdad  superseded  Seleucia,  which,  it  is  related,  was  reduced 
to  such  a  state  of  ruin  as  to  have  nothing  remaining  on  the 
spot  where  it  stood  formerly  but  the  cell  of  the  monk  Dad  ; 
hence  the  name  of  the  new  city  founded  by  the  Caliph 
Almazar,  A.D.  762.  Baghdad,  i.e.  the  garden  of  Dad,  a 
monk  who  had  his  cell  near  the  site  of  the  city ;  Bala-Bagh 
(high  garden),  in  Affghanistan  ;  Karabagh  (black  garden), 
a  district  in  Armenia,  so  called  from  its  thick  forests  ; 
Alum-bagh  (the  garden  of  the  Lady  Alum),  in  Hindostan  ; 
Baktschisarai  (the  palace  of  the  garden),  in  Crimea. 
..  ,  f  from  the  Lat.  balneum  (a  bath) ;  e.g.  Bagna- 

/o        \          I  cavallo   (the    horses'   bath)  :    Bagna-di-aqua 
BANG  (Span.),  ,v    ,  .       - 

<  (water   bath)  ;    Bagnazo,    Bagnara,    Bagnari, 

BANHO  (Port  ^ 

( F    "\  I  towns    m    Ita-ly>  celebrated    for    their  baths. 

[_  In  France  there  are  Bagneres-de-Bigorre  (the 
baths  of  Bigorones,  i.e.  the  dwellers  between  two  heights)  ; 
Bagneres-de-Luchon  (the  baths  on  the  R.  Luchon)  ;  Bains- 
les-du-mont-dore  (the  baths  of  the  golden  mount);  with 
numerous  names  with  similar  meanings,  such  as  Bagneux, 
Bagneaux,  Bagnol,  Bagnoles,  Bagnolet,  Bagnot,  etc.  In 
Italy  :  Bagnolina  (the  little  bath)  ;  Bagni-di- Lucca,  Bagni- 
di-Pisa  (the  baths  of  Lucca  and  Pisa). 

BAHIA  (Port.),  a  bay  ;  e.g.  Bahia  or  St.  Salvador  (the  town  of 
the  Holy  Saviour),  on  the  bay,  in  Brazil ;  Bahia-blanca 
(white  bay)  ;  Bahia-hermosa  (beautiful)  ;  Bahia-honda 


(deep)  ;  Bahia-negra  (black) ;  Bahia-neuva  (new  bay) ; 
Bahia-de-Neustra-Senora  (the  bay  of  Our  Lady);  Bahia- 
Escosesa  (Scottish  bay),  in  Hayti ;  Bayonna,  in  Spain,  and 
Bayonne,  in  France  (the  good  bay),  from  a  Basque  word, 
signifying  good;  Baia  (the  town  on  the  bay),  in  Naples ; 
Bahia-de-todos  los  Santos  (All  Saints'  Bay),  in  Brazil. 

BAHN  (Ger.),  a  way  or  path  ;  e.g.  Winter-bahn  (winter  path)  ; 
Langen-bahn  (long  path)  ;  Wild-bahn  (wild  or  uncultivated 

BAHR,  or  BAHAR  (Ar.),  a  sea,  a  lake,  and  sometimes  a  river ;  e.g. 
Bahar-el-Abiad  (the  white)  ;  Bahar-el-azrak  (the  blue  river), 
forming  together  the  Nile  ;  Bahar-belame  (waterless  river), 
in  Egypt ;  Baraach  (the  sea  of  wealth),  in  Hindostan ; 
Bahari  (the  maritime  district),  Lower  Egypt ;  Bahr-assal 
(salt  lake),  Africa  ;  Bahrein  (the  two  seas),  a  district  in 
Arabia,  between  the  Persian  Gulf  and  the  Red  Sea  ;  also  a 
group  of  islands  on  the  same  coast. 

BAILE,  BALLY  (Gadhelic),  originally  merely  a  place,  a  home,  then 
a  fort,  a  town,  allied  to  the  Grk.  polis.  The  word  joined 
with  the  article  an  is  found  as  ballin  for  baile-an ;  e.g. 
Ballinrobe  (the  town  of  the  R.  Robe)  ;  Balbriggan  (Brecon's 
town)  ;  Ballintra  and  Ballintrae,  in  Ireland,  and  Ballantrae, 
in  Scotland  (the  dwelling  on  the  strand)  ;  Ballinure  (the 
town  of  the  yew) ;  Ballintubbert  (the  town  of  the  well)  ; 
Ballinakill  (of  the  church  or  wood)  ;  Ballinahinch  (of  the 
island)  ;  Ballinamona  (of  the  bog),  in  Ireland ;  Ballycastle 
(castle  town)  ;  Ballymena  (middle  town)  ;  Ballymony  (of 
the  shrubbery)  ;  Balmagowan  and  Ballingown  (of  the 
smiths)  ;  Ballymore  and  Ballmore  (great  town) ;  Nohoval, 
corrupt,  from  (new  dwelling),  localities  in 
Ireland.  In  Scotland :  Balvanie,  anc.  Bal-Beni-mor  (the 
dwelling  of  Beyne,  the  great  first  Bishop  of  Mortlach),  in 
Aberdeenshire ;  Balmoral  (the  majestic  dwelling,  moratl)  ; 
Ballater  (the  dwelling  on  the  hill-slope,  leitir)  ;  Balmerino 
(on  the  sea-shore,  muir)  ;  Balachulish,  Gael.  Baile-na-caolish 
(the  dwelling  on  the  narrow  strait)  ;  Baldernock,  Gael. 
Baile-dair-cnoc  (the  dwelling  at  the  oak  hill) ;  Balnacraig 
(dwelling  of  the  rock)  ;  Balfour  (cold  dwelling)  ;  Balgay 
(windy  dwelling,  gaoth,  wind)  ;  Balfron  (of  mourning, 
bhroiri),  so  called,  according  to  tradition,  because  a  number 

1 8  BALA — BANYA 

of  children  had  been  devoured  by  wolves  at  the  place  ; 
Balgreen  (the  sunny  place,  grianacK)  ;  Balgarvie  (of  the 
rough  stream) ;  Ballagan  and  Ballogie  (the  dwelling  in  the 
hollow)  ;  Balgownie  and  Balgonie  (of  the  smiths) ;  Bal- 
bardie  (of  the  bard)  ;  Balmac  Lellan  (the  dwelling  of  the  Bal- 
MacLellan),  in  Kirkcudbright ;  Balmaghie  (of  the  Maghies) ; 
Balquhidder  (the  town  at  the  back  of  the  country)  ;  Bal- 
blair  (of  the  field  or  plain). 

BALA  (Turc.),  high ;  e.g.  Bala-hissar  (high  castle) ;  Bala-dagh 
(high  mountain)  ;  Bala-Ghauts  (the  high  Ghauts)  ;  Balasore 
(high  dwelling)  ;  Balkan  (high  ridge),  also  called  Mount 
Haemus  (the  snowy  mount),  hima  (Sansc.),  snow  ;  Balkh 
(high  town),  anc.  Bactra. 

BALKEN  (Ger.),  a  ridge  ;  e.g.  Griesen-balken  (sandy  ridge)  ;  Moes- 
balken   (mossy  ridge)  ;  Schieren-balken  (clear  ridge) — the 
word  is  applied  to  chains  of  mountains  in  general. 
,„        ,  ,      (  a  strait  or  belt  ;  e.g.  Balta  (the  island  of  the 

BALTEUS  (Lat  \     }  Strait) '  Baltia  (the  country  of  belts  or  straits)> 
*        "      (  the  ancient  name  of  Scandinavia.     The  Great 

and  Little  Belts,  or  straits. 
BAN  (Gadhelic),  white,  fair ;  e.g.  Rivers  Bann,  Bane,  Bain,  Bana, 

Banon,  Bandon,  Banney,  etc. ;  Banchory  (the  fair  valley). 
BAN  (Cym.-Cel.),  a  hill  or  height ;  e.g.  Cefn-y-fan  (the  hill-ridge)  ; 

Tal-y-fan  (the  face  of  the  hill),  in  Wales.     B  by  mutation 

becomes  f. 

,„      x  (a  district  or  enclosure,   from  Old  Ger. 

BANT,  BANZ  (Ger.),  ,      ,  ,,     .  .  ,    ~ 

POINT  and  PAINT  AM  1  pyndan  (t°  confine)'  c°Snate  wlth  Cvm-- 

r vA«  JL    tlllLL   .t  .TiHN  i.  ^jLftCf'.        I      /-»      i          i  t  T»          i  ,          •  7^  7      L  * 

'  (  Cel.  pant ;  e.g.  Brabant,  i.e.  Brach-bant 
(the  ploughed  district)  ;  Altenbanz  (the  old)  ;  Ostrevant 
(the  eastern) ;  Grunnenbant  (the  green  district)  ;  Hasel- 
point  (hazel  field)  ;  Pound- stock  (the  enclosed  place),  in 
Germany  ;  Drenthe,  corrupt,  from  Thri-banta  (the  three 
districts),  in  Holland  ;  Bantz,  in  Bavaria.  From  pant  we 
have  .in  Monmouth,  Panteg  (beautiful  valley,  teg)  ;  Pant-y- 
goitre  (the  valley  of  the  town  in  the  wood). 

BANYA  (Hung.),  a  mine;  e.g.  Uj-banya  (new  mine)  ;  Nagy-banya 
(great  mine),  a  town  of  Hungary  with  gold  and  silver 
mines,  named  by  the  Germans  Neustadt;  Abrud-banya 
(the  mine  on  the  R.  Abrud,  a  district  abounding  in  metals). 


<r*   ju  v  \     ( a  summit;  ^.if.  Barmona  (the  summit  or  top 
BARR  (Gadhelic),    I    r  .,  \     «  t  u  •  u^          \ 

BAR  (Cvm  -Cel  {  )  g) '  Barra-vore  fereat  heiSht»  ;wr)  5 

,  .  '•"    \  Barmeen   (smooth   summit),  in   Ireland.      In 
BARD  (Scand.),       /  .  .      c     ..  /J,  - 

\  several   counties   in  Scotland   we   have  Barr 

(the  uplands),  but  Barr  in  Ayrshire  took  its  name  from  St. 
Barr  ;  Barbreac  (spotted  point)  ;  Barrie  and  Barra  (the 
head  of  the  water,  abJi)  ;  Barcaldine  (hazel  point,  calltunri)  ; 
Barbeth  (birch  point)  ;  Barrglass  (gray  point)  ;  Bar-darroch 
(the  summit  of  the  oak  grove)  ;  Bardearg  (red  point)  ;  Bar- 
caple  (the  horses'  point) ;  the  Bard  of  Mousa  and  of 
Bressay,  in  the  Shetlands,  is  the  projection  on  these  islands  ; 
the  ancient  name  of  the  town  of  Perth  was  Barr-Tatha  (the 
height  of  the  R.  Tay)  ;  Barwyn  for  Bar-gwn  (a  white-topped 
mountain,  or  tipped  with  snow),  in  Wales.  In  France  the 
prefix  bar  is  applied  to  strongholds,  as  in  Bar-le-Duc  (the 
duke's  citadel)  ;  Bar-sur  Saone,  Bar-sur  Aube  (the  strong- 
hold on  the  rivers  Saone  and  Aube). 

BARROW    (Scand  )     (  a  mound  of  earth'  especially  over  a  grave  ; 

BEORH  (AS  )  }  e'g'  Barrow-by  (the  dwelling  at the  mound)  ; 

{  Ingle-barrow  (the  mound  at  the  grave  of 

Ingold).     But,  in  some  cases,  barrow  may  be  a  form  of 

A.S.  boerw  (a  grove),  as  in  Barrow-den  (the  grove  hollow), 

in  Rutland. 

/r      \  ( a  building;   e.g.   Brun-bau  (the  well-house); 

r  )  Neu-bau  and  Alten-bau   (the  old  and  new 

BAUEN  to  build  1  buildin£)  >  Bui«le  (the  building),  a  parish  on 
'  (,  the  Solway  Firth ;  Tichel-boo  (brick  build- 
ing) ;  Forst-gebaude  (the  building  in  the  forest).  It  takes 
the  form  of  bottle  and  buttel  in  Germany,  and  battle 
in  Britain — v.  p.  27  ;  Newbattle  (new  building  in  Mid 
Lothian)  ;  Wulfen-buttel  (the  dwelling  of  Ulpha)  ;  Bolton, 
in  Lancashire,  anc.  Botl. 

fr  "*  /  a  tree,  a  post ;  e.g.  Baumburg  (tree  town) ;  Baum- 
A  q  \  J  garten  (the  orchard)  ;  Baumgartenthal  (orchard 

BOOM  (Dut  \  )  valley)  >  Baum-kriig  (the  tree  inn)  ;  Schoen- 
v  '''  vbaum  (beautiful  tree)  ;  Heesbaum  (the  hazel- 
tree),  in  Germany ;  Bampton  and  Bempton  (tree  town), 
in  Oxford  and  Yorkshire  ;  but  Bampton  in  Devon  takes 
its  name  from  the  R.  Bathom  —  its  ancient  name  was 


BEDD  (Welsh),  a  grave ;  e.g.  Bedd-gelert  (the  grave  of  a  favourite 
hound  of  Llewelyn,  or,  as  others  affirm,  the  grave  of  a  saint 
named  Kelert). 

//~        r-  i  \       f  the  birch-tree,  cognate  with  the  Lat.  betula; 
BEDW  (Cym.-Cel.),      I  •    ,      „     0  i 

BEITH  (Gadhelic/     I**'   Beddoe    (the   birches)>    Salop;    Bed- 

BEDWEN  (Welsh?      )  wdty'  *'•'•  Bedw~ffiva^  (the  wild  beast>s 
"       ^  dwelling  among  the  birches),  in  Monmouth  ; 

Penbedw  (birch  hill),  Monmouth.  In  Ireland :  Beagh, 
Beaghy,  Behagh,  Behy,  i.e.  (birch  land) ;  Kilbehey,  i.e. 
coill -beithne  (birch  wood);  Behanagh  (birch  -  producing 
river)  ;  Ballybay,  i.e.  Bel-atha-beithe  (the  ford  mouth  of  the 
birch)  ;  Aghaveagh  (birch  field).  In  Scotland  :  Beith  and 
Beath,  in  Fife  and  Ayrshire  ;  Dalbeath,  Dalbeth,  Dalbeathie 
(the  birch  field  or  valley)  ;  Barbeth  (the  summit  of  birches). 

BEEMD  (Dutch),  a  meadow ;  e.g.  Beemd  and  Beemte  (on  the 
meadow)  ;  Haagschbeemden  (enclosed  meadow)  ;  Beem- 
ster-polder  (the  meadow  embankment). 

BEER,  BIR  (Heb.  and  Ar.),  a  well ;  e.g.  Beer-sheba  (the  well  of  the 
oath)  ;  Beer-Elim  (the  well  of  heroes)  ;  Beer-lahai-roi  (the 
well  of  the  living  sight) ;  Beirout  (the  city  of  wells),  in 
Palestine  ;  Bir,  a  town  of  Asiatic  Turkey. 

RF™  or  RFAR  ^    (a  farm'  cottaSe>  or  dwelling;  e.g.  Beer- 
nh,iLK..  or  rJfiiAK  i  i  eui.  i.  IT-.      .      ,,,       •  •   _•      *        \      T-.          «i  . 

BUR  (AS)  J         glS    ^  g  ^  '  r~ Alst0n 

/r\ij  r>     \  Hthe  dwelling  of  Alston)  ;  Beardon  and 

BYR  (Old  Ger.),  ,.°      ,     ...     "        .... 

^  Berewood  (the  dwelling  on  a  hill  and  in 

a  wood) ;  Aylesbear  (the  dwelling  of  Aegle) ;  Biihren,  in 
Hanover  and  Switzerland  ;  Beuren,  in  Swabia  ;  Grasbeuren 
(grassy  dwelling) ;  Sandbuur  (sandy  dwelling)  ;  Erlesbura 
(dwelling  among  elms)  ;  Beerendrecht  (the  dwelling  on  the 
pasture)  ;  Nassenbeuren  (damp  dwelling)  ;  Blaubeuren  (the 
blue  dwelling)  ;  Benediktbeuren  (the  dwelling  of  the  Bene- 

BEG,  BEAG  (Gadhelic),  ( !!"!e  ;  <*  Morblha"  <the 

,    ,      1  little   sea),    in    Brittany ; 
BACH   or  BYCHAN,  by  mutation/^     ^  Taafe . fe^'han    (the    ^ 

orfychan  (Cym.-Cel.),  (^.^   Taaf^  m  Wales 

In  Ireland  :  Castlebeg  (little  castle) ;  Downkillybegs  (the 
fortress  of  the  little  church)  ;  Bunbeg  (small  river  mouth)  ; 
Rathbeg  (little  fort). 


BEIM,  a  contraction  of  the  Ger.  bei-dem  (by  the)  ;  e.g.  Beimbach, 
Beimberg,  Beimhofen  (by  the  brook,  the  hill,  the  court). 

*,™»T»T  <r  A\,  r  \       ( a    mountain,   cognate   with   the    Cym.-Cel. 
BEINN  (Gadhelic),  '          ,    ,     ,.„       ,       v      ™ 

<  pen ;    e.g.  Beanach  (a  hilly  place)  ;    Ben- 

(  more  (great  mountain)  ;  Ben-a-buird  (table 
mountain)  ;  Ben-a-bhaird  (the  bard's  mountain)  ;  Benan, 
i.e.  Binnean  (the  peaked  hill  or  pinnacle)  ;  Bencleuch  (stony 
mountain)  ;  Ben-cruachan  (the  stack- shaped  mountain, 
cruacK) ;  Bendearg  (red  mountain)  ;  Bendronach  (the 
mountain  with  the  hunch,  dronnag)  ;  Bengloe  (the  moun- 
tain with  the  covering  or  veil,  glotK)  ;  Benamore  and  Bann- 
more  (the  great  peaks,  beanna,  peaks)  ;  Bennachie  (the  hill 
of  the  pap,  at  its  summit,  ache)  ;  Benavoir  (the  mountain  of 
gold,  or),  in  Jura  ;  Benclibrig  (the  hill  of  the  playing  trout)  ; 
Benloyal,  i.e.  Ben-laoghal  (the  hill  of  the  calves) ;  Ben-na- 
cailleach  (nun's  hill) ;  Ben  Lomond,  named  from  Loch 
Lomond,  quod  vide  ;  Benmacdhui,  i.e.  Beinn-na-muc-dubh 
(the  mountain  of  the  black  sow) ;  Ben  Nevis  (the  cloud- 
capped  or  snowy  mountain)  ;  Benvenue  (the  little  moun- 
tain), as  compared  with  Benledi ;  Benwyvis  (stupendous 
mountain,  uabhasacli)  ;  Benvrachie  (spotted  mountain)  ; 
Benvoirlich  (the  mountain  of  the  great  loch).  In  Ireland  : 
Benbo,  i.e.  Beannabo  (the  peaks  of  the  cows)  ;  Dunmanway, 
in  Cork,  corrupt,  from  Dun-na-mbeann  (the  fortress  of  the 
pinnacles).  In  Ireland  ben  is  more  generally  applied  to 
small  steep  hills  than  to  mountains  ;  e.g.  Bengore  (the  peak 
of  the  goats,  gabhar)  ;  Benburb,  Lat.  pinna  superba  (proud 
peak),  in  Tyrone  ;  the  Twelve  Pins,  i.e.  bens  or  peaks,  in 
Connemara  ;  Banagh  and  Benagh  (a  place  full  of  peaks) ; 
Bannaghbane  and  Bannaghroe  (white  and  red  hilly  ground)  ; 
Banaghar,  King's  Co.,  and  Bangor,  Co.  Down,  anc.  Beann- 
char  (the  pointed  hills  or  rocks)  ;  but  Bangor,  in  Wales, 
signifies  the  high  choir ;  Drumbanagh  (the  ridge  of  the 

BEL,  BELLE,  BEAU  (Fr.),  {  ^Utifid'     ^  ^     *«     L^ 

BELLO,  BELLA  (Port.,  Span.,  It.),  1  ff  "*>'*  ^amp,  Belcastro 

/(  (  (beautiful  field  and  camp);  Belle- 
isle  and  Belile  (beautiful  island)  ;  Beaufort,  Beaulieu,  Beau- 
mont, Beaumanoir  (fine  fort,  place,  mount,  manor)  ;  Beau- 
maris  (the  fair  marsh),  so  named  in  the  reign  of  Edward  I. 

22  BEL 

Some  think  it  may  have  been  formerly  Bimaris  (between 
two  seas),  a  name  applied  by  Horace  to  Corinth  ;  Belvoir 
(beautiful  to  see),  in  Rutland  ;  Bewley  and  Bewdley, 
corrupt,  from  Beaulieu ;  Beauley,  a  river  and  village  in 
Inverness-shire,  named  from  Prioratus-de-bello-loco  (the 
priory  of  the  beautiful  place),  founded  in  1230;  Beachy 
Head,  according  to  Camden,  is  the  head  of  the  beach,  but 
Holland,  who  published  Camdeti's  Britannia,  says  it  was 
called  Beaucliff,  or,  more  probably,  Beauchef  (beautiful 
headland) ;  Beaudesert  (beautiful  retreat) ;  Belper,  i.e. 
Beau-repaire  (with  the  same  meaning),  in  Warwick  and 
Derbyshire  ;  Leighton-Buzzard,  corrupt,  of  its  ancient  name 
Legionbuhr  (the  fortress  of  the  legion)  ;  Balaclava,  corrupt, 
from  its  ancient  name  Bella-chiava  (the  beautiful  frontier 
town,  chiave),  founded  by  the  Genoese. 

BEL,  BIALA  (Sclav.),  white  ;  e.g.  Biela  (white  stream)  ;  Bela,  Belaia 
(white  place)  ;  Belowes  and  Belowiz  (white  village)  ;  was  or 
wies  (a  town  or  village)  ;  Belgrade,  Ger.  Weissenburg  (white 
fortress)  ;  Bialgorod,  Turc.  Akkermann  (white  castle) ;  Belki 
or  Bielki  (a  name  applied  in  Russia  to  snow-capped 
mountains) ;  Berat,  in  Albania,  corrupt,  from  Belgrade 
(white  fort). 

BEL,  BEAL  (Gadhelic),  a  mouth,  in  its  literal  sense,  but  in  a  second- 
ary sense,  signifying  an  entrance  into  any  place.  In 
Ireland  it  is  often  united  with  ath  (a  ford),  forming  belatha 
(ford  entrance).  The  word  bel  itself  is  often  used  to  denote 
a  ford  ;  e.g.  Belclair,  i.e.  Bel-an-chlair  (the  ford  or  entrance 
to  the  plain)  ;  Belatha  (Anglicised  Bella)  is  found  in  many 
names,  as  in  Bellanagare,  i.e.  Bel-atha-na-gcarr  (the  ford 
mouth  of  the  cars)  ;  Lisbellaw  (the  fort  at  the  ford  mouth)  ; 
Bel-atha  is  often  changed  in  modern  names  to  balli  or 
bally,  as  if  the  original  root  were  baile  (a  town),  as  in 
Ballinamore  (the  mouth  of  the  great  ford) ;  Ballinafad 
(the  mouth  of  the  long  ford)  ;  Ballyshannon  is  corrupt, 
from  Bel-atha-Seanach  (Shannagh's  ford);  Belfast,  anc. 
Bel-feirsde  (the  ford  of  the  J "arse t  or  sandbank)  ;  Ballinaboy, 
i.e.  Bel-an-atha-buide  (the  mouth  of  the  yellow  ford)  ; 
Ballinasloe,  Bel-atha-na-sluaigheadh  (the  ford  mouth  of  the 
armies)  ;  Bel  (a  ford)  is  not  found  in  Scotland,  but  a  word 
with  a  kindred  meaning  as  applied  to  land,  bealach  (a 


pass  or  opening  between  hills),  is  frequent  there,  as  well 
as  in  Ireland,  and  takes  the  form  of  ballagh  or  balloch  ;  e.g. 
Ballaghboy  in  Ireland,  and  Ballochbuie  in  Scotland  (the 
yellow  pass) ;  Ballaghmore  (great  pass) ;  Ballaghkeen  (the 
beautiful  pass,  cceiri)  ;  Ballaghadereen  (the  pass  of  the  little 
oak  grove)  ;  Balloch  alone  occurs  in  several  counties  of 
Scotland,  the  best  known  being  Balloch,  at  the  entrance  to 
Loch  Lomond  ;  Ballochray  (smooth  pass,  retdh) ;  Balloch- 
myle  (the  bald  or  bare  pass)  ;  Ballochgair  (short  pass) ; 
Ballochcraggan  (of  the  little  rock);  Balloch-nam-bo  (the 
pass  of  the  cattle),  etc. 

BELED,  or  BELAD  (Ar.),  a  district ;  e.g.  Beled-es-Shurifa  (the  dis- 
trict of  the  nobles)  ;  Belad-es-Sudan  (the  district  of  the 
Blacks)  ;  Belad-es-Sukkar  (sugar  district) ;  Belad-t-moghrib 
(the  district  of  the  West),  the  Arabian  name  for  Morocco, 
also  called  Beled-el-Djered  (the  land  of  dates)  ;  Beled-el- 
Sham  (the  district  of  the  north  or  on  the  left),  the  Arabic 
name  for  Syria,  to  distinguish  it  from  Yemen  (to  the  south 
or  right).  Syria  was  also  called  by  the  Turks  Soristan, 
and  by  the  Greeks  Suria,  i.e.  the  country  of  Tyre  (Tzur, 
the  rock).  The  word  in  its  secondary  sense  means  pros- 
perous or  happy — hence  the  Greeks  called  it  'ApajSia  r/  €i> 
Saifjuav,  to  distinguish  it  from  Arabia  deserta  (Ar.),  El- 
Badiah  (the  desert),  hence  the  Bedawees  or  Bedouins. 

BENDER  (Ar.),  a  market  or  harbour.  Bender  is  the  name  of 
several  towns  on  the  Persian  Gulf,  and  also  of  a  town  on 
the  Dniester;  Bender-Erekli  (the  harbour  of  the  ancient 
Heraclea),  on  the  Black  Sea. 

BENI  (Ar.),  sons  of;  e.g.  Beni-Hassan  (a  town  named  from  the 
descendants  of  Hassan)  ;  Beni-Araba  (belonging  to  the  sons 
of  the  desert)  ;  Beni-Calaf  (to  the  sons  of  the  Caliph) ; 
Beni-Sham  (the  sons  of  Shem),  i.e.  Syria  ;  Beni-Misr  (the 
land  of  Mizraim  or  Egypt). 

«PPP  ^fVr  ^  (  a  hill»  a  summit ;   e-g-  Ailberg  (eagle 

lERcVscand  ^  J  hill>  ;  BIeyberS  (lead  hill>  '•  Schneeberg 

!V  us  x      1  (snowy  hill) ;  Walkenberg  (the  hill  of 

BRIG,  BRAIGH  (Celtic),       \  V  /    r    *v.        J      \ 

"  v  clouds)  ;  Donnersberg  (of  thunder)  ; 
Habsberg,  Falkenberg,  Valkenberg  (of  hawks)  ;  Finsterberg 
(dark  hill)  ;  Groenberg  (green  hill)  ;  Teufelsberg  (the  devil's 
hill)  ;  Greiffenberg  (the  griffin's  hill)  ;  Geyersberg  (of  the 

34  BETH 

vulture)  ;  Jarlsberg  (of  the  earl)  ;  Dreisellberg  (the  hill  of 
three  seats)  ;  Kupperberg  (copper  hill)  ;  Heilberg  (holy 
hill)  ;  Silberberg  (silver  hill,  near  a  silver  mine)  ;  Schoen- 
berg  (beautiful  hill).  The  word  berg,  however,  is  often 
applied  to  the  names  of  towns  and  fortresses  instead  of 
burg  ;  and,  when  this  is  the  case,  it  indicates  that  the  town 
was  built  on  or  near  a  hill,  or  in  connection  with  a  fortress  ; 
e.g.  Kaiserberg  (the  hill  fort  of  the  Emperor  Frederick  II.)  ; 
Wiirtemberg,  anc.  Wirtenberg  (named  from  the  seignorial 
chateau,  situated  upon  a  hill).  The  name  has  been  trans- 
lated (the  lord  of  the  hill)  from  an  Old  Ger.  word  wirt  (a 
lord).  Heidelberg  is  a  corrupt,  of  Heydenberg  (the  hell  of 
the  pagans),  or  from  heydel  myrtle,  which  grows  in  great 
abundance  in  the  neighbourhood  ;  Lemberg,  Lowenburg, 
or  Leopolis  (the  fortress  of  Leo  Danielowes),  in  Galicia  ; 
Nurnberg,  anc.  Norimberga  or  Castritm  Noiicum  (the 
fortress  of  the  Noricii)  ;  Lahnberg  (on  the  R.  Lahn)  ; 
Spermberg  (on  the  Spree)  ;  Wittenberg  (white  fortress)  ; 
Koningsberg  (the  king's  fortress),  in  E.  Prussia  and  in 
Norway  ;  Bamberg  (named  after  Babe,  daughter  of  the 
Emperor  Otho  II.),  in  Bavaria;  Havelberg  (on  the  R. 
Havel).  There  are  several  towns  in  Germany  and  Scan- 
dinavia called  simply  Berg  or  Bergen  ;  e.g.  Bergen-op-Zoom 
(the  hill  fort  on  the  R.  Zoom),  in  Holland  ;  Bergamo  (on  a 
hill),  in  Italy.  Berg  (a  hill)  sometimes  takes  the  form  of 
berry,  as  in  Queensberry,  in  Dumfries  ;  also  of  borough,  as 
in  Flamborough  Head  and  Ingleborough  (the  hill  of  the 
beacon  light).  Gebirge  signifies  a  mountain  range  ;  e.g. 
Schneegebirge  (the  snow-clad  range)  ;  Siebengebirge  (the 
range  of  seven  hills)  ;  Fichtelgebirge  (of  the  pines)  ;  Erze- 
gebirge  (the  ore  mountain  range)  ;  Glasischgebirge  (of  the 
glaciers)  ;  Eulergebirge  (of  the  owls). 

,„  ,  .       (  a  house  ;  e.g.  Bethany  (the  house  of  dates)  ;  Beth- 

Bethsaida  (of  fish)  5   Bethoron 


(  (of  caves)  ;  Bethabara  (of  the  ford)  ;  Bethlehem 

(the  house  of  bread),  but  its  present  name,  Beit-lahm, 
means  the  house  of  flesh  ;  Bethesda  (of  mercy)  ;  Betharaba 
(desert  dwelling)  ;  Bethjesimoth  (of  wastes)  ;  Bethshemish 
Grk.  Heliopolis  (the  house  or  city  of  the  sun)  ;  its  Egyptian 
name  was  Aun-i-Aun  (light  of  light),  contracted  to  On; 


Beit-Allah   (the  house  of  God),  at   Mecca;    Beit-el-Fakih 
(the  house  of  the  saint),  on  the  Red  Sea. 

BETTWS  (Cym.-Cel.),  a  portion  of  land  lying  between  a  river  and 
a  hill,  hence  a  dwelling  so  situated  ;  e.g.  Bettws-yn-y-coed 
(the  dwelling  in  the  wood) ;  Bettws-disserth  (the  retreat 
dwelling) ;  Bettws-Garmon  (of  St.  Germanus,  where  he  led 
the  Britons  to  the  famous  Alleluia  victory  over  the  Saxons)  ; 
Bettws-Newydd  (new  dwelling). 

BETULA  (Lat )      f  the    birch-tree  5   e-S-   Le   Boulay,  La   Boulay, 
BOULEAuCFr)      )  Les    BoulaSes>    Les    Boulus,    Belloy    (places 
v     '*     (  planted  with  birch-trees). 

RIRFR    RFVFR  CTent  ^       ( the    beaver  >    *'£•    the    Biber,    Beber, 

isJBtK,   ±SJiVli,K  (  ieUt.1,         I    „.,        •    i_       T>    u          -u       i.     /    •  •         /- 

BOBR  (Sclav.)  ]  Blbench>  Beber-bach  (rivers    in    Ger- 

(  many)  ;  Bober,  Boberau,  Bobronia 
(beaver  river),  in  Silesia  and  Russia  ;  Bobersburg  (on  the 
R.  Bober)  ;  Biberschlag (beaver's  wood  clearing);  Biberstein 
(beaver  rock);  Beverley,  in  Yorkshire,  anc.  Biberlac  (beaver 
lake),  formerly  surrounded  by  marshy  ground,  the  resort  of 
beavers  ;  Beverstone,  in  Gloucester ;  Beverloo  (beaver 
marsh),  in  Belgium. 

BILL,  an  old  German  word,  signifying  plain  or  level ;  e.g.  Bilderlah 
(the  field  of  the  plain)  ;  Billig-ham  (level  dwelling)  ;  Wald- 
billig  (woody  plain) ;  Wasser-billig  (the  watery  plain)  ; 
Bilstein  (level  rock) ;  Bielefeld  (level  field) ;  Bieler-see 
(the  lake  on  the  plain). 

BIOR  (Gadhelic),  water,  an  element  in  many  river  names  ;  e.g. 
the  Bere,  in  Dorset ;  Ver,  Hereford  ;  Bervie,  in  Mearns. 
The  town  of  Lififord,  in  Donegal,  was  originally  Leith-bhearr 
(the  gray  water)  ;  Berra,  a  lake  in  France  ;  the  Ebura  or 
Eure,  in  Normandy ;  and  in  Yorkshire,  the  Ebro,  anc. 
Iberus ;  Ivry,  in  Normandy,  anc.  Ebaroviczts  (the  town  on 
the  Ebura). 

<Teut  ^     ( the  birch-tree  >  e-S-  Birkenhead  (the  head 

BETULA      J  °f  the  birCheS>  '•    BirChholt  (birch  W°°d)  '• 
BtlULA,      <    _.       .      .  .,  .'    ,          ..    ,.  »».      ,  . 

BEORC  (A  S )  )  Berkelev     (birch     field)  J     Birchmgton, 

(^Birkhoff  (the  birch-tree  dwelling  and 
court) ;  Birkhampstead  (the  home  place  among  the  birches) ; 
Oberbirchen  (the  upper  birches)  ;  but  Berkshire  is  not  from 
this  root ;  it  was  called  by  the  Anglo-Saxons  Berroc-shyre, 
supposed  to  be  named  from  the  abundance  of  berroc  (box- 


wood),  or  the  bare-oak-shire,  from  a  certain  polled  oak  in 
Windsor  Forest,  where  the  Britons  were  wont  to  hold  their 
provincial  meetings. 

BLAEN  (Cym.-Cel.),  the  source  of  a  stream  ;  e.g.  Blaene-Avon, 
Blaen-Ayron,  Blaen-Hounddu  (river  sources  in  Wales) ; 
Blaen-porth  (the  head  of  the  harbour)  ;  Blaen-nant  (of  the 
brook);  Blaen-Bylan,  abbreviated  from  Blaen-pwll-glan 
(the  top  of  pool  bank)  ;  Blaen-Sillt,  at  the  top  of  a  small 
stream,  the  Sillt,  in  Wales  ;  Blaen-afon  (of  the  river). 

BLAIR,  BLAR  (Gadhelic),  a  plain,  originally  a  battle-field  ;  e.g. 
Blair-Athole,  Blair-Logie,  Blair-Gowrie  (the  battle-field  in 
these  districts) ;  Blairmore  (the  great) ;  Blaircreen  (the 
little  plain)  ;  Blairdaff  (the  plain  of  the  oxen,  daimh)  • 
Blair-burn  (of  the  stream)  ;  Blair-craig  (of  the  rock)  ;  Blair- 
linne  (of  the  pool) ;  Blair-beth  (of  birches)  ;  Blair-ingone 
(the  field  of  spears),  in  Perthshire  ;  Blair-glass  (gray  plain) ; 
Blarney  (little  field),  in  Ireland  ;  Blair-Drummond,  Blair- 
Adam,  modern  places  named  after  persons. 

white  ;  e.g.  Mont-Blanc,  Cape-bianco,  Sierra- 

BLANC  (  r T  ]  . 

^  ftf        \        blanca  (white  mountain-ridge);  Castella-bianca 

BLANCO  (Span.),         ,    ,  .       v        ..    .        _,.„      ,  .  '        ,  . 

(white    castle) ;    Villa- bianca    (white    town) ; 

BIANCO  (It.), 
BRANCO  (Port.), 

Blankenburg     (white     town)  ;     Blankenham 

,.   „  .  (white  dwelling)  ;  Blankenhavn,  Blankenloch, 

>-.     v  Blankenrath,  Blankenese  (white  haven,  place, 

BLANK  (Ger.),  ,    .       .  '  'F 

wood-clearing,   cape),   in  Germany ;   Bianchi- 

mandri  (white  sheep-folds),  in  Sicily  ;  Branco  (the  white 
stream),  in  Brazil;  Los-Brancos  (the  white  mountains); 
Cata-branca  (the  white  cove)  ;  Casa-branca  (the  white 
house),  in  Brazil. 

BLISKO  (Sclav.),  near ;  e.g.  Bliesdorf,  Bliesendorf,  Blieskendorf 
(near  village) ;  Bliskau  (near  meadow). 

BLOTO,  BLATT  (Sclav.),  a  marsh  ;  e.g.  Blotto,  Blottnitz  (marshy 
land) ;  Wirchen-blatt  (high  marsh) ;  Sa-blatt,  Sablater, 
Zablatt  (behind  the  marsh) ;  Na-blatt  (near  the  marsh). 
In  some  cases  the  b  in  this  word  is  changed  into  p,  as  in 
Plotsk  and  Plattkow  (the  marshy  place) ;  Plattensee  or 
Balaton  (the  lake  in  the  marshy  land). 

BOCA  (Span.,  Port.,  and  It.),  a  mouth — in  topography,  the  narrow 
entrance  of  a  river  or  bay;  e.g.  Boca-grande,  Boca-chica 
(great  and  little  channel),  in  South  America ;  La  Bochetta 

BOD— BOLD  27 

(the  little  opening),  a  mountain   pass   in   the  Apennines ; 
Desemboque  (the  river  mouth),  in  Brazil. 

BOD  (Cym.-Cel.),  a  dwelling ;  e.g.  Bodmin,  in  Cornwall,  corrupt, 
from  Bodminian  (the  dwelling  of  monks)  ;  Bodffaris  (the 
site  of  Varis),  the  old  Roman  station  on  the  road  to  Chester  ; 
Hafod,  the  name  of  several  places  in  Wales,  corrupt,  from 
Hafbod  (a  summer  residence)  ;  Bosher  or  Bosherston, 
corrupt,  from  Bod  and  hir,  long  (the  long  ridge  abode),  in 

BODDEN  (Teut )      f  a  bay'  the  °Cean  SweU '  e'g'  Bodden  (an  arm 
*<-.       j  \          K  of  the  sea  which  divides  the  island  of  Rugen 

(  from  Pomerania)  ;  Bodden-ness  (the  headland 
of  the  bay),  on  the  east  coast  of  Scotland. 

BODEN  (Ger.),  the  ground,  soil — in  topography,  a  meadow ;  e.g. 
Gras-boden  (grassy  meadow) ;  Dunkel-boden  (dark  meadow). 
It  may  sometimes,  however,  be  used  instead  of  bant  or 
paint — v.  p.  1 8  ;  and  in  Bodenburg,  in  Brunswick,  it  is  a 
corrupt,  of  Ponteburg  (bridge  town) ;  and  Bodenheim  is 
from  a  personal  name,  like  Bodensee — v.  SEE. 

BOGEN  (Ger.),  a  bend  or  bow — in  topography,  applied  to  the 
bend  of  a  river  ;  e.g.  Bogen,  anc.  Bogana  (the  bending 
river)  ;  Bogen,  a  town  of  Bavaria,  on  a  bend  of  the  Danube  ; 
Ellbogen  or  Ellenbogen,  Lat.  Cubitus  (the  town  on  the 
elbow  or  river  bend),  in  Bohemia  ;  Bogenhausen  (the 
houses  on  the  river  bend)  ;  Langen-bogen  (the  long  bend)  ; 
Entli-buch  (the  bend  on  the  R.  Entle),  in  Switzerland. 

BOLD,  BATTLE,  or  BOTTLE,  (  a  dwf  j«  \  **'  Battle  Newbottle, 

BiiTTEL,  BLOD  (Teut),        1  N?£"    £^1^!?%  f    I?*'?" 

_  /c       j  \  )  guished  from  Elbottle  (old  dwelling)  : 

BOL,  or  BO  (Scand.),  I  *  ,    ,  ,  ...    v        ,  &' ' 

V  Morebattle  (the  dwelling  on  the  marshy 

plain);  Bolton,  in  Lancashire,  A.S.  Botl ;  Buittle,  in  Kirk- 
cudbright ;  Newbald,  Yorkshire ;  Harbottle  (the  dwelling 
of  the  army,  here),  a  place  in  Northumberland  where,  in 
former  times,  soldiers  were  quartered  ;  Erribold  (the  dwell- 
ing on  the  tongue  of  land,  eir)  ;  Maybole,  in  Ayrshire,  anc. 
Minnibole  (the  dwelling  on  the  mossy  place,  Cym.-Cel., 
mysivri)  ;  Exnabul,  in  Shetland  (a  place  for  keeping  cattle)  ; 
yxn,  Scand.  (a  bull  or  cow)  ;  Walfenbuttel  (the  dwelling 
of  Ulpha) ;  Brunsbottle  (of  Bruno) ;  Ritzbuttel  (of  Richard) ; 


Griesenbottel   (sandy  dwelling)  ;    Rescbiittel  (the  dwelling 

among  rushes). 
BONUS  (Lat),    ^ 
BUEN  (Span  ?        g        ;    e'g'   Bonavlsta>    Boavista   (good  view)  ; 

^  *  f  Buenos-Ayres  (good  breezes),  in  South  America  ; 

'  xp      v         I  Buenaventura  (good  luck),  in  California. 

BOOM  (Sansc.),  Bhuma  (land,  country)  ;  e.g.  Birboom  (the  land 
of  heroes) ;  Arya-Bhuma  (the  noble  land),  the  Sanscrit 
name  for  Hindostan. 

BOR  (Sclav.),  wood  ;  e.g.  Bohra,  Bohrau,  Borowa,  Borow  (woody 
place)  ;  Borovsk  (the  town  in  the  wood)  ;  Sabor  and 
Zaborowa  (behind  the  wood)  ;  Borzna  (the  woody  district)  ; 
the  Borysthenes,  now  the  R.  Dnieper  (the  woody  wall), 
from  stena  (a  wall  or  rampart),  the  banks  of  the  river 
having  been  covered  with  wood  ;  Ratibor  (the  wood  of  the 
Sclavonic  god  Razi). 

BR4.CHE  CTeut  \      (  land  broken  UP  for  tillaSe>  Old  Ger-  pracha 

n»  AV  cqX^rl  \       \  (to  PlouSh)  5  e-S-  Brabant,  anc.  Bracbant  (the 

•''       (  ploughed    district)  ;     Brachstadt,    Brachfeld, 

Brachrade  (the  ploughed  place,  field,  clearing)  ;  Brakel  (the 

ploughed  land),  in   Holland  ;   Hohenbrack  (high  ploughed 


BRAND  (Ger.),  a  place  cleared  of  wood  by  burning  ;  e.g.  Eber-brand 
and  Ober-brand  (the  upper  clearing) ;  Newen- brand  and 
Alten-brand  (the  old  and  new  clearing)  ;  Brandenburg  (the 
burned  city),  so  called,  according  to  Buttman,  by  the  Ger- 
mans ;  by  the  Wends  corrupted  into  Brennabor,  and  in 
their  own  language  named  Schorelitz  (the  destroyed  city), 
because,  in  their  mutual  wars,  it  had  been  destroyed  by 
fire.  Bran  and  Brant,  in  English  names,  are  probably 
memorials  of  the  original  proprietors  of  the  places,  as  in 
Brandon,  Cumbran,  Brandeston  ;  Brantingham  (the  home 
of  the  children  of  Brand) — v.  ING,  INGEN. 

BRASA  CSclav )  f  the  birch-tree  »  e-S-  Briesnitz,  Beresoff,  Beresek, 
*  '''  <  Beresenskoi,  Beresovoi  (places  where  birches 
(  abound)  ;  Gross-Briesen  (great  birch-tree  town)  ; 
Bresinchen  (little  Briesen),  a  colony  from  it ;  Birsa  and 
Beresina  (the  birch-tree  river)  ;  Birsk,  a  town  on  the  R. 
Birsa  ;  Brzesce-Litewski  (the  house  of  mercy  at  the  birches) ; 
the  letter  b  in  this  word  is  often  changed  into  p  by  the  Ger- 

BRA  Y— BRIG  A  29 

mans,  as  in  Presinitz  for  Brezenice  (birch-tree  village),  in 
Bohemia  ;  also  Priebus,  with  the  same  meaning,  in  Silesia  ; 
Priegnitz,  i.e.  the  town  of  the  Brizanen  (dwellers  among 
birches)  ;  Briezen  (the  place  of  birches),  in  Moravia,  is 
Germanised  into  Friedeck  (woody  corner)  ;  Bryezany 
(abounding  in  birches),  in  Galicia. 

BRAY  (Cel.),  damp  ground,  a  marshy  place ;  e.g.  Bray,  in  Nor- 
mandy ;  Bray  sur  Somme  und  Bray  sur  Seine,  situated  on 
these  rivers  ;  Bray-Maresch,  near  Cambray  ;  Bre  C6tes-de- 
Nord  ;  Bray-la-Campagne  (calvados,  etc.) 

BREIT  (Ger}  (broad  ;  ^«fci  Dutch  (a  Plain)  5  e-S-  Breitenbach 
\  <.,  y*  J  and  Bredenbeke  (broad  brook) ;  Breda  (the  flat 

/o       \\     \  meadowland),  in  Holland  ;  Breitenbrunn  (broad 
BRED  (Scand.),    /       n\    ™    •        .  •     T>    •      v. 

V^  well) ;  Breitenstem,  Breitenburg  (broad  fortress) ; 

Bradford,  in  Yorkshire,  and  Bredevoort,  in  Holland  (broad 
ford)  ;  Bredy  (the  broad  water),  in  Dorset ;  Brading,  in 
Isle  of  Wight,  and  Bradley  (broad  meadow)  ;  Bradshaw 
(broad  thicket)  ;  Broadstairs,  corrupt,  from  its  ancient  name 
Bradstow  (broad  place). 
BRIA  (Thracian),  a  town  ;  e.g.  Selymbria,  Mesymbria. 

,„  , ,  (  a  general  name  among  the  Celts  for  a  town — so 
<  called,  apparently,  from  the  Celtic  words  braigh, 
\  brugh,  brig  (a  heap,  pile,  or  elevation),  because 
the  nucleus  of  towns,  among  uncivilised  tribes  in  early 
times,  were  merely  fortified  places  erected  on  heights  ; 
cognate  with  the  Teut.  and  Scand.  burg,  byrig,  the  Sclav. 
brieg  (an  embankment  or  ridge),  and  the  Scottish  brae  (a 
rising  ground).  Hence  the  name  of  the  Brigantes  (dwellers 
on  hills)  ;  the  word  Brigand  (literally,  a  mountaineer)  ; 
Briangon,  anc.  Brigantium  (the  town  on  the  height)  ;  Brieg, 
a  town  in  Silesia  ;  Braga  and  Braganga,  fortified  cities  in 
Portugal ;  Talavera,  in  Spain,  anc.  Tala-briga,  the  town 
on  the  tala,  Span,  (a  wood  clearing)  ;  Bregenz,  anc.  Bri- 
gantium, in  the  Tyrol ;  Breisach  Alt  and  Neuf  (the  old 
and  new  town  on  the  declivity),  in  the  duchy  of  Baden — 
the  old  fortress  was  situated  on  an  isolated  basalt  hill ; 
Brixen  (the  town  among  the  hills),  in  the  Tyrol.  In  Scotland 
there  are  Braemar  (the  hilly  district  of  Mar)  ;  Braidalbane 
(the  hill  country  of  Albainn,  i.e.  Scotland)  ;  Braeriach  (the 
gray  mountain,  riabhacJt) ;  the  Brerachin,  a  river  and  dis- 


trict  in  Perthshire ;  Brugh  and  Bruighean,  in  Ireland, 
signifying  originally  a  hill,  was  subsequently  applied  to  a 
palace  or  a  distinguished  residence.  The  term,  as  applied 
to  the  old  residences,  presupposed  the  existence  of  a  fortified 
brugh  or  rath,  several  of  which  still  remain.  The  word  has 
suffered  many  corruptions :  thus  Bruree,  in  Limerick,  is 
from  Brugh-righ  (the  king's  fort) ;  and  Bridghean  (little 
fort)  has  been  transformed  into  Bruff,  Bruis,  Bruce,  or 
Bryan.  The  word  briva,  on  the  other  hand,  was  generally 
applied  to  towns  situated  on  rivers — as  in  Amiens,  anc. 
Samarabrina,  on  the  R.  Somme  —  and  was  gradually 
used  as  synonymous  with  pans  (bridge),  as  in  Pontoise, 
anc.  Briva-Isara  (the  bridge  on  the  Ouse)  ;  Briare,  anc. 
Brivodttrum  (the  bridge  over  the  water) ;  Brionde,  anc. 

BRINK  (Ger.),  a  grassy  ridge  ;  e.g.  Osterbrink  (east  ridge)  ;  Mittel- 
brink  (middle  ridge)  ;  Zandbrink  (sand  ridge)  ;  Brinkhorst 
(the  ridge  of  the  thicket). 

BRO  (Cym.-Cel.),  a  district ;  e.g.  Broburg  (the  fort  of  the  district), 
in  Warwickshire  ;  Pembroke  (the  head,  pen,  of  the  district, 
it  being  the  land's  end  of  Wales). 

BROC  (A.S.),  a  rushing  stream  ;  e.g.  Cranbrook  (the  stream  of  the 
cranes) ;  Wallbrook  (probably  the  stream  at  the  wall)  ; 
Wambrook  (Woden's  stream). 

/A  c  \     (  tne  badger  ;  e.g.  Brox-bourne  and  Broxburn,  Brog- 
'    '   '''  -'.  den,  Brokenhurst,  Brockley,  Broxholme  (the  stream, 
(  hollow,  thicket,  meadow,  and  hill  of  the  badger). 

BROD  (Sclav.),  a  ford  ;  e.g.  Brod  and  Brody  (at  the  ford),  the 
name  of  several  towns  in  Moravia,  Bohemia,  Hungary,  and 
Turkey  ;  Brod-sack  (ford  dwelling)  ;  Brod-Ungarisch  (the 
Hungarian  ford),  on  the  Olsawa  ;  Brod-Deutsch  (the  Ger- 
man ford),  on  the  Sasawa ;  Brod-Bohmisch  (the  Bohemian 
ford),  on  the  Zembera  ;  Krasnabrod  (beautiful  ford)  ;  Eisen- 
brod  (the  ford  of  the  Iser)  ;  Brodkowitz  (ford  station). 

BROEK,  BRUOCH  (Teut.),  a  marsh  ;  e.g.  Broek,  a  town  in  Holland  ; 
Bogen-brok  (the  bending  marsh)  ;  Breiden-bruch  (the  broad 
marsh)  ;  Aalten-broek  (the  old  marsh)  ;  Eichen-bruch  (the 
oak  marsh)  ;  Broekem  and  Broickhausen  (marsh  dwelling)  • 
Bruchmiihle  (the  mill  on  the  marsh)  ;  Brussels  or  Bruxelles, 


anc.  Bruoch-sella  (the  seat  or  site  on  the  marsh)  ;  Ober- 
bruch  and  Niederbruch  (upper  and  lower  marsh). 
,,.,  .      ,      |  a   dam ;    e.g.    Biesenbrow   and   Priebrovv,   from 
'''  1  Pschibrog  (elder -tree    dam),    by  the   Germans 
(  called    Furstenberg,    on    the    Oder  ;    Colberg, 
Sclav.  Kola-brog  (around  the  dam). 

BRON  (Welsh),  the  slope  or  side  of  a  hill ;  e.g.  Brongest  (the  slope 
of  the  cest  or  deep  glen)  ;  Bronwydd  (the  slope  covered 
with  trees)  ;  Wydd,  in  Wales. 

BRUCKEfGer)  (a    bridSe;     e'S-     Brugg-Furstenfeld    (the 

A  <=;  \  )  b^ge  at  the  prince's  field)  ;  Brugg-an-der- 

^    /o       j  x     }  Leitha    (the    bridge    across    the    Leitha) ; 
BRO,  BRU  (Scand.),    I  _          .  ,v  ..  ,  &  ,    . , 

/J  \  Brugg-kloster  (the  bridge  at  the  monas- 
tery) ;  Langenbriick,  Langenbriicken  (long  bridge) ;  Bruges, 
in  Belgium  (a  city  with  many  bridges)  ;  Saarbrook  (on  the 
R.  Saar)  ;  Osnaburg,  in  Hanover,  anc.  Osnabriicke  or  Asen- 
brticke  (the  bridge  on  the  R.  Ase)  ;  Voklabriick  (on  the  R. 
Vokle)  ;  Bruchsal,  in  Baden  (the  bridge  on  the  Salzbach)  ; 
Zweibriicken  or  Deux-ponts  (the  two  bridges)  ;  Zerbruggen 
(at  the  bridge).  In  England  :  Bridgenorth,  anc.  Brugge- 
Morfe  (the  bridge  at  the  wood  called  Morfe,  on  the  opposite 
bank  of  the  Severn)  ;  Brixham,  Brixworth,  and  Brigham 
(bridge  town) ;  Brixton,  A.S.  Brixges-stan  (the  bridge  stone)  ; 
Cambridge,  Cel.  Caer-Grant  (the  fort  and  bridge  on  the  R. 
Granta,  now  the  Cam)  ;  Tunbridge  (over  the  R.  Tun  or 
Ton),  a  branch  of  the  Medway ;  Colebrook,  in  Bucks  (the 
bridge  over  the  R.  Cole)  ;  Oxbridge  (the  bridge  over  the 
water,  uisge)  ;  Staley-bridge  (at  a  bridge  over  the  R.  Tame), 
named  after  the  Staveleigh,  a  family  who  resided  there  ; 
Bridgewater,  corrupt,  from  Burgh-Walter  (the  town  of 
Walter  Douay,  its  founder)  ;  Bridgend  and  Brigham,  vill- 
ages in  different  parts  of  Scotland  ;  Brora  (bridge  river), 
in  Sutherlandshire,  named  when  bridges  were  rarities ; 
Trowbridge,  however,  did  not  get  its  name  from  this  root, 
but  is  a  corrupt,  of  its  ancient  name,  Trutha-burh  (the  loyal 

..       ™       .     j  a  marshy  place,  overgrown  with  brushwood,  cog- 

'''  <  nate   with   the    French    breuil   and    bruyere    (a 

(  thicket),    the   Welsh   pryskle,    and    the   Breton 

briigek;  e.g.  Bruel,  Bruhl,  and  Priel,  in  Germany  ;  Bruyeres, 

32  BR  UNN—BR  YN 

Broglie,  and  Brouilly  (the  thicket),  in  France  ;  also  Breuil, 
Bruel,  Breuillet,  Le  Brulet,  etc.,  with  the  same  meaning,  or 
sometimes  a  park.  St.  Denis  du  Behellan,  in  Eure,  was 
formerly  Bruellant,  i.e.  the  breuil  or  park  of  Herland. 

BRUNN,  BRUNNEN  (Gen),   j  ^  ^f*  *  ™™™}  ^  '   '* 

BRONGA  (Scand)  1  Heilbroun  (holy  well);  Frau-brunnen, 

(  Lat.  Fons-beatce-Virginis  (the  well  of 
Our  Lady)  ;  Brunn-am-Gebirge  (the  well  at  the  hill-ridge)  ; 
Haupt-brun  (well-head)  ;  Lauter-brunnen  (clear  well)  ; 
Salz-brunn,  Warm-brunn,  Schoen-brunn,  Kaltenbrunn  (the 
salt,  hot,  beautiful,  cold,  mineral  wells)  ;  Baldersbrunnen, 
Baldersbrond  (the  well  of  the  Teutonic  god  Balder)  ; 
Cobern,  corrupt,  from  Cobrunnen  (the  cow's  well)  ;  Paderborn 
(the  well  or  source  of  the  R.  Pader),  in  Germany.  In  the 
north  of  France,  and  in  the  departments  bordering  on 
Germany,  we  find  traces  of  this  German  word  ;  e.g. 
Mittel-broun  (middle  well);  Walsch-broun  (foreign  well)  ; 
Belle  -brune  (beautiful  well)  ;  Stein  -brunn  (stony  well), 

BRYN  (Cym.-Cel.),  a  hill  -  ridge  ;  bron  (a  round  hill);  e.g.  Brin- 
croes,  Brin-eglwys,  Bron-llys  (the  cross,  church,  palace,  on 
the  hill)  ;  Bryn-gwynn  (fair  hill)  ;  Brynn-uchil  (high  hill)  ; 
Bron-Fraidd  (St.  Bridget's  hill);  Brown-Willy,  in  Corn- 
wall, corrupt,  from  Bryn-huel  (the  tin  mine  ridge)  ;  Brindon- 
hill,  in  Somerset  (merely  the  hill),  with  synonymous  word 
dun  added  to  Bryn  ;  and  Brandon,  in  Suffolk,  with  the 
same  meaning  ;  Bryn-mawr  (the  great  hill),  in  Wales  ; 
Bron-gwyn  (white  hill)  ;  Bryn-y-cloddian  (the  hill  of  fences, 
clawd),  so  called  from  its  strong  fortifications  ;  Bryn- 
Barlwm  (the  bare-topped  mountain)  ;  Bryn-Gwyddon  (the 
hill  of  Gwyddon,  a  mythological  philosopher)  ;  Bryn-kinallt 
(a  mountain  without  trees)  ;  Bryn-berian  (the  kite's  hill,  bert, 
a  kite)  ;  Bryn-bo,  with  the  same  meaning,  boda  in  Wales  ; 
Bryn-chwarew  (the  hill  of  sports)  ;  here  the  ancient  inhabit- 
ants of  Wales  used  to  meet  to  play  different  games  in 
competition  ;  Brienne-la-chateau  (the  castle  on  the  hill),  in 
France  ;  Brientz,  in  Switzerland,  on  the  Brienz  See  (a  lake 
surrounded  by  hills)  ;  Brendenkopf  (hill  -head),  and  the 
Brennen  Alps,  the  culminating  points  in  the  mountains  of 


, p      »      ["  the  beech-tree  ;  ^.^.  Buch-au,  Buch-berg,  Buch- 

'       /  A  e  \  eSS  (the  meadow,  hill,  corner  of  the  beeches)  ; 

^    '    *''         <  Buchholtz  and  Bochholt  (beech-wood)  ;  Bockum, 

/'        Bucheim  (beech-dwelling) ;  Butchowitz  (the  place 

I  of  beeches),  in   Moravia  ;  Bochnia  and  Bucho- 

wina   (with    the     same    meaning),    in     Poland ;    Bickleigh 

(beech-meadow).     But  Bocking  in  Essex,  and  the  county  of 

Buckingham,  as  well  as  Bouquinheim  in  Artois,  and  Boch- 

ingen  in  Wurtemberg,  were  named  from  the  Bocingas  (a 

tribe),  probably  the  dwellers  among  beeches. 

*  hut  °r  dwelling  ;«*:  Budin,  Budzin, 

BUDA,  BUS  (Sclav.), 

BOD  (Cym.-C 
BUDE  (Ger.), 

BWTH   BOTH  (Gadhelic)       Bautzen>    or    Budissen    (the    huts) ; 
,'„        „  \ ,  "      Budweis  (the  district  of  hut  villages), 

BOD  (Cym.-Cel.),  .      „  ,     v  . 

->  in    Bohemia ;     Budzow,    Botzen    (the 

BOTHY  (Scotch)  place  °f  huts)  '  Briebus  (birch-tree 

AD  \  dwelling) ;  Trebus  and  Triebus  (the 

three  dwellings)  ;  Putbus  (under  the 

hut)  ;  Dobberbus  (good  dwelling,  dobry,  good)  ;  but  Buda, 
in  Hungary,  took  its  name  from  Buda,  the  brother  of  Attila, 
as  well  as  Bud-var  and  Bud-falva  (Buda's  fort  and  village). 
The  island  of  Bute,  in  the  Firth  of  Clyde,  is  said  to  have 
derived  its  name  from  the  bwth  or  cell  of  St.  Brandon,  but 
its  earlier  name  was  Rothsay,  from  a  descendant  of  Simon 
Brek  (i.e.  Rother's  Isle),  while  its  Gaelic  name  is  Baile- 
Mhoide  (the  dwelling  of  the  court  of  justice)  ;  Bothwell, 
anc.  Both-uill  (the  dwelling  on  the  angle  of  the  R.  Clyde). 
In  Ireland  we  meet  with  Shanboe,  Shanbogh  (the  old  hut, 
scan)  ;  Raphae,  in  Donegal,  is  Rath-both  (the  fort  of  the 
huts)  ;  Bodoney,  in  Tyrone,  is  Both-domhnaigh  (the  tent  of 
the  church)  ;  Knockboha  (the  hill  of  the  hut) ;  Bodmin, 
in  Cornwall,  anc.  Bodmanna,  p.  27  (the  abode  of  monks, 
the  site  of  an  ancient  priory) ;  Merfod,  corrupt,  from 
Meudwy-bod  (the  dwelling  of  a  hermit)  ;  Bodysgallen  (the 
abode  of  the  thistle,  ysgalleri)  ;  and  Bod-Ederyryn  (Edryn's 
dwelling).  In  Lancashire  the  word  takes  the  form  of  booth, 
as  in  Barrowford  booth  and  Oakenhead  booth,  etc. 

BUHIL,  BUCKEL  (Ger.),  a  hill ;  e.g.  Dombiihil  (the  dwelling  on 
the  hill)  ;  Griinbiihill  (green  hill)  ;  Eichenbiihil  (oak  hill)  ; 
Birchenbiihil  (birch  hill)  ;  Holzbiihil  (wood  hill) ;  Dinkels- 
biihil  (wheat  hill)  ;  Kleinbiihil  (little  hill). 


BUHNE,  BOHEN  (Ger.),  a  scaffold,  sometimes  in  topography  a 
hill ;  e.g.  Hartbohen  (wood  hill)  ;  Biindorf  (hill  village)  ; 
Osterbeuna  (east  hill). 

BUN  (Gadhelic),  the  foot,  in  topography  applied  to  the  mouth  6f 
a  river ;  e.g.  Bunduff  (at  the  mouth  of  the  dark  river, 
dubJi) ;  Bunderan  and  Bunratty,  the  mouth  of  the  R. 
Dowran  and  Ratty ;  Bunowen  (at  the  mouth  of  the  water). 
The  town  of  Banff  is  a  corrupt,  of  Bunaimh  (the  mouth  of 
the  river)  ;  Bunawe  (at  the  opening  of  Loch  Awe)  ;  Buness 
(of  the  cascade,  cos). 

BURG,  BURGH  (Teut.),        *  ^-TV 
RnrcoTirR    mmv  fortified 

BUKUUt-rrl,    rJUKV,  ,          -  ,.      ,._      , 

/0        ,  x  to  cover  or  protect.     As  these  fortified 
BORG  (Scand.),  •>  ,    .  ,       ,. 

v  ,„    ,   ''  places  were  often  erected  on  heights  for 
BOURG  (rr. ),  .  ,.  ,  ,        ,     .      . 

>T,        jo        \  security,  as  well  as  to  enable  their  m- 
BORGO  (It.  and  Span.),  ,          ,. 

'  [mates  to  observe  the  approaches  of  an 

enemy,  the  word  berg  (a  hill)  was  frequently  used  synony- 
mously with  burg,  as  in  the  name  of  Konigsberg  and  other 
towns — v.  BERG.  Burgh  and  borough  are  the  Anglican 
forms  of  the  word  in  England  and  Scotland,  while  bury 
is  distinctively  the  Saxon  form ;  e.g.  Sudbury  (south  town), 
as  also  Sidbury  in  Salop,  but  Sidbury  in  Devon  takes  its 
name  from  the  R.  Sid.  Tewkesbury,  from  Theoc  (a  certain 
hermit) ;  Glastonbury,  anc.  Glastonia  (a  district  abounding 
in  woad,  glastum)  ;  Shaftsbury  (the  town  on  the  shaft-like 
hill) ;  Shrewsbury,  anc.  Shrobbesbyrig  (the  fortress  among 
shrubs),  being  the  Saxon  rendering  of  the  native  name 
Pengiverne  (the  hill  of  the  alder  grove),  which  the  Normans 
corrupted  into  Sloppesbury,  hence  Salop;  Tenbury,  on  the 
R.  Teme  ;  Canterbury,  i.e.  Cant-ivara-byrig  (the  town  of 
the  dwellers  on  the  headland),  Cantium  or  Kent ;  Wans- 
borough,  in  Herts  ;  Wanborough,  in  Surrey  and  Wilts  ; 
Woodensborough,  in  Kent ;  Wednesbury,  Stafford  ;  Wem- 
bury,  Devon  (the  town  of  the  Saxon  god  Woden)  ;  Aide- 
borough,  on  the  R.  Aide  ;  Marlborough,  anc.  Merlberga, 
situated  at  the  foot  of  a  hill  of  white  stones,  which  our 
forefathers  called  marl,  now  chalk;  Richborough,  anc. 
Ru-tupium  (rock  town)  ;  Aylesbury,  perhaps  church  town, 
ecclesia,  or  from  a  person's  name  ;  Badbury  (the  city  of 
pledges,  bad),  in  Dorset ;  the  Saxon  kings,  it  is  said,  kept 

BURG  35 

their  hostages  at  this  place  ;  Malmesbury,  the  town  of 
Maidulf,  a  hermit ;  Maryborough,  named  for  Queen 
Mary.  Burg  or  burgh,  in  the  names  of  towns,  is  often 
affixed  to  the  name  of  the  river  on  which  it  stands  in 
Britain,  as  well  as  on  the  Continent ;  e.g.  Lauterburg, 
Lutterburg,  Schwartzburg,  Salzburg,  Saalburg,  Gottenburg, 
Rotenburg,  and  Jedburgh  (on  the  rivers  Lauter,  Lutter, 
Schwarza,  Salza,  Saale,  Gotha,  Rothbach,  and  Jed).  Still 
more  frequently,  the  prefix  is  the  name  of  the  founder 
of  the  town,  or  of  a  saint  to  whom  its  church  was  dedi- 
cated ;  e.g.  Edinburgh  (Edwin's  town)  ;  Lauenburg,  after 
Henry  the  Lion  ;  Fraserburgh,  in  Aberdeenshire,  founded 
by  Sir  Alexander  Fraser  of  Philorth  in  1 570  ;  Peterborough, 
from  an  abbey  dedicated  to  St.  Peter ;  Petersburgh, 
named  by  its  founder,  Peter  the  Great ;  Tasborough, 
Norfolk,  on  the  R.  Thais  ;  Banbury,  anc.  Berinburig 
(Bera's  town) ;  Queenborough,  in  the  Isle  of  Sheppey,  named 
by  Edward  III.  in  honour  of  his  queen;  Helensburgh,  in 
Dumbartonshire,  after  the  lady  of  Sir  James  Colquhoun  ; 
Pittsburg,  U.S.,  after  Mr.  Pitt  ;  Harrisburg,  U.S.,  after 
the  first  settler  in  1733  ;  Sumburgh,  in  Shetland,  and 
Svendborg,  Sweden  (Sweyn's  fortress) ;  Oranienburg,  in 
Brandenburg  (the  fortress  of  the  Orange  family)  ;  Bury  St. 
Edmund's  (in  memory  of  Edmund  the  Martyr)  ;  Rabens- 
burg  (the  fort  of  Hrafn,  a  Dane)  ;  Marienburg  (the  town 
of  the  Virgin),  founded  by  the  Grand  Master  of  the  Teu- 
tonic order  in  1274  ;  Rothenburg,  in  Prussia,  Sclav.  Rostar- 
zewo  (the  town  of  the  Sclav,  god  Razi)  ;  Duisburg,  corrupt, 
from  Tuiscoburgum  (the  town  of  the  Teut.  god  Tuesco)  ; 
Flesburg,  in  Sleswick,  founded  by  the  knight  of  Flenes  ; 
Cherbourg,  supposed  to  be  Caesar's  town  ;  Augsburg  (the 
town  of  the  Emperor  Augustus) ;  Salisbury,  anc.  Seares- 
byrgg  (the  town  of  Sarum,  a  chief) ;  Bamborough  (the 
town  of  Bebba,  the  Queen  of  Ida,  of  Northumberland)  ; 
Carrisbrook,  corrupt,  from  Gwiihtgarabyrig  (the  fortress  of 
the  men  of  Wight) ;  Amherstburg,  in  Canada,  named  in 
1780  after  Lord  Amherst ;  Loughborough,  anc.  Leirburg 
(the  town  on  the  R.  Leir,  now  the  Soar)  ;  Hapsburg  or 
Habichtsburg  (hawk's  fortress)  ;  Schassburg,  Hung.  Segevar 
(treasure  fort) ;  Luneburg,  in  Hanover  (the  fort  of  the 


Linones,  a  tribe) ;  Aalburg  (Eel-town)  on  the  Lyme-fiord. 
There  are  several  towns  in  Germany  named  simply  Burg 
(the  fortress),  also  Burgos  in  Spain,  and  Burgo  in  Italy. 
As  a  derivative  from  this  Teut.  root,  there  is  the  Irish  form 
of  the  word,  introduced  by  the  Anglo-Normans — buirghes, 
Anglicised  borris  and  burris,  as  in  Borris  in  Ossory,  Burris- 
carra,  Burrishoole  (i.e.  the  forts  erected  in  the  territories 
of  Ossory,  Carra,  and  Umhal) ;  Borrisokane  (O'Keane's 

BURNE  (A  S  ^  (  a  sma^  stream  5  e-S-  Milburn  (mill  stream) ; 

_  ).-.'  ,'/' ,.  x  <  Lambourne    (muddy   stream,    lam) ;    Rad- 

BURNE  (Gadhehc),  )  ,                   ,  v~    ,,  } 

'  ( bourne    and    Redbourne    (reedy    stream) ; 

Sherbourne  (clear  stream,  or  the  dividing  stream)  ;  Cran- 
bourne,  Otterbourne  (the  stream  frequented  by  cranes  and 
otters)  ;  Libourne,  in  France  (the  lip  or  edge  of  the  stream)  ; 
Bourne,  in  Lancashire  (on  a  stream)  ;  Burnham  (the  dwell- 
ing on  a  stream),  in  Essex ;  Melburne,  in  Yorkshire,  in 
Doomsday  Middelburn  (middle  stream)  ;  Auburn,  for- 
merly a  village  in  Yorkshire,  called  Eleburn  or  Eelburn  ; 
Bannockburn  (the  stream  of  the  white  knoll) ;  Sitting- 
bourne,  in  Kent  (the  settlement  on  the  stream) ;  East- 
bourne, contracted  from  its  former  name  Easbourne  (prob- 
ably the  stream  of  the  water  or  the  cascade,  cas)  ;  Tiche- 
burne  (the  kid's  stream,  ticcen,  A.S.  a  kid). 

BUSCH,  BOSCH  (Ger.),  r  a   b"shy   P1**    orK  Sro;fe  > 

BOSC  (A.S.),  Low  Lat  Boscus,  '*  Boscabel  <the  beautlful 


BOSCO,  BOSQUE  (Span,  and  Port.), 
BOD  or  BAD  (Celtic), 

grove)  ;  Bushey  (a  par.  Co. 
Hertford);  Buscot(thehutin 
the  grove);  Badenoch(aplace 
overgrown  with  bushes),  in 

Inverness  ;  Breitenbusch  (the  broad  grove) ;  Hesel-boschen 
(hazel  grove) ;  Eichbusch  (oak  grove)  ;  Ooden-bosch  (old 
grove),  in  Holland  ;  Auberbosc  (Albert's  grove),  in  France  ; 
Stellenbosch,  in  S.  Africa,  founded  in  1670  by  Van  der 
Stelle,  the  governor  of  the  Dutch  colony ;  Biesbosch  (the 
reedy  thicket),  in  Holland  ;  Aubusson  (at  the  grove),  France. 
Boissac,  Boissay,  Boissiere,  Boissey,  etc.,  in  France,  from 
the  same  root ;  Bois-le-Duc  (the  duke's  wood)  ;  Briquebosq 
(birch-wood),  in  Normandy. 
BWLCH  (Welsh),  a  pass  or  defile ;  e.g.  Dwygyflch  (i.e.  the  joint 


passes),  in  Wales ;  Bwlch-newydd  (the  new  pass) ;  Bwlch- 
y-groes  (of  the  cross). 

BYSTRI  (Sclav.),  swift ;  e.g.  Bistritza,  Bistrica,  Weistritz  (the  swift 
stream)  ;  Bistritz  (the  town  on  this  river),  called  by  the 
Germans  Neusohl  (new  station). 

/  (Scand.),  a  dwelling,  a  town — from  biga  (Norse), 
'        '  )  to  build.      This  word  occurs  frequently  in  town 

BIGGEN-BO,  <  •       *v_    *»'  is         r    TT       i       7         J     • 

,F  '  j  names  in  the  N.E.  of  England  and  in  some 
'  "''  \  parts  of  Scotland  formerly  possessed  by  the 
Danes  or  Normans ;  e.g.  Derby,  i.e.  Dearaby  (deer  town), 
formerly  called  North  Worthige  (the  northern  enclosure) ; 
its  Celtic  name  was  Durgvuent  (the  white  water),  from  its 
river ;  Whitby  (white  town),  A.S.  Streones-heal  (treasure- 
hall,  streone)  ;  Selby  (holy  town)  ;  Danby  (Dane's  dwelling)  ; 
Rugby,  anc.  Rochberie  (the  dwelling  on  the  rock,  in  reference 
to  its  castle)  ;  Appleby  (the  town  of  apple-trees)  ;  Sonderby 
(southern  town)  ;  Ormsby,  Lockerby,  Thursby,  Grimsby, 
Lewersby  (the  dwellings  of  Ormv,  Loki,  Ulf,  Grimm, 
Leward)  ;  Risby  (beech-tree  dwelling)  ;  Canisby,  in  Caith- 
ness, and  Canoby  or  Cannonbie,  Dumfries  (the  dwelling 
of  the  canon),  or  perhaps  Canisby  is  Canute's  dwelling  ; 
Haconby  (of  Haco) ;  Harrowby,  in  Doomsday,  is  Herigerby 
(the  town  of  the  legion),  A.S.  herige;  Kirby,  Moorby,  Ashby 
(church  town,  moor  town,  ash -tree  town) ;  Ashby -de- la- 
Zouch  was  simply  Ascebi  or  Esseby,  perhaps  the  town  of 
the  Asa,  a  tribe.  It  received  the  addition  to  its  name 
from  the  family  of  the  Zouches,  its  proprietors.  In  France  : 
Dauboeuf,  for  Dalby  (vale  dwelling) ;  Elbceuf  (old  dwelling)  ; 
Ouittebceuf (white  dwelling);  Quillebceuf (well town );  Linde- 
bo2uf  (lime-tree  town) ;  Karlby-gamba  and  Karlby-ny  (old 
and  new  Charles'  town),  in  Finland ;  Criqueboeuf  (crooked 

CAE,  KAE  (Cym.-Cel.),  an  enclosure ;  e.g.  Ca-wood  (wood-enclosure) ; 

Cayton  (wood  town  or  hill).     This  root  is  frequently  used 

in  Welsh  names. 
CAELC,  or  CEALC  (A.S.),  chalk  or  lime — cognate  with  the  Lat.  calx, 

Cel.  cailc,  stale j  e.g.  Challock,  Chaldon,   Chalfield  (chalk 

38  CAER 

place,  hill,  and  field)  ;  Chalgrove  (the  chalk  entrenchment, 
grab)  ;  the  Chiltern  Hills  (the  hills  in  the  chalky  district, 
erri)  ;  Chockier,  corrupt,  from  Calcharice  (the  lime  kilns),  in 
Belgium ;  Kelso,  anc.  Calchou  (the  chalk  heiigh  or  height), 
so  called  from  a  calcareous  cliff  at  the  confluence  of  the 
Tweed  and  Teviot,  now  broken  down. 

/\ir  i  u\  ( an  enclosed  fortification,  a  castle, 

CAER,  CADAER  (Welsh),  ,  .      T      .        ,   '       . 

CATHAIR,  CAHER  (Gadhelic),     J  *  ^  ***  m  Ir?nd  »  ClrCUlar 

KAER,  KER  (Breton),  I  stcme  fort ;    e.g    Caer-leon,   anc. 

\Isca-legtonem    (the    fort    of   the 

legion),  on  the  R.  Usk  j1  Caerwent,  in  Monmouth,  anc. 
Venta-silurum  (the  fortress  in  the  province  of  Gwent) ; 
Caerwys  (of  the  assizes,  givys,  a  summons)  ;  Caermarthen, 
anc.  Maridunum  (the  fort  on  the  sea -shore)  ;  Caernarvon, 
Welsh  Caer-yn-ar-Fon  (the  fortress  opposite  to  Mona) ; 
Cardigan  (the  fortress  of  Caredig,  a  chieftain) — Cardigan 
is  called  by  the  Welsh  Aberteifi  (the  mouth  of  the  R. 
Teify) ;  Cardiff,  on  the  R.  Taff ;  Carriden,  anc.  Caer-aiden 
or  eden  (the  fort  on  the  wing),  in  Linlithgow  ;  Caerphilly 
(the  fort  of  the  trench,  vallum),  corrupt,  into  philly ; 
Cader-Idris  (the  seat  of  Idris,  an  astronomer);  Caer- 
gyffin  (the  border  fortress)  ;  Grongar,  corrupt,  from  Caer- 
gron  (the  circular  fortress) ;  Caer-^m  or  hun,  corrupt, 
from  Caer-Rhun,  named  from  a  Welsh  prince ;  Carlisle, 
anc.  Caergwaivl  (the  fort  at  the  trench) ;  its  Latin  name 
was  Luguvallmn  (the  trench  of  the  legion).  It  was 
destroyed  by  the  Danes  in  675,  and  rebuilt  by  William 
II.  In  Mid -Lothian,  Cramond,  i.e.  Caer-Almond,  on  the 
R.  Almond  ;  Cathcart,  on  the  R.  Cart,  Renfrew ;  Crail, 
anc.  Carraile  (the  fort  on  the  corner,  aile),  in  the  S.E. 
angle  of  Fife ;  Caerlaverock  (the  fort  of  Lewarch  Ogg), 
founded  in  the  sixth  century  ;  Sanquhar,  i.e.  Sean-cathair 
(old  fort)  ;  Carmunnock  or  Carmannoc  (the  fort  of  the 
monks)  ;  Kirkintilloch,  corrupt,  from  Caer-pen-tulach  (the 
fort  at  the  head  of  the  hill)  ;  Cardross  (the  promontory 
fort);  Kier,  in  Scotland,  for  Caer  or  Cathair ;  Carew 
(the  fortresses),  a  castle  in  Wales ;  Carhaix,  in  Brittany, 
i.e.  Ker-Aes  (the  fortress  on  the  R.  Aes — now  the 
Hieres).  In  Ireland  :  Caher  (the  fortress) ;  Cahereen 
1  Caer-afon  (the  fortress  on  the  water)  was  its  ancient  name. 

CALA  —  CAM  39 

(little  fortress)  ;  Cahergal  (white  fort)  ;  Cahersiveen, 
i.e.  Cathair-saidbhin  (Sabina's  fort)  ;  Carlingford,  Irish 
Caer-linn,  fiord  being  added  by  the  Danes  ;  its  full 
name  is,  therefore,  the  ford  of  Caer-linn.  It  was  also 
called  Suamh-ech  (the  swimming  ford  of  the  horses)  ; 
Derry-na-Caheragh  (the  oak  grove  of  the  fort);  Caer- 
gwrle  (the  fortress  of  the  great  legion),  i.e.  Caer-gaivr- 
lleon,  with  reference  to  the  twentieth  Roman  legion  sta- 
tioned at  Chester,  or  Caer-gwr-le  (the  boundary-place  in 

CALA  (Span.),  a  creek  or  bay  —  probably  derived  from  Scala  (It.), 
a  seaport,  Cel.  cala  (a  harbour),  and  cognate  with  the 
Teut.  kille;  e.g.  Callao,  in  S.  America  ;  Cale,  the  ancient 
name  of  Oporto,  and  probably  Calais;  Scala  (a  seaport),  in 
Italy  ;  Scala-nova  (new  port),  in  Turkey  ;  Kiel,  in  Sleswick, 
so  called  from  its  fine  bay. 

/•  A  c  \  (  Dald  or  bare  —  synonymous  with  the 

V  '   '''  ,_    .  ,     1  Lat.  calvus  and  the  Fr.  chauve;  e.g. 

KAHL  (Ger.).  KAEL  (Dut.),     )  „  ,  ~,  .  ,,    ,  ,  ,  .* 

v  \  Caumont  and  Chaumont  (bald  hill), 

in    France  ;    Kahlenberg,  anc.   Mons    Calvus  (bald   hill), 
belonging   to    a    branch    of  the   Alps    called    Kahlen  Ge- 
(C  i\\\  1'  \       f  crooked;    e.g.   Rivers    Cam,    Camon,   Camil, 

'       /'     )  Cambad,  Camlin,  Cambeck  (crooked  stream)  ; 
CAM  (Cym.-Cel.),  <  „      ,  .'„.,.     v 

/'    i  Kembach,  a  parish  in  Fife,  so  called  from  the 
CAMBUS,  a  creek,    I  „     „  f,  „       ' 

^  R.  Kem  or  Kame  ;   Cambusmore  (the  great 

creek  in  Sutherland)  ;  Cambuscarrig,  in  Ross,  near  which 
a  Danish  prince  (Careg)  was  buried  ;  Cambuskenneth  (the 
creek  of  Kenneth,  one  of  the  kings  of  Scotland)  ;  Camelon 
(on  the  bend  of  the  water),  near  Falkirk  ;  Cambuslang  (the 
church  or  enclosure,  lann,  on  the  bending  water),  in  Lanark  ; 
Cambus,  in  Clackmannan  ;  Cambusnethan  (on  the  bend  of 
the  R.  Nethan)  ;  Campsie,  anc.  Kamsi  (the  curved  water)  ; 
but  Camus,  a  town  in  Forfarshire,  is  not  from  this  root,  but 
in  memory  of  a  Danish  general  who  was  slain  in  battle 
near  the  place  ;  Camlyn  (the  crooked  pool),  in  Anglesea  ; 
Cambray  or  Cambrai,  in  France,  anc.  Camaracum  (on  a 
bend  of  the  Scheldt)  ;  Chambery,  in  Savoy,  anc.  Camber- 
tacum,  with  the  same  meaning  ;  Morecambe  Bay  (the  bend 
of  the  sea). 


CAMPUS  (Lat  )  C  a  fidd  °r  pkin ;  £'g-  CamPania' 

j  r>  _L  \         I  Campagna,    Champagne    (the 
CAMPO  (It..  Span.,  and  Port.),  ,  •         ,       , , 

CHAMP  (Fr )  I  P        °r  } ;  FechamP' 

Lat.    Campus-fiscii   (the    field 
KAMPF  (Ger.),  r    .  -u    .   \       £T 

[  of  tribute)  ;    Chamouni,    Lat. 

Campus-munitus  (the  fortified  field)  ;  Kempen  (at  the  field) ; 
Kempten,  Lat.  Campodunum  (the  field  of  the  fortress)  ; 
Campvere  (the  ferry  leading  to  Campen),  in  Holland  ; 
Campo-bello,  Campo-chiaro,  Campo-hermoso  (beautiful  or 
fair  field) ;  Campo-felici  (happy  or  fortunate  field)  ;  Campo- 
frio  (cold  field)  ;  Campo-freddo  (cold  field) ;  Campo-largo 
(broad  field)  ;  Campillo  (little  field)  ;  the  Campos  (vast 
plains),  in  Brazil ;  Capua,  supposed  to  be  synonymous  with 

CANNA  (Lat.  and  Grk.),  a  reed ;  e.g.  Cannae,  in  Italy ;  Cannes, 
in  the  south  of  France ;  Canneto  and  Canosa  (the  reedy 
place),  in  Italy. 

.    "    ,    ...       j  a    sound    or   strait;    e.g.    Caol-Isla,    Caol- 

IC''     J  Muileach  (the  Straits  of  Isla  and  Mull)  ;  the 

CAEL>  (  Kyles    or    Straits    of    Bute  ;     Eddarachylis 

(between  the  straits),  in  Sutherlandshire.     As  an  adjective, 

this    word    means  narrow ;    e.g.   Glenkeel   (narrow    glen)  ; 

Darykeel  (narrow  oak  grove). 

(a  chapel,  derived  from  the  Low  Lat.  capella ; 
T^  \e&  How-caPel  (the  chapel  in  the  hollow), 
r-;>  (in  Hereford;  Capel-Ddewi  (St.  David's 
chapel) ;  Capel  St.  Mary  and  Maria-Kappel  (St.  Mary's 
chapel)  ;  Capel-Garmon  (St.  Germano's  chapel)  ;  Chapelle- 
au-bois  (the  chapel  in  the  wood) ;  Capelle-op-den-Yssel 
(the  chapel  on  the  R.  Vessel),  in  Holland ;  Kreuzcappel 
(the  chapel  with  the  cross). 

CAPER  ^Lat  ^   CHfeVRE  CFr  ^  f  a  g°at  5   e'g'  Capri}   Cap' 

R  (Lat.),  CHEVRE  J*  r.),  Cabrera  (goat  island); 

CAPRA,  CABRA  (Span.,  Port.,  and  It),      „,  x'  „  ,   .  ' 

'  ,~    ,     ...      ''  -;  Chevreuse,  anc.    Capnosa 
GABHAR,  and  GOBHAR  (Gadhelic),  , 

,~       >  ,  x  (the     place     of     goats)  ; 

GAFR,  or  GAVAR  (Cym.-Cel.),  >,,        f  ~.       .x      °, 

[  Chevry,  Chevnere,  Chevre- 

ville,  with  the  same  meaning,  in  France  ;  Gateshead,  in 
Co.  Durham,  Lat.  Caprce-caput,  perhaps  the  Latin  rendering 
of  the  Saxon  word  (the  head  of  the  gat  or  passage) — the 


Pans  ^Eliits  of  the  Romans  ;  or,  according  to  another  mean- 
ing, from  the  custom  of  erecting  the  head  of  some  animal 
on  a  post  as  a  tribal  emblem.  In  Ireland,  Glengower  (the 
glen  of  the  goats),  and  Glengower,  in  Scotland  ;  Ballynagore 
(goat's  town),  in  Ireland  ;  Gowrie  and  Gower,  in  several 
counties  of  Scotland  ;  Ardgower  (goat's  height)  ;  Carnan- 
gour  (the  goat's  crag). 

CAR  (Cel.),  crooked  or  bending  ;  e.g.  the  Rivers  Carron,  in  several 

parts  of  Scotland  ;    Charente  and  Charenton,  in   France  ; 

also  the  Cher,  anc.  Carus  (the  winding  river). 

CARN,  CAIRN  (Gadhelic),  f  ateapof  stones  thrown 

CARN  (Welsh),  together  in  a  conical 

c    .  ,  form,     also     a    rocky 

CARNEDD,  a  heap  of  stones,  such  as  was  „        * 

.    , ,     .,   l       .     .  -r,  .  .,         mount  ;     e.g.     Carnac 

erected  by  the  ancient  Britons  over  the      ,  ,        j-       -        •      \ 

; ,    .  ~  (abounding  in  cairns), 

graves  of  their  great  men  ;  e.g.  Carn-       >        .          '    „ 

,.  ,.,         .      °,  ,     ,-,     ,.  ,f     ,,          <  in  Brittany;  Carnmore 
Ingli  (the  cairn  of  the  English);   Carn-    '   ,  .     .     „          , 

T          /*u        •        c^  •       \       T4.      (great  cairn) ;  Carnock 

1  wrne  (the  cairn  of  the  turnings).      It       ;,     ,  ...     ,/,         .     . 

,   ,  j  (the  hill  of  the  cairn)  ; 

was  named  from  a  stupendous  monu-       ;,  ,     „     ,     „    ' 

,.,  i  .,,  Carntoul,  Gael.  Carn- 

ment  which    stood    on    three   pillars,  .  7    ,  ,  .          .          ,. 

...          .       .      ,        .  ,  t-sabhal  (the  cairn  of 

.  within  a  circuit  of  upright  stones.  ,     ,        . v  „ 

the  barn) ;  Carntaggart 

(of  the  priest) ;  Carnrigh  (of  the  king)  ;  Cairndow,  Cairn- 
glass,  Cairngorm  (the  black,  the  gray,  the  blue  moun- 
tains) ;  Caiman  and  Cairnie  (little  cairn)  ;  Carnwath  (the 
cairn  at  the  ford)  ;  Carnoustie  (the  cairn  of  heroes) ; 
Carnbee  (the  birch  cairn),  in  Scotland.  In  Ireland  :  Carn- 
tochar  (the  hill  of  the  causeway)  ;  Carn-Tierno  (Tiger- 
nach's  cairn) ;  Carnbane  (white  cairn) ;  Carnsore  Point, 
in  Irish  being  simply  the  earn  or  monumental  heap, 
ore  (a  promontory)  having  been  added  by  the  Danes ; 
Carnteel,  Irish  Carn-t-Siadhal  (Shiel's  monument).  In 
Wales  :  Carn-Dafydd  (David's  cairn)  ;  Carn -Llewelyn 
(Llewelyn's  cairn)  ;  Carnfach  (little  cairn),  in  Monmouth  ; 
Fettercairn,  perhaps  the  deer's  cairn,  Gael,  feidh  (deers)  ; 
Chirnside  (the  side  or  site  of  the  cairn),  on  one  of 
the  Lammermuir  Hills ;  Carnoch  (abounding  in  cairns), 
a  parish  in  Fife ;  Boharm,  in  Banffshire,  anc.  Bocharin 
(the  bow  about  the  cairn).  The  countries  of  Carniola 
and  Carinthia  probably  derived  their  names  from  this 
Celtic  root. 


tr^   ji.  i-  \  /a  rock.     The  words  are  usually 

CARRAIG,  CARRICK  (Gadhelic),  I        ..    ,  ^    ,                    , 

/ITT-  i  i_\  J  applied  to  large  natural  rocks, 

CRAG,  or  CARREG  (Welsh),  <                   ,          ,                  ~    • 

,„       -iv  1  more  or  less   elevated.      Car- 

CARRAG  (Cornish),  /    .  ,         ,  ~ 

^nck  and  Carng  are  the  names 

of  numerous  districts  in  Ireland,  as  well  as  Carrick  in 
Ayrshire  ;  Carrigafoyle  (the  rock  of  the  hole,  photll),  in  the 
Shannon  ;  Carrickaness  (of  the  waterfall)  ;  Ballynacarrick 
(the  town  of  the  rocks)  ;  Carrigallen,  Irish  Carraig-aluinn 
(the  beautiful  rock)  ;  Carrickanoran  (the  rock  of  the  spring, 
uarari)  ;  Carrickfergus  (Fergus's  rock),  where  one  Fergus 
was  drowned  ;  Carrick-on-Suir  (on  the  R.  Suir)  ;  Carriga- 
howly,  Irish  Carraig-an-chobhlaigh  (the  rock  of  the  fleet) ; 
Carrickduff  (black  rock) ;  Carrigeen  and  Cargan  (little 
rock) ;  Carragh  (rocky  ground) ;  but  Carrick-on-Shannon 
is  not  derived  from  this  root — its  ancient  name  was  Caradh- 
droma-ruise  (the  weir  of  the  marsh  ridge) ;  Cerrig-y-Druidion 
(the  rock  of  the  Druids),  in  Wales. 

CARSE,  a  term  applied  in  Scotland  to  low  grounds  on  the  banks 
of  rivers  ;  e.g.  the  Carse  of  Gowrie,  Falkirk,  Stirling,  etc. 

CASA  (It.  and  bas  Lat.),  a  house;  e.g.  Casa-Nova  and  Casa- 
Vecchia  (new  and  old  house),  in  Corsica ;  Casal,  Les 
Casals,  Chaise,  Les  Chaises  (the  house  and  the  houses),  in 
France ;  Chassepiare  (corrupt,  from  Casa-petrea  (stone 
house),  in  Belgium. 

/words    in  the    Romance  languages    de- 

CASTEL,  CHATEAU,  \     •       *    f  ,  77         / 

j  rived  from  the  Lat.  castellum  (a  castle). 

CASTELLO,  CASTILLO,     <    ~    .       ,      .  T  .  ,      , 

'  '    \Caiseal,    m    the    Irish    language,    either 

el°'  (cognate  with  the  Lat.  word  or  derived 
from  it,  has  the  same  meaning,  and  is  commonly  met  with 
in  that  country  under  the  form  of  Cashel;  e.g.  Cashel,  in 
Tipperary ;  Cashelfean  and  Cashelnavean  (the  fort  of  the 
Fenians)  ;  Caislean-rth-Oghmaighe,  now  Omagh  (the  castle 
of  the  beautiful  field).  It  is  often  changed  into  the  English 
castle,  as  in  Ballycastle,  in  Mayo  (the  town  of  the  fort) ; 
but  Ballycastle,  in  Antrim,  was  named  from  a  modern 
castle,  not  from  a  caiseal  or  fort  ;  Castle-Dargan  (of  Lough 
Dargan)  ;  Castlebar,  Irish  Caislean-an-Bharraigh  (the  fort 
of  the  Barrys)  ;  Castle-Dillon,  Castle-Dermot,  and  Castle- 
Kieran  were  renamed  from  castles  erected  near  the  her- 
mitages of  the  monks  whose  names  they  bear.  Castel, 


Lat.  Castellum  (the  capital  of  the  Electorate  of  Hesse- 
Cassel)  ;  Castel  Rodrigo  (Roderick's  castle),  in  Portugal ; 
Castel-Lamare  (by  the  sea-shore) ;  Castel-bianco  (white 
castle)  ;  Castel  del  piano  (of  the  plain)  ;  Castiglione  (little 
castle),  in  Italy.  In  France :  Castelnau  (new  castle) ; 
Castelnaudary,  anc.  Castrum-novum-Arianiorum  (the  new 
castle  of  the  Arians,  i.e.  the  Goths)  ;  Chateaubriant,  i.e. 
Chateau-du-Bryn  (the  king's  castle)  ;  Chateau-Chinon  (the 
castle  decorated  with  dogs'  heads)  ;  Chateau -Gontier 
(Gontier's  castle)  ;  Chateaulin  (the  castle  on  the  pool)  ; 
Chateau-vilain  (ugly  castle)  ;  Chateau-roux,  anc.  Castrum- 
Rodolphi  (Rodolph's  castle)  ;  Chatelandrew  (the  castle  of 
Andrew  of  Brittany)  ;  Chateaumeillant,  anc.  Castrum-Medio- 
lanum  (the  castle  in  the  middle  of  the  plain  or  land,  lanri)  ; 
Neufchatel  (new  castle)  ;  Newcastle- upon -Tyne,  named 
from  a  castle  built  by  Robert,  Duke  of  Normandy,  on  the 
site  of  Monkchester  ;  Newcastle-under-Line,  i.e.  under  the 
lyme  or  boundary  of  the  palatinate  of  Chester,  having  its 
origin  in  a  fortress  erected  by  Edmund,  Earl  of  Lancaster, 
instead  of  the  old  fort  of  Chesterton  ;  Castleton,  in  Man,  is 
the  translation  of  Ballycashel  (castle  dwelling),  founded  by 
one  of  the  kings  of  the  island  ;  Bewcastle  (the  castle  of 
Buith,  lord  of  Gilsland)  ;  Old  and  New  Castile,  in  Spain, 
so  named  from  the  numerous  fortresses  erected  by 
Alphonso  I.  as  defences  against  the  Moors.  Cassel,  in 
Prussia,  and  various  places  with  this  prefix  in  England  and 
Scotland,  owe  the  names  to  ancient  castles  around  which  the 
towns  or  villages  arose,  as  Castletown  of  Braemar,  Castle- 
Douglas,  Castle -Rising,  etc.;  Castlecary,  in  Stirlingshire, 
supposed  to  be  the  Coria  Damnorum  of  Ptolemy,  and  the 
Caer-cere  of  Nennius ;  Barnard  Castle,  built  by  Barnard, 
the  grandfather  of  Baliol ;  Castell-Llechryd  (the  castle  at 
the  stone  ford),  on  the  banks  of  the  R.  Wye,  in  Wales ; 
Cestyll-Cynfar  (castles  in  the  air). 

a  fortress>  city>  town>  from  the  Lat-  castrum 

/      r      .•/-     j      i          \  j  j        /  \ 

(a  fortmed  P^ce),  and  castra  (a  camp)  ;  e.g. 

/—     •    ,  r^  r^i  /,i  •.  r 

Caistor,  Castor,  Chester  (the  site  of  a 
Roman  fort  or  camp).  The  Welsh  still  called  the  city  of 
Chester  Caerleon,  which  means  the  city  called  Legio,  often 
used  as  a  proper  name  for  a  city  where  a  Roman  legion 


was  stationed  ;  Doncaster,  Lancaster,  Brancaster,  Illchester, 
Leicester,  Colchester  (i.e.  the  camps  on  the  Rivers  Don, 
Lune,  Bran,  Ivel,  Legre  or  Leir,  Colne)  ;  Alcester,  on  the 
Alne ;  Chichester  (the  fortress  of  Cissa,  the  Saxon  prince 
of  the  province)  ;  Cirencester,  anc.  Corinium- ceaster  (the 
camp  on  the  R.  Churn)  ;  Exeter,  Cel.  Caer-Isc  (the  fortress 
on  the  river  or  water,  wysK)  ;  Towcester,  on  the  R.  Towey  ; 
Gloucester,  Cel.  Caer-glow  (the  bright  fortress)  ;  Godman- 
chester  (the  fort  of  the  priest),  where  Gothrun,  the  Dane,  in 
the  reign  of  Alfred,  embraced  Christianity ;  Chesterfield 
and  Chester-le-Street  (the  camp  in  the  field  and  the  camp 
on  the  Roman  road,  stratum} ;  Winchester,  Cel.  Caer- 
gwent  (the  camp  on  the  fair  plain),  p.  38  ;  Dorchester 
(the  camp  of  the  Durotriges  (dwellers  by  the  water) ;  Wor- 
cester, Hwicwara-ceaster  (the  camp  of  the  Huiccii)  ;  Sil- 
chester,  Cel.  Caer-Segont  (the  fort  of  the  Segontii) ;  Man- 
chester, probably  the  camp  at  Mancenion  (the  place  of 
tents),  its  ancient  name ;  Rochester,  Cel.  Durobrivae  (the  ford 
of  the  water),  k.S.Hrofreaster,  probably  from  a  proper  name  ; 
Bicester  (the  fort  of  Biren,  a  bishop)  ;  Alphen,  in  Holland, 
anc.  Albanium-castra  (the  camp  of  Albanius) ;  Aubagne,  in 
Provence,  anc.  Castrum-de-Alpibus  (the  fortress  of  the 
Alps)  ;  Champtoceaux,  Lat.  Castrum-celsum  (lofty  fortress)  ; 
St.  Chamond,  Lat.  Castrum-Anemundi  (the  fortress  of 
Ennemond)  ;  Chalus,  Lat.  Castrum-Luciits  (the  fortress  by 
Lucius  Capriolus,  in  the  reign  of  Augustus)  ;  Passau,  in 
Bavaria,  Lat.  Batavia-Castra (the  Batavians'  camp),  corrupted 
first  to  Patamum  and  then  to  Passau  ;  La  Chartre,  Chartre, 
and  Chartres  (the  place  of  the  camps),  in  France  ;  Chartre- 
sur-Loire,  Lat.  Carcer-Castellum  (the  castle  prison  or  strong- 
hold) ;  Castril,  Castrillo  (little  fortress) ;  Castro-Jeriz 
(Caesar's  camp)  ;  Ojacastro  (the  camp  on  the  R.  Oja),  in 

,T  .  ,  .      fa  hollow  place,  cognate  with  the  Lat. 

CAVAN,  CABHAN  (Irish),  „ 

f,  |  cavea    or    cavus;     e.g.  Cavan    (the 

CAVA,  LA  (it.),  I  hollow)    the             f  c  Cavan,  and 

CUEVA  (Span.),  a  cave,  '' ,                    , 

,>  JT,  many  other  places  from  this  root  in 

COFA  (A.S.),  a  cove,  T    .  J  ,       „ r         , 

I  Ireland.      Cavan,    however,    in    some 

parts  of  Ireland,  signifies  a  round  hill,  as  in  Cavanacaw  (the 
round  hill  of  the  chaff,  cathd)  ;  Cavanagh  (the  hilly  place)  ; 


Cavanalick  (the  hill  of  the  flagstone)  ;  Covehithe,  in  Suffolk 
(the  harbour  of  the  recess) ;  Runcorn,  in  Cheshire,  i.e. 
Rum-cofan  (the  wide  cove  or  inlet)  ;  Cowes  (the  coves),  in 
the  Isle  of  Wight ;  La  Cava,  in  Naples  ;  Cuevas-de-Vera 
(the  caves  of  Vera)  ;  Cuevas-del-Valle  (of  the  valley),  in 

/cold  ;  e.g.  Caldicott,  Calthorpe,  Calthwaite  (cold 

A  '    '•"    J  dwelling)  ;     Koudhuizon,     Koudaim,    with    the 

r  m     \      1  same  meaninS  :  Caldbeck,  Kalbach,  Kallenbach 

''      ((cold   stream);    Kaltenherberg    (cold    shelter); 

Calvorde  (cold  ford)  ;  Kaltenkirchen  (cold  church)  ;  Colwell 

(cold  well). 

CEANN  (Gadhelic),  a  head,  a  point  or  promontory — in  topography 
kin  or  ken;  e.g.  Kinnaird's  Head  (the  point  of  the  high 
headland)  ;  Kintyre  or  Cantire  (the  head  of  the  land,  tir)  ; 
Kenmore  (the  great  point),  at  the  head  of  Loch  Tay ; 
Kinloch  (the  head  of  the  lake)  ;  Kincraigie  (of  the  little 
rock)  ;  Kinkell  (the  head  church,  rill)  ;  Kendrochet  (bridge 
end)  ;  Kinaldie  and  Kinalty  (the  head  of  the  dark  stream, 
allt-dubK)  ;  Kingussie  (the  head  of  the  fir- wood,  guith-saitfi)  ; 
Kinnaird  (the  high  headland),  the  name  of  a  parish  in  Fife 
and  a  village  in  Stirling.  Kinross  may  mean  the  point 
(ros)  at  the  head  of  Loch  Leven,  with  reference  to  the  town 
or  with  reference  to  the  coiinty,  which  in  early  times  formed 
part  of  the  large  district  called  the  Kingdom  of  Fife, 
anciently  called  Ross;  and  in  this  sense  it  may  mean  either 
the  head  of  the  promontory  or  of  the  wood,  both  of  which 
are  in  Celtic  ros.  The  ancient  name  of  Fife,  Ross,  was 
changed  into  Fife  in  honour  of  Duff,  Earl  of  Fife,  to  whom 
it  was  granted  by  Kenneth  II.,  and  in  1426  Kinross  was 
separated  from  it,  or,  according  to  Nennius,  from  Feb,  the 
son  of  Cruidne,  ancestor  of  the  Picts.  Kintore  (the  head 
of  the  hill,  tor)  ;  Kinneil,  i.e.  Ceann-fhail  (the  head  of  the 
wall),  i.e.  of  Agricola ;  Kinell,  Kinellar  (the  head  of  the 
knoll)  ;  King-Edward,  corrupt,  from  Kinedur  (the  head  of 
the  water,  dur)  ;  Kinghorn,  from  Ceann-cearn  (corner  head- 
land)— Wester  Kinghorn  is  now  Burntisland  ;  Kingarth,  in 
Bute,  i.e.  Ceann-garbh  (the  rough  or  stormy  headland)  ; 
Kinnoul  (the  head  of  the  rock,  ail)  ;  Kintail  (the  head  of 
the  flood,  tuil),  i.e.  of  the  two  salt-water  lakes  in  Ross- 


shire ;  Boleskine  (the  summit  of  the  furious  cascade,  boil 
cos),  i.e.  of  Foyers,  in  Inverness-shire  ;  Kinmundy,  in  Aber- 
deenshire,  corrupt,  from  Kinmunny  (the  head  of  the  moss, 
moine)  •  Kinglassie,  in  Fife,  was  named  after  St.  Glass  or 
Glasianus)  ;  Kenoway,  Gael,  ceann-nan-uatnh  (the  head  of 
the  den)  ;  Kent,  Lat.  Cantium  (the  country  of  the  Cantti, 
or  dwellers  at  the  headland).  In  Ireland :  Kenmare  in 
Kerry,  Kinvarra  in  Galway,  and  Kinsale  in  Cork,  mean 
the  head  of  the  sea,  i.e.  ceann-mafa  and  ceann-saile  (salt 
water),  the  highest  point  reached  by  the  tide ;  Kincon  (the 
dog's  headland)  ;  Kinturk  (of  the  boar)  ;  Slyne  Head,  in 
Ireland,  is  in  Irish  Ceann-leime  (the  head  of  the  leap),  and 
Loop  Head  is  Leim-Chonchuillinn  (Cuchullin's  leap); 
Cintra,  in  Portugal,  may  mean  the  head  of  the  strand, 

CEFN  (Cym.-Cel.),  a  ridge,  cognate  with  the  Grk.  Ke<f>aXr),  a  head  ; 
e.g.  the  Cevennes,  the  Cheviots  ;  Cefn-Llys  (palace  ridge)  ; 
Cefn-bryn  (hill  ridge)  ;  Cefn-coed  (wood  ridge)  ;  Cefn-coch 
(red  ridge)  ;  Cefn-y-Fan  (the  hill  ridge)  ;  Cefn-Rhestyn  (the 
row  of  ridges)  ;  Cefn-cyn-warchan  (the  watch-tower  ridge)  ; 
Cemmaes  (the  ridge  of  the  plain),  in  Wales  ;  Cefalu  (on  the 
headland),  in  Sicily;  Chevin  Hill,  near  Derby;  Chevin  (a 
high  cliff),  in  Yorkshire ;  Cephalonia  (the  island  of  head- 
lands), also  called  Samos  (lofty) ;  Cynocephale  (the  dog's 
headland),  in  Thessaly. 

CEOL  (A  S  )  I  a   Ship  ;    e'f'    Keal   and   Keelh>y»  in   Lincoln 

KIELLE  (Teat  \  1  ^Ship  station)  ;  Ceolescumb,  Ceoleswyrth, 
''  (  Ceolseig,  and  perhaps  Kiel,  in  Denmark ; 
Chelsea,  i.e.  Ceolesig,  on  the  Thames. 

CEORL  (A.S.),  a  husbandman ;  e.g.  Charlton  (the  husbandman's 
dwelling)  ;  Charlinch  (the  husbandman's  island),  formerly 

CEOSEL  (A.S.),  sand,  gravel ;  e.g.  Chesil  (the  sand-hill),  in  Dorset ; 
Chiselhurst  (the  thicket  at  the  sand-bank)  ;  Chiseldon  (sand- 
hill) ;  Chiselborough  (the  fort  at  the  sand -bank)  ;  Win- 
chelsea,  corrupt,  from  Gwent-ceoseley  (the  sand-bank  on  the 
fair  plain,  gwenf),  or,  according  to  another  etymology, 
named  after  Wincheling,  the  son  of  Cissa,  the  first  king  of 
the  South  Saxons  ;  Chiswick  (sandy  bay),  on  the  Thames. 

CERRIG  (Welsh),  a  heap  of  stones;  e.g.  Cerrig-y-Druidion  (the 

CHRP—  C  ILL  47 

Druids'  stones)  ;  Cerrig-y-Pryfaed  (the  crag  of  the  teachers), 
probably  the  Druids,  in  Wales. 

CHEP,  CHEAP,  CHIPPING  (Teut.),    \\  ^  f  meIChaifSe' 

KIOPING,  KIOBING,  1  ^   "***%*'    *"$? 

(  buy)  ;  e.g.  Cnepstow,  Chippen- 

ham,  Cheapside  (the  market-place  or  town)  ;  Chipping- 
Norton  and  Chipping-Sodbury  (the  north  and  south  market- 
town)  ;  Chippinghurst  (the  market  at  the  wood  or  thicket)  ; 
Copenhagen,  Dan.  Kioben-havn  (the  haven  for  merchan- 
dise) ;  Lidkioping  (the  market-place  on  the  R.  Lid)  ; 
Linkioping,  anc.  Longakopimgar  (long  market  -town),  in 
Sweden  ;  Arroeskicebing  (the  market-place  in  the  island 
of  Arroe)  ;  Nykoping,  in  Funen,  and  Nykjobing,  in  Falster, 
Denmark  (new  market-place).  The  Copeland  Islands  on 
the  Irish  coast  (the  islands  of  merchandise),  probably  used 
as  a  storehouse  by  the  Danish  invaders  ;  Copmansthorpe 
(the  village  of  traders),  in  Yorkshire  ;  Nordkoping  (north 
market),  in  Sweden  ;  Kaufbeuren  (market-place),  in  Ba- 
varia ;  Sydenham,  in  Kent,  formerly  Cypenham  (market- 

CHLUM  (Sclav.),  a  hill,  cognate  with  the  Lat.  culmen,  transposed 
by  the  Germans  into  kulm  and  sometimes  into  golmj  e.g. 
Kulm,  in  W.  Prussia  (a  town  on  a  hill)  ;  Kulm,  on  the  R. 
Saale  ;  Chlumek,  Chlumetz,  Golmitz,  Golmiiz  (the  little 

a  cell,  a  burying-ground,  a  church  ;  in 

CILL  (Gadhelic), 

CELL  (Cym.-Cel.),  from 
JLLA  (Lat.),  and  ii 
Provence  languaj 

Celtic    topography,    kil   or    kel;    e.g. 

Kilbnde  (the    cell    or  church   of   St. 
CELLA  (Lat.),  and  in  the  -<  ~  .,      .    ^  f  .       T    ,      , 

,  Bridget),     frequent    in     Ireland    and 

Provence  languages,          „  <.'     -..?,  ,  ,   _      ~          , 

Scotland ;  Kildonan  (of  St.  Donan)  ; 

Kilkerran  (of  St.  Kieran) ;  Kilpeter 
(of  St.  Peter)  ;  Kilcattan  (of  St.  Chattan)  ;  Kilmichael,  Kil- 
marnock,  Kilmarten,  Kelpatrick,  Kilbrandon  (the  churches 
dedicated  to  St.  Michael,  St.  Marnock,  St.  Martin,  St. 
Patrick,  St.  Brandon)  ;  Kilmaurs,  Kilmorick,  Kilmurry  (St. 
Mary's  church)  ;  I  Columkil  or  lona  (the  island  of  Columba's 
church)  ;  Kilwinning  (St.  Vimen's  church)  ;  Kilkenny  (of 
St.  Canice) ;  Kilbeggan,  in  Ireland,  and  Kilbucho,  in 
Peeblesshire  (the  church  of  St.  Bega)  ;  Kil-Fillan  (of  St. 
Fillan)  ;  Killaloe,  anc.  Cill-Dahia  (the  church  of  St.  Dalua)  ; 


Killarney,  Irish  Cill-airneadh  (the  church  of  the  sloes) — 
the  ancient  name  of  the  lake  was  Lough  Leane,  from  a 
famous  'artificer  who  lived  on  its  shores  ;  Killin,  i.e.  Cill- 
Fhinn  (the  burying-ground  of  Finn,  which  is  still  pointed 
out)  ;  Kilmany  (the  church  on  the  mossy  ground,  moine)  ; 
Kilmelfort,  Cel.  Cill-na-maol-phort  (the  church  on  the  bald 
haven)  ;  Kilmore  generally  means  the  great  church,  but 
Kilmore,  Co.  Cork,  is  from  Coillmhor  (great  wood),  and  in 
many  places  in  Ireland  and  Scotland  it  is  difficult  to  deter- 
mine whether  the  root  of  the  names  is  cill  or  coill ;  Kildare, 
from  Cill-dara  (the  cell  of  the  oak  blessed  by  St.  Bridget)  ; 
Kilmun,  in  Argyleshire,  is  named  from  St.  Munna,  one  of 
St.  Columba's  companions  ;  Kilrush,  Co.  Clare  (the  church 
of  the  promontory  or  of  the  wood)  ;  Kells  (the  cells)  is  the 
name  of  several  places  in  Ireland,  and  of  a  parish  in 
Dumfries  ;  but  Kells,  in  Meath  and  Kilkenny,  is  a  contrac- 
tion of  the  ancient  name  Ceann-lios  (the  head,  it's,  or  fort)  ; 
Closeburn,  in  Dumfries,  is  a  corrupt,  of  Cella-Osburni 
(the  cell  of  St.  Osburn)  ;  Bischofzell  and  Appenzell  (the 
church  of  the  bishop  and  of  the  abbot)  ;  Maria-Zell  (of  St. 
Mary) ;  Kupferzell,  Jaxt-zell,  Zella-am-Hallbach,  Zell-am- 
Harmarsbach  (the  churches  on  the  rivers  Kupfer,  Jaxt, 
Hallbach,  and  Harmarsbach)  ;  Zell-am-Moss  (the  church 
on  the  moor)  ;  Zell-am-See  (on  the  lake) ;  Zella  St.  Blasii 
(of  St.  Blaise)  ;  Sabloncieux,  in  France,  anc.  Sabloncellis 
(the  cells  on  the  sandy  place)  ;  but  in  France  La  Selle 
and  Les  Selles  are  often  used  instead  of  cella  or  cellules, 
as  in  Selle-St.-Cloud  for  Cella-Sanct.-Clotoaldi  (the  church 
dedicated  to  this  saint) ;  Selle-sur-Nahon,  anc.  Cellula 
(little  church)  ;  Kilconquhar,  in  Fife  (the  church  of  St. 
Conchobar  or  Connor)  ;  Kilbernie,  in  Ayrshire  (the  church 
of  Berinus,  a  bishop)  ;  Kilspindie  (of  St.  Pensadius)  ;  Kil- 
blane  and  Kilcolmkill,  in  Kintyre  (of  St.  Blane  and  St. 
Columba);  Kilrenny(of  St.  Irenaeus);  Kilchrenan,  in  Argyle- 
shire (the  burying-place  of  St.  Chrenan,  the  tutelary  saint 
of  the  parish). 

/T   .  (a.  city  or  borough,  derived 

CITTA,  CIVITA  (It.),  I  ,          '  u      T     .         •    ', 

/o          j  TI       \        )  from   the  Lat.  ctvitos:  e.g. 
CIUDAD,  CIDADE  (Sp.  and  Port.),      <  ,~.      j  „        ,  ~.  .    „    ,,.  5 
'       .  )  Cittadellaand  Civitella  (little 

CIOTAT  (Fr.),  /    .    ,      ~.  iX  ,.  ,-,    .  n  \ 

V  city)  ;  Cittk  di  Castello  (cas- 

CLACH  49 

tellated  city) ;  Citta-Vecchia  (old  city),  in  Malta ;  Civita 
Vecchia  (old  city),  in  Central  Italy,  formerly  named  Cen- 
tum-cellce  (the  hundred  apartments),  from  a  palace  of  the 
Emperor  Trajan  ;  Civita-de-Penne  (the  city  of  the  summit), 
in  Naples  ;  Cividad-della-Trinidad  (the  city  of  the  Holy 
Trinity)  ;  Ciudad-Rodrigo  (Roderick's  city)  ;  Ciudad-Real 
(royal  city) ;  Ciudad-de-Gracias1  (the  city  of  grace),  in 
Spain  ;  Ciudadella  (little  city),  in  Minorca. 

CLACH,  CLOCK,  CLOUGH  (Gadhelic),  a  stone ;  e.g.  Clach-breac 
(the  speckled  stone);  Clach-an-Oban  (the  stone  of  the 
little  bay)  ;  Clach-na-darrach  (the  stone  of  the  oak  grove) ; 
Clachach  (a  stony  place).  The  word  clachan,  in  Scotland, 
was  originally  applied  to  a  circle  of  stones  where  the  Pagan 
rites  of  worship  were  wont  to  be  celebrated  ;  and,  after  the 
introduction  of  Christianity,  houses  and  churches  were 
erected  near  these  spots,  and  thus  clachan  came  to  mean  a 
hamlet ;  and,  at  the  present  day,  the  expression  used  in 
asking  a  person  if  he  is  going  to  church  is — "  Am  bheil- 
thu'dol  do'n  clachan  ?"  (i.e.  "Are  you  going  to  the  stones  ?") 
There  is  the  Clachan  of  Aberfoyle  in  Perthshire  ;  and  in 
Blair-Athole  there  is  a  large  stone  called  Clack  tfiobairt 
(the  stone  of  sacrifice).  In  Skye  there  is  Clach-na-h-Annat 
(the  stone  of  Annat,  the  goddess  of  victory)  ;  and  those 
remarkable  Druidical  remains,  called  rocking-stones,  are 
termed  in  Gaelic  Clach-bhraeth  (the  stone  of  knowledge), 
having  been  apparently  used  for  divination.  There  are 
others  called  Clach-na-greine  (the  stone  of  the  sun),  and 
Clach-an-t-sagairt  (of  the  priest).  The  village  of  Clack- 
mannan was  originally  Clachan-Mannan,  i.e.  the  stone  circle 
or  hamlet  of  the  district  anciently  called  Mannan.  In 
Ireland  this  root-word  commonly  takes  the  form  of  clogh 
or  dough,  as  in  Cloghbally,  Cloghvally  (stony  dwelling)  ; 
Clogher  (the  stony  land)  ;  Clomony  (the  stony  shrubbery)  ; 
Clorusk  (the  stony  marsh) ;  Cloichin,  Cloghan,  Clogheen 
(land  full  of  little  stones)  ;  but  the  word  clochan  is  also 
applied  to  stepping-stones  across  a  river,  as  in  Clochan-na- 
bh  Fomharaigh  (the  stepping-stones  of  the  Fomarians,  i.e. 
the  Giant's  Causeway)  ;  Cloghereen  (the  little  stony  place)  ; 
Ballycloch  and  Ballenaclogh  (the  town  of  the  stones) ; 
Auchnacloy  (the  field  of  the  stone) ;  Clochfin  (the  white 


stone)  ;  Clonakilty,  corrupt,  from  Clough-na-Kiltey  (the 
stone  house  of  the  O'Keelys). 

CLAR,  CLARAGH  (Irish),  a  board,  a  plain,  a  flat  piece  of  land  ; 
Clare  is  the  name  of  several  places  in  different  counties  of 
Ireland,  sometimes  softened  to  Clara.  County  Clare  is 
said  to  have  derived  its  name  from  a  plank  placed  across 
the  R.  Fergus,  at  the  village  of  Clare.  Ballyclare,  Ballin- 
clare  (the  town  of  the  plain)  ;  Clarbane  (white  plain)  ; 
Clarderry  (level  oak  grove)  ;  Clarchoill  (level  wood)  ; 
Clareen  (little  plain). 

CLAWDD  (Cym.-Cel.).  a  dyke  or  embankment  ;  e.g.  Clawdd-Offa 
(Offa's  Dyke). 

n  FFF  fAS1*  If  d  /  /"  (  a  steeP  bank  or  rock,  cognate  with 
,  //-  j  c  j\  <  the  Lat.  clivus  (a  slope);  Clive, 

KLIPPE  (Ger.  and  Scand.),    )  „.  ™        .^       ..*..  '  '  „.... 

"    (  Cleave,    Clee    (the    cliff)  ;     Clifton 

(the  town  on  the  cliff)  ;  Clifdon  (cliff  hill)  ;  Clifford  (the 
ford  near  the  cliff)  ;  Hatcliffe  and  Hockcliffe  (high  cliff)  ; 
Cleveland  (rocky  land),  in  Yorkshire  ;  Cleves  (the  town  on 
the  slope),  Rhenish  Prussia  ;  Radcliffe  (red  cliff)  ;  Silber- 
klippen  (at  the  silver  cliff)  ;  Horncliff  (corner  cliff)  ;  Under- 
cliff  (between  the  cliff  and  the  sea),  in  Isle  of  Wight  ; 
Clitheroe  (the  cliff  near  the  water),  in  Lancashire  ;  Lillies- 
leaf,  in  Roxburghshire,  a  corrupt,  of  Lille?  s-diva  (the  cliff  of 
Lilly  or  Lille). 

CLERE  (Anglo-Norman),  a  royal  or  episcopal  residence,  some- 
times a  manor  ;  e.g.  King's-clere,  Co.  Hants,  so  called 
because  the  Saxon  kings  had  a  palace  there  ;  Burg-clere 
(where  the  bishops  of  Winchester  resided),  High-clere. 

CLUAN,  CLOON  (Gadhelic),  a  fertile  piece  of  land,  surrounded 
by  a  bog  on  one  side  and  water  on  the  other,  hence  a 
meadow  ;  e.g.  Clunie,  Cluny,  Clunes,  Clones  (the  meadow 
pastures).  These  fertile  pastures,  as  well  as  small  islands, 
were  the  favourite  spots  chosen  by  the  monks  in  Ireland 
and  Scotland  as  places  of  retirement,  and  became  event- 
ually the  sites  of  monasteries  and  abbeys,  although  at  first 
the  names  of  these  meadows,  in  many  instances,  had  no 
connection  with  a  religious  institution  —  thus  Clones,  Co. 
Monaghan,  was  Cluain-Eois  (the  meadow  of  Eos,  probably 
a  Pagan  chief),  before  it  became  a  Christian  settlement  ; 
Clonard,  in  Meath,  where  the  celebrated  St.  Finian  had  his 

CNOC — COED  51 

school,  in  the  sixth  century,  was  Cluain-Eraird  (Erard's 
meadow).  In  some  instances  Clonard  may  mean  the  high 
meadow  ;  Clonmel  (the  meadow  of  honey)  ;  Clonfert  (of 
the  grave) ;  Clontarf  and  Clontarbh  (the  bull's  pasture)  ; 
Clonbeg  and  Cloneen  (little  meadow)  ;  Clonkeen  (beautiful 
meadow) ;  Cluainte  and  Cloonty  (the  meadows)  ;  Cloonta- 
killen  (the  meadows  of  the  wood) — v.  Joyce's  Irish  Names 
of  Places. 
,„_.,..  (  a  knoll,  hill,  or  mound ;  e.g.  Knock,  a  hill 

y\  .    -I  in  Banff;  Knockbrack  (the  spotted  knoll) ; 
KNWC  (Cym.-Cel.),    )  T,       , ,   '        „       i_j        w     j__j          <*L 

'     (  Knockbane,    Knockdoo,    Knockglass    (the 

white,  black,  and  gray  hill)  ;  Carnock  (cairn  hill)  ;  Knockea, 
Irish  Cnoc-Aedha  (Hugh's  hill)  ;  Knocklayd,  Co.  Antrim, 
i.e.  Cnoc-leithid  (broad  hill) ;  Knockan,  Knockeen  (little 
hill)  ;  Knockmoyle  (bald  hill)  ;  Knocknagaul  (the  hill  of 
the  strangers)  ;  Knockrath  (of  the  fort)  ;  Knockshanbally 
(of  the  old  town)  ;  Knocktaggart  (of  the  priest)  ;  Knocka- 
tober  (of  the  well)  ;  Knockalough  (of  the  lake)  ;  Knockanure 
(of  the  yew)  ;  Knockaderry  (of  the  oak-wood)  ;  Knockane 
(little  hill),  Co.  Kerry ;  Knockandow  (little  black  hill), 
Elgin  ;  Knockreagh,  Knockroe,  Knockgorm  (the  gray,  red, 
blue  hill)  ;  Knockacullion  (the  hill  of  the  holly)  ;  Knock- 
ranny  (ferny  hill)  ;  Knockagh  (the  hilly  place)  ;  Knock- 
firinne  (the  hill  of  truth),  a  noted  fairy  hill,  Co.  Limerick, 
which  serves  as  a  weather-glass  to  the  people  of  the  neigh- 
bouring plains  ;  Ballynock  (the  town  of  the  hill)  ;  Balder- 
nock  (the  dwelling  at  the  Druid's  hill),  Co.  Stirling  ;  Knwc-y 
Dinas  (the  hill  of  the  fortress),  in  Cardigan. 

COCH  (Cym.-Cel.),  red. 

COED  (Cym.-Cel.), 

COID.  This  word  was  variously 
written  Coit,  Coat,  or  Cuit- 
goed.  In  Cornwall  it  is  found 
in  Penquite  (the  head  of  the 
wood)  ;  Pencoed,  with  the 
same  meaning,  in  Wales ; 
Argoed  (upon  the  wood), 
in  Wales ;  Goedmore  (great 

a  wood  ;  e.g.  Coed  -  Arthur 
(Arthur's  wood) ;  Coedcymmer 
(the  wood  of  the  confluence) ; 
Catmoss  and  Chatmoss  (the 
wood  moss) ;  Coitmore  (great 
wood) ;  Selwood,  anc.  Coitmaur 
(great  wood) ;  Callow  (wood 
hill) ;  Cotswold  (wood  hill), 
the  Saxon  wold  having  been 

wood),    in    Wales ;    Coed-llai      added  to  the  Cel.  coed.     The 


(short  wood)  ;  Glascoed 
(green  wood),  in  Wales  ;  Cal- 
decot,  corrupt,  from  Cil-y-coed 
(the  woody  retreat),  in  Wales  ; 
Coedglasen,  corrupt,  from 
Coed-gleision  (green  trees). 

forms  of  this  word  in  Brittany 
are  Koat  or  Koad —  hence 
Coetbo,  Coetmen,  Coetmieux, 
etc.  ;  Llwyd-goed  (gray  wood), 
in  Wales. 

COGN  (Cel.),  the  point  of  a  hill  between  two  valleys,  or  a  tongue 
of  land  enclosed  between  two  watercourses ;  e.g.  Cognat, 
Cougny,  Cognac,  Le  Coigne",  Coigneur,  Coigny,  etc.,  in 
various  parts  of  France — v.  Cocheris's  Noms  de  Lieu,  Paris. 

COILL  (Gadhelic),  a  wood — in  topography  it  takes  the  forms  of 
kel,  kil,  kelly,  killy,  and  kyle  ;  e.g.  Kellymore,  and  sometimes 
Kilmore  (the  great  wood)  ;  Kelburn,  Kelvin,  Kellyburn,  and 
Keltic  (the  woody  stream)  ;  Callander,  Coille-an-dar  (the 
oak-wood)  ;  Guilty,  Quilty,  Kilty  (the  woods)  ;  Kilton  (the 
town  in  the  wood),  in  Scotland.  In  Ireland :  Kilbowie 
(yellow  wood)  ;  Kildarroch  (the  oak-wood)  ;  Kilcraig  (the 
wood  of  the  rock) ;  Kildinny  (of  the  fire) — v.  TEINE  ; 
Killiegowan  (of  the  smith)  ;  Kilgour  (of  the  goats)  ;  Eden- 
keille  (the  face  of  the  wood) ;  Kylebrach  (the  spotted 
wood) ;  Kylenasagart  (the  priest's  wood)  ;  Kailzie  (the 
woody),  a  parish  in  Peebles  ;  but  Kyle,  in  Ayrshire,  is  not 
from  this  root,  but  was  named  after  a  mythic  Cymric  king  ; 
Loughill,  in  Co.  Limerick,  corrupt,  from  Leamhchoill  (the 
elm-wood) ;  Barnacullia  (the  top  of  the  wood),  near  Dublin  ; 
Culleen  and  Coiltean  (little  wood)  ;  Kilclare,  anc.  Coill-an- 
chlair  (the  wood  of  the  plain). 

COIRE,  or  CUIRE  (Gadhelic),  a  ravine,  a  hollow,  a  whirlpool ;  e.g. 
Corrie-dow  (the  dark  ravine) ;  Corrie-garth  (the  field  at 
the  ravine)  ;  Corrimony  (the  hill,  monadh,  at  the  ravine)  ; 
Corrielea  (the  gray  ravine)  ;  Corrie  (the  hollow),  in  Dum- 
friesshire ;  Corriebeg  (the  little  hollow)  ;  Corryvrechan 
whirlpool  (Brecan's  cauldron)  ;  Corgarf  (the  rough  hollow, 
garbK)  ;  Corralin  (the  whirlpool  of  the  cataract) — v.  LIN  ; 
Corriebuie  (yellow  ravine)  ;  Corryuriskin  (of  the  wild  spirit)  ; 
but  Cor,  in  Ireland,  generally  signifies  a  round  hill,  as  in 
Corbeagh  (birch  hill) ;  Corglass  (green  hill)  ;  Corkeeran 
(rowan-tree  hill)  ;  Corog  and  Correen  (little  hill)  ;  while 
Cora,  or  Coradh,  signifies  a  weir  across  a  river,  as  in 


Kincora  (the  head  of  the  weir)  ;  Kirriemuir,  in  Forfar, 
corrupt,  from  Corriemor  (the  great  hollow)  ;  Loch  Vena- 
choir,  in  Perthshire,  is  the  fair  hollow  or  valley — v.  FIN, 
p.  80. 

COL,  COLN  (Lat.  colonia),  a  colony ;  e.g.  Lincoln,  anc.  Lindum- 
colonia  (the  colony  at  Lindum,  the  hill  fort  on  the  pool, 
linne)  ;  Colne  (the  colony),  in  Lancashire ;  Cologne,  Lat. 
Colonia-Agrippina  (the  colony),  Ger.  Koln.  The  city  was 
founded  by  the  Ubii  37  B.C.,  and  was  at  first  called 
Ubiorum-oppidum,  but  a  colony  being  planted  there  in  50 
A.D.  by  Agrippina,  the  wife  of  the  Emperor  Claudius,  it 
received  her  name. 

//-  jt,  i-  \         ( a     confluence,     often  found    as 

COMAR,  CUMAR  (Gadhelic),        I  „      ,              „ '     ,  „ 

//-         X  i  \  \  Cuniber  or  Comber;  e.g.   Com- 

CYMMER,  KEMBER  (Cym.-Cel.),   )  ,            „         „                  _ '  * 

'  ( ber,  Co.  Down ;  Cefn-coed-y- 

cymmer  (the  wood  ridge  of  the  confluence),  where  two 
branches  of  the  R.  Taff  meet ;  Cumbernauld,  in  Dumbar- 
ton, Gael.  Comar-n-uilt  (the  meeting  of  streams,  alt). 
Cumnock,  in  Ayrshire,  may  have  the  same  meaning,  from 
Cumar  and  oich  (water),  as  the  streams  Lugar  and  Glas- 
nock  meet  near  the  village ;  Comrie,  in  Perthshire,  at  the 
confluence  of  the  streams  Earn,  Ruchill,  and  Lednock ; 
Kemper  and  Quimper  (the  confluence),  and  Quimper-le', 
or  Kember-leach  (the  place  at  the  confluence),  in  Brittany. 
The  words  Condate  and  Conde,  in  French  topography, 
seem  to  be  cognate  with  this  Celtic  root,  as  in  Conde,  in 
Normandy  (at  the  meeting  of  two  streams)  ;  Conde,  in 
Belgium  (at  the  confluence  of  the  Scheldt  and  Hawe)  ; 
Condate-Rhedorum  (the  confluence  of  the  Rhedones,  a  Celtic 
tribe),  now  Rennes,  in  Brittany  ;  Coucy,  anc.  Condiceacum 
(at  the  confluence  of  the  Lette  and  Oise) ;  Congleton,  Co. 
Chester,  was  formerly  Condate. 

COMBE  fA  S  *l  (  a  hollow  valley  between  hills,  a  dingle ; 

CWM,KOMB(Cym.-Cel.),    \e*   Colcombe  (the  valley  of  the  R. 

CUM  (Gadhelic),  <?%> ;  Cwmneath  (of  the  Neath  ; 

\  Compton  (the  town  in  the  hollow)  ; 
Gatcombe  (the  passage  through  the  valley,  got)  ;  Combs, 
the  hollows  in  the  Mendip  hills ;  Wycombe  (the  valley  of 
the  Wye)  ;  Winchcombe  (the  corner  valley) ;  Wivelscombe 
and  Addiscombe,  probably  connected  with  a  personal  name ; 


Ilfracombe  (Elfric's  dingle)  ;  Cwmrydol  and  Cwmdyli,  in 
Wales  (the  hollow  of  the  Rivers  Rydol  and  Dyli)  ;  Cwm- 
eigian  (the  productive  ridge)  ;  Cwmgilla  (the  hazel-wood 
valley) ;  Cwm-Toyddwr  (the  valley  of  two  waters),  near  the 
conf.  of  the  Rivers  Wye  and  Elain  in  Wales  ;  Cwm-gloyn 
(the  valley  of  the  brook  Gloyn)  ;  Cwmdu  (dark  valley)  ; 
Cwm-Barre  (the  valley  of  the  R.  Barre),  in  Wales  ;  Combe 
St.  Nicholas,  in  Somerset  and  in  Cumberland,  named  for 
the  saint;  Comb-Basset  and  Comb-Raleigh,  named  from 
the  proprietors ;  Cwm-du  (black  dingle)  ;  Cwm-bychan 
(little  dingle),  in  Wales  ;  Corscombe  (the  dingle  in  the 
bog).  In  Ireland  :  Coomnahorna  (the  valley  of  the  barley)  ; 
Lackenacoombe  (the  hillside  of  the  hollow)  ;  Lake  Como, 
in  Italy  (in  the  hollow). 

CONFLUENTES  (Lat.),  a  flowing  together,  hence  the  meeting  of 
waters  ;  e.g.  Coblentz,  for  Confluentes  (at  the  conf.  of  the 
Moselle  and  Rhine)  ;  Conflans  (at  the  conf.  of  the  Seine 
and  Oise)  ;  Confluent,  a  hamlet  situated  at  the  conf.  of  the 
Creuse  and  Gartempe. 

COP  (Welsh),  a  summit ;  e.g.  Cop-yr-Leni  (the  illuminated  hill), 
so  called  from  the  bonfires  formerly  kindled  on  the  top. 

,.  .  ,  .     f  a  marsh  ;  e.g.  Corse  (the  marsh) ; 
CORCAGH,  or  CURRAGH  (Irish),      „  V       u      /- 

,,,,  ,  ,  .  "     Corston,  Corsby,  Corsenside  (the 

CORS  (Welsh), 

A     ,  s   '  •{  dwelling    or    settlement    on    the 

CAR  (Gael.),  ,  .to        ~ 

>«,       YX  marsh)  :       Corscombe      (marsh 

KER  (Scand.),  ,.     ,  (     .      ~     ,      ,         Tv      T 

[dingle),  in  England.  In  Ire- 
land :  Cork,  anc.  Corcach-mor-Mumham  (the  great  marsh 
of  Munster)  ;  Curkeen,  Corcaghan  (little  marsh)  ;  Curragh- 
more  (great  marsh)  ;  Currabaha  (the  marsh  of  birches). 
Perhaps  Careby  and  Carton,  in  Lincoln,  part  of  the  Danish 
district,  may  be  marsh  dwelling. 

roRNU/LatN  (a  horn>  a  corner— in  topography, 

u  ^at.;,  i        Hed  to  headlands ;  e.g.  Corneto 

KERNE,  CERYN  (Cym.-Cel.),  <  ,A,r     ,  f  .     Ti  , 

it*    \\  I  (tne  place  on  the  corner),  in  Italy; 

ieh"  (Cornd,    Cornay,    Corneuil,    etc.,    in 

France,  from  this  root,  or  perhaps  from  Cornus  (the  cornel 
cherry-tree)  ;  Cornwall,  Cel.  Cernyu,  Lat.  Cormtbia,  A.S. 
Cormvallia  (the  promontory  or  corner  peopled  by  the  Weales, 
Welsh,  or  foreigners) ;  Cornuailles,  in  Brittany,  with  the 


same  meaning  —  its  Celtic  name  was  Pen-Kernaw  (the  head 

of  the  corner). 

/A  c  \        fa  hut  5   e-S-  Cottenham,  Cottingham,   Coatham 

CO™E  (Caen        (the  village  °f  huts)  ;  Chatham'  A'S'  Coteham, 
i  W^k    l^e   same   meanmS  5    Bramcote   (the    hut 

(W  1  M      i 

^    (r    ''     j  among  broom)  ;  Fencotes  (the  huts  in  the  fen 

r'''  [  or  marsh  ;  Prescot  (priest's  hut)  ;  Sculcoates,  in 
Yorkshire,  probably  from  the  personal  Scandinavian  name 
Skule;  Saltcoats,  in  Ayrshire  (the  huts  occupied  by  the 
makers  of  salt,  a  trade  formerly  carried  on  to  a  great  extent 
at  that  place)  ;  Kothendorf  (the  village  of  huts)  ;  Hinter- 
kothen  (behind  the  huts),  in  Germany. 

COTE,  COTTA  (Sansc.),  a  fortress  ;  e.g.  Chicacotta  (little  fortress)  ; 
Gazacotta  (the  elephant's  fortress)  ;  Jagarcote  (bamboo  fort)  ; 
I  slam  cot  (the  fort  of  the  true  faith,  i.e.  of  Mahomet)  ;  Noa- 
cote  (new  fort)  ;  Devicotta  (God's  fortress)  ;  Palamcotta 
(the  camp  fort). 

COTE  (Fr  \  (  a  side  °r  C0ast  '  e'g'  C6te  d'Or  (the 

j  r>    ..  \    \  golden  coast),  a  department  of  France, 

COSTA  (Span,  and  Port.),    )  &        „    ,    ,  "     .     y,     ...         „.        ,  ' 

'    (  so  called  from  its  fertility  ;  Cotes-du- 

Nord  (the  Northern  coasts),  a  department  of  France  ;  Costa- 
Rica  (rich  coast),  a  state  of  Central  America. 

,XT       —   x  (a.  place  enclosed,  the  place  occu- 

COURT  (Nor.  Fr.),  I    •  j    t  •  ,      •,, 

CWRT  (Cym  -Cel  )  }  pied  .by   a    sovereign>   a    lordly 

/T..     c  j  t)    ^  \     j  mansion  ;  from  the  Lat.  cohors, 

CORTE  (It.,  Span.,  and  Port.),    I    .  ..   , 

\  also  cors-cortts  (an  enclosed  yard), 

cognate  with  the  Grk.  hortos.  The  Romans  called  the 
castles  built  by  Roman  settlers  in  the  provinces  cortes  or 
cortem,  thence  court  became  a  common  affix  to  the  names 
of  mansions  in  England  and  France  —  thus  Hampton  Court 
and  Hunton  Court,  in  England  ;  Leoncourt,  Aubigne-court, 
Honnecourt  (the  mansion  of  Leo,  Albinius,  and  Honulf)  ; 
Aubercourt  (of  Albert)  ;  Mirecourt,  Lat.  Mercurii-curtis, 
where  altars  were  wont  to  be  dedicated  to  Mercury.  From 
the  diminutives  of  this  word  arose  Cortiles,  Cortina,  Corti- 
cella,  Courcelles,  etc.  The  words  court,  cour,  and  corte 
were  also  used  as  equivalent  to  the  Lat.  curia  (the  place 
of  assembly  for  the  provincial  councils)  —  thus  Corte,  in 
Corsica,  where  the  courts  of  justice  were  held  ;  but  Corsica 
itself  derived  its  name  from  the  Phoenician  chorsi  (a  woody 


place).  The  Cortes,  in  Spain,  evidently  equivalent  to  the 
Lat.  curia,  gives  its  name  to  several  towns  in  that  country  ; 
Coire,  the  capital  of  the  Grisons,  in  Switzerland,  comes  from 
the  anc.  Cttria  Rhatiorum  (the  place  where  the  provincial 
councils  of  the  Rhastians  were  held)  ;  Corbridge,  in  North- 
umberland, is  supposed  to  take  its  name  from  a  Roman 
curia,  and  perhaps  Currie,  in  East  Lothian. 

CRAIG,  CARRAIG,  CARRICK  (Gadhelic),    I  * 

'„„',,  h  <  Creich,     Crathie,     Gael. 

CRAIG  (Cym.-Cel.),  )   „         '  ,  ,      ,       '      .  , 

(  Creagach  (rocky),  parishes 

in  Scotland  ;  Carrick  and  Carrig,  in  Ireland  (either  the  rocks 
or  rocky  ground)  ;  Carrick-on-Suir  (the  rock  of  the  R.  Suir) 
—  v.  p.  42  ;  Craigengower  (the  goat's  rock)  ;  Craigendarroch 
(the  rock  of  the  oak-wood)  ;  Craigdou  (black  rock)  ;  Craig- 
dearg  (red  rock)  ;  Craigmore  (great  rock)  ;  Craig-Phadric 
(St.  Patrick's  rock),  in  Inverness  -shire  ;  Craignish  (the 
rock  of  the  island),  the  extremity  of  which  is  Ardcraignish  ; 
Craignethan  (the  rock  encircled  by  the  R.  Nethan),  sup- 
posed to  be  the  archetype  of  Tullietudlem  ;  Craigentinny 
(the  little  rock  of  the  fire)  —  v.  TEINE  ;  Criggan  (the  little 
rock).  In  Wales,  Crick-Howel  and  Crickadarn  (the  rock 
of  Howel  and  Cadarn)  ;  Criccaeth  (the  narrow  hill)  ;  Crick, 
in  Derbyshire  ;  Creach,  in  Somerset  ;  Critch-hill,  Dorset. 

CREEK  (AS}    CRECCA         (*    SmaU    bay  '      *'g'     Cricklade>    anc 

KREEK  WeutS  \  Creccagelade  (the  bay  of  the  stream)  ; 

CRlOUECFr1)  j  Crayford    (the    ford    of    the    creek); 

^  Crique-bceuf,    Crique-by,    Crique-tot, 

Crique-villa   (the   dwelling   on   the   creek)  ;    Criquiers   (the 

creeks),  in  France.     In  America  this  word  signifies  a  small 

stream,  as  Saltcreek,  etc. 

„  ,  ,  fa  cross,   cognate   with   the    Lat. 

CROES,  CROG  (Cym.-Cel.),  °       ,       ,,,        ,      ... 

//   J-L.  i-  C  crux;  e.g.  Crosby  (the  dwelling 

CROIS,  CROCK  (Gadhelic),  li_            \    /-           •  u     i  /^ 

'  .  0.      v        /c,     n,  .  near  the  cross);  Crossmichael  (the 

CROD  (A.S.),  KRYS  (Scand.),  <               r  Cl_    '..  ,      .,     ~,      \  , 

,r      \  }  cross  of  St.   Michael's  Church); 

JT^Tr   \  Groes-wen    for    Croes-wen   (the 

b  r')'  [  blessed    cross),    in    Glamorgan  ; 

Crossthwaite  (the  forest  -clearing  at  the  cross)  ;  Croxton 
(cross  town)  ;  Crewe  and  Crewkerne  (the  place  at  the 
cross)  ;  Croes-bychan  (little  cross)  ;  Kruzstrait  (the  road  at 
the  cross),  in  Belgium  ;  Crosscanonby,  Crosslee,  Crossbill, 


places  in  different  parts  of  Scotland,  probably  named  from 
the  vicinity  of  some  cross  ;  but  Crossgates,  Co.  Fife,  so  called 
from  its  situation  at  a  spot  where  roads  cross  each  other. 
It  was  usual  with  the  Celts  in  Ireland,  as  well  as  with  the 
Spaniards  and  Portuguese  in  America,  to  mark  the  place 
where  any  providential  event  had  occurred,  or  where  they 
founded  a  church  or  city,  by  erecting  a  cross — as  in  St. 
Croix,  Santa-Cruz,  and  Vera  Cruz  (the  true  cross),  in  South 
America.  In  Ireland  :  Crosserlough  (the  cross  on  the  lake)  ; 
Crossmolina  (O'Mulleeny's  cross)  ;  Aghacross  (the  fort  at 
the  cross)  ;  Crossard  (high  cross)  ;  Crossreagh  (gray  cross)  ; 
Crossmaglen,  Irish  Cros-mag-Fhloinn  (the  cross  of  Flann's 
son)  ;  Crossau,  Crossoge,  and  Crusheen  (little  cross)  ; 
Oswestry,  in  Shropshire,  anc.  Croes-  Oswalt  (the  cross  on 
which  Oswald,  King  of  Northumberland,  was  executed  by 
Penda  of  Mercia).  Its  Welsh  name  was  Maeshir  (long 
field),  by  the  Saxons  rendered  Meserfield;  Marcross  (the 
cross  on  the  sea-shore),  in  Glamorgan  ;  Pen-y-groes,  Maen- 
y-groes,  Rhyd-y-croessau  (the  hill,  the  stone  of  the  cross, 
the  ford  of  the  crosses),  in  Wales  ;  Glencorse,  near  Edin- 
burgh, for  Glencross,  so  named  from  a  remarkable  cross 
which  once  stood  there  ;  Corstorphine,  in  Mid-Lothian,  cor- 
rupt, from  Crostorphin,  which  might  mean  the  cross  of  the 
beautiful  hill,  torr  fioum,  or  the  cross  of  a  person  called 
Torphin.  In  the  reign  of  James  I.  the  church  of  Corstor- 
phine became  a  collegiate  foundation,  with  a  provost,  four 
prebendaries,  and  two  singing  boys.  Crotch  in  Gaelic  means 
a  gallows — thus  Knockacrochy  (gallows  hill)  ;  Raheena- 
crochy  (the  little  fort  of  the  gallows),  in  Ireland. 

CROAGH  (Gael.),  a  hill  of  a  round  form — from  cruach  (a  haystack) ; 
e.g.  Croghan,  Crohane  (the  little  round  hill)  ;  Ballycroghan 
(the  town  of  the  little  hill),  in  Ireland  ;  Bencruachan  (the 
stack-shaped  hill),  in  Argyleshire. 

CROFT  (A.S.),  an  enclosed  field;  e.g.  Crofton  (the  town  on  the 
croft)  ;  Thornycroft  (thorny  field). 

<r   ju  v  \  f  crooked  ;  e.g.  Cromdale  (the  winding 

CROM,  CRUM  (Gadhehc),  n-    \  •    »                   T--        /- 

'  ,_         )-  i  \  valley),  in  Inverness-shire;  Croome,  in 

CRWM  (Cym.-Cel),  117                 /->       i-     ^  •    v    / t.      •   j 

v    '       ,       "  \  Worcester;  Cromhn, Cnmlin (the wind- 

KRUMM  (Ger.),  I  .                   '     .     .    . '    T    .      . ,      „ 

CRUMB  (A  S  }  I  mg  g  en'  sMinri),  in  Ireland  ;  Krum- 
[  bach  (the  winding  brook) ;  Krumau  and 

58  CRUG — DAIL 

Krumenau  (the  winding  water  or  valley)  ;  Ancrum,  a  village 
in  Roxburghshire,  situated  at  the  bend  of  the  R.  Alne  at 
its  confluence  with  the  Teviot. 

CRUG  (Welsh),  a  hillock  ;  e.g.  Crughwel  (the  conspicuous  hillock, 
hywel)  ;  Crug-y-swllt  (the  hillock  of  the  treasure),  in  Wales  ; 
Crickadarn,  corrupt,  from  Crug-eadarn  (the  strong  crag),  in 

CUL    \  f  radhelic^  (  e&    C°u11'    CultS'    Parishes    in    Scotland  ; 

i  juac      nc;  i  Cul  Cul-tir  (at  the  back  of  the  land), 

CUIL  j  (the  corner),  )  .     T  ^  .     .       ,  ,  ., 

'  v  "  (  in  Lanarkshire  ;    Culcairn   (of  the  cairn)  ; 

Culmony  (at  the  back  of  the  hill  or  moss,  monadJi)  ;  Culloden 
for  Cul-oiter  (at  the  back  of  the  ridge) ;  Culnakyle  (at  the 
back  of  the  wood)  ;  Cultulach  (of  the  hill)  ;  Culblair  (the 
backlying  field)  ;  Culross  (behind  the  headland),  in  Scot- 
land. In  Ireland :  Coolboy  (yellow  corner)  ;  Coolderry  (at 
the  back  or  corner  of  the  oak-wood)  ;  Cooleen,  Cooleeny 
(little  corner)  ;  Coleraine,  in  Londonderry,  as  well  as  Cool- 
raine,  Coolrainy,  Coolrahne,  Irish  Cuil-rathain  (the  corner 
of  ferns)  ;  Coolgreany  (sunny  corner)  ;  Coolnasmear  (the 
corner  of  the  blackberries). 

CUND  (Hindostanee),  a  country ;  e.g.  Bundelcund,  Rohilcund  (the 
countries  of  the  Bundelas  and  Rohillas). 


DAGH,  TAGH  (Turc.),  a  mountain;  e.g.  Daghestan  (the  mountainous 
district)  ;  Baba-dagh  (father  or  chief  mountain)  ;  Kara-dagh 
(black  mountain)  ;  Kezel-dagh  (red  mountain)  ;  Belur-tagh 
(the  snow-capped  mountain);  Aktagh  (white  mountain); 
Mustagh  (ice  mountain)  ;  Beshtau  (the  five  mountains)  ; 
Tak-Rustan  (the  mountain  of  Rustan)  ;  Tchazr-dagh  (tent 
mountain)  ;  Ala-dagh  (beautiful  mountain)  ;  Bingol-tagh  (the 
mountain  of  1000  wells)  ;  Agri-dagh  (steep  mountain)  ; 
Takht-i-Suliman  (Solomon's  mountain). 

a  valley,  sometimes  a  field,  English  dale  or 
DAIL  (Gadhelic),         ,  ,,      v    -       .  .      ,  t    4     '  ,  t, 

tc        r  i  \  '  a       often  joined  to  the  name  of  the  river 

,Q       "•,  N  which  flows  through  the  district ;  e.g.  Clydes- 

,  '''      1  dale,  Teviotdale,  Nithsdale,  Liddesdale,  Dove- 
THAL  (Ger.),  j  i       A       j  i    V>    r    j  i 

f£  .      ''  dale,  Arundel,   Dryfesdale,  corrupt,  to  Drys- 

cav'^'  \dale  (the  valley  of  the  Clyde,  Teviot,  Nith, 

DAIL  59 

Liddel,  Dove,  Arun,  Dryfe)  ;  Rochdale,  on  the  Roch, 
an  affluent  of  the  Trivell  ;  Dalmellington  (the  town 
in  the  valley  of  the  mill).  It  is  to  be  noted  that  in 
places  named  by  the  Teut.  and  Scand.  races,  this  root- 
word,  as  well  as  others,  is  placed  after  the  adjective 
or  defining  word  ;  while  by  the  Celtic  races  it  is  placed 
first.  Thus,  in  Scandinavia,  and  in  localities  of  Great 
Britain  where  the  Danes  and  Norsemen  had  settle- 
ments, we  have — Romsdalen  and  Vaerdal,  the  valleys 
of  the  Raumer  and  Vaer,  in  Norway ;  Langenthal,  on 
the  R.  Langent,  in  Switzerland  ;  Rydal  (rye  valley),  West- 
moreland ;  Laugdalr  (the  valley  of  warm  springs),  Iceland. 
In  districts  again  peopled  by  the  Saxons,  Avondale,  Annan- 
dale  (the  valleys  of  the  Avon  and  Annan).  This  is  the 
general  rule,  although  there  are  exceptions — Rosen  thai 
(the  valley  of  roses)  ;  Inn-thai  (of  the  R.  Inn)  ;  Freuden- 
thal  (of  joy)  ;  Fromenthal  (wheat  valley)  ;  Grunthal  (green 
valley).  In  Gaelic,  Irish,  and  Welsh  names,  on  the 
contrary,  dal  precedes  the  defining  word  ;  e.g.  Dairy  and 
Dalrigh  (king's  level  field) ;  Dalbeth  and  Dalbeathie  (the 
field  of  birches)  ;  Dalginross  (the  field  at  the  head  of  the 
promontory  or  wood)  ;  Dalness  and  Dallas  (the  field  of 
the  cascade,  cas)  ;  Dalserf  (of  St.  Serf) ;  Dailly,  in  Ayr- 
shire, anc.  Dalmaolkeran  (the  field  of  the  servant,  maol,  of 
St.  Kiaran)  ;  Dalrymple  (the  valley  of  the  rumbling  pool, 
ruaemleagji)  ;  Dalgarnock  (of  the  rough  hillock)  ;  Dalhousie 
(the  field  at  the  corner  of  the  water,  i.e.  of  the  Esk)  ; 
Dalwhinnie  (the  field  of  the  meeting,  coinneacK)  ;  Dalziel 
(beautiful  field,  geal)  •  Dalguise  (of  the  fir-trees,  giuthas)  ; 
Dalnaspittal  (the  field  of  the  spideal,  i.e.  the  house  of  enter- 
tainment) ;  Dalnacheaich  (of  the  stone) ;  Dalnacraoibhe 
(of  the  tree)  ;  Dalbowie  (yellow  field).  Dollar,  in  Clack- 
mannan, may  be  from  this  root,  although  there  is  a  tradition 
that  it  took  its  name  from  a  castle  in  the  parish  called 
Castle-Gloom,  Gael,  doillair  (dark) ;  Deal  or  Dole  (the 
valley  in  Kent) ;  Dol  and  Dole,  in  Brittany,  with  the 
same  meaning ;  Doldrewin  (the  valley  of  the  Druidical 
circles  in  Wales)  ;  Dolquan  (the  owl's  meadow)  ;  Dolau-Cothi 
(the  meadows  of  the  River  Cothi)  ;  Dolgelly  (the  grove 
of  hazels) ;  Dalkeith  (the  narrow  valley,  caetJi)  ;  Codale 

60  DAL — DAN 

(cow  field) ;  Grisdale  (swine  field)  ;  Gasdale  (goosefield)  ; 
Balderdale,  Silverdale,  Uldale,  Ennerdale,  Ransdale  (from 
the  personal  names,  Balder,  Solvar,  Ulf,  Einer,  Hrani)  ; 
Brachendale  (the  valley  of  ferns)  ;  Berrydale,  in  Caithness, 
corrupt,  from  Old  Norse,  Berudalr  (the  valley  of  the  pro- 
ductive wood)  ;  Dalecarlia,  called  by  the  Swedes  Dahlena 
(the  valleys) ;  Dieppedal  (deep  valley) ;  Stendal  (stony 
valley) ;  Oundle,  in  Northampton,  corrupt,  from  Avondle; 
Kendal  or  Kirkby-Kendal  (the  church  town  in  the  valley  of 
the  R.  Ken)  ;  Dolgelly  (the  valley  of  the  grove),  in  Wales  ; 
Dolsk  or  Dolzig  (the  town  in  the  valley),  in  Posen  ;  Dolzen, 
in  Bohemia  ;  Bartondale  (the  dale  of  the  enclosure  for  the 
gathered  crops),  in  Yorkshire ;  Dalarossie,  in  Inverness, 
corrupt,  from  Dalfergussie,  Fergus'dale  ;  Dalriada,  in 
Ulster,  named  from  a  king  of  the  Milesian  race,  named 
Cairbe-Raida,  who  settled  there.  His  descendants  gradu- 
ally emigrated  to  Albin,  which  from  them  was  afterwards 
called  Scotland  ;  and  that  part  of  Argyleshire  where  they 
landed  they  also  named  Dalriada.  The  three  brothers, 
Fergus,  Sorn,  and  Anghus,  came  to  Argyleshire  in  503 
A.D.  Toul  and  Toulouse,  situated  in  valleys,  probably  were 
named  from  the  same  root-word  ;  Toulouse  was  anciently 
called  Civitas-Tolosatiiim  (the  city  of  the  valley  dwellers, 

DAL  or  GEDEL  ( A  S  )     \  *  ^^  a  district '  e&  Kalthusertheil  (the 

T  fr>  t  M  district  of  the  cold  houses)  ;  Kerckdorfer- 

'.-      .''  -|  theil  (the  district  of  the  village  church)  ; 

/T\  ,'''  I  Baradeel  (the  barren  district),  in  Germany 

DAL  (Irish),  ,    TT  ,.v     ,       — ,  . 

[_  and  Holland.      This  word,  rather  than 

dail,  may  be  the  root  of  Dalriada  ;  see  above. 

DALEJ  (Sclav.),  far ;  e.g.  Daliz,  Dalchow,  Dalichow  (the  distant 

DAMM  (Teut.),  an  embankment,  a  dyke ;  e.g.  Rotterdam,  Amster- 
dam, Saardam,  properly  Zaandam  (the  embankment  on  the 
Rivers  Rotte,  Amstel,  and  Zaan) ;  Schiedam,  on  the  R. 
Schie ;  Leerdam  (the  embankment  on  the  field,  lar)  ; 
Veendam  (on  the  marsh,  veeri)  \  Damm  (the  embankment), 
a  town  in  Prussia  ;  Neudamm  (the  new  dyke) ;  Damm- 
ducht  (the  embankment  of  the  trench). 

DAN,  in  topography,  signifies  belonging  to  the  Danes  ;  e.g.  Dane- 

DAR  61 

lagh  (that  portion  of  England  which  the  Danes  held  after 
their  treaty  with  Alfred)  ;  Danby,  Danesbury  (the  Danes' 
dwellings)  ;  Danesbanks,  Danesgraves,  Danesford,  in  Salop, 
where  the  Danes  are  believed  to  have  wintered  in  896  ; 
Danshalt,  in  Fife,  where  they  are  said  to  have  halted  after 
their  defeat  at  Falkland  ;  Danthorpe,  Denton  (Danes' 
town)  ;  Denshanger  (Danes'  hill  or  declivity)  ;  Dantzic  (the 
Danish  fort,  built  by  a  Danish  colony  in  the  reign  of 
Waldemar  II.);  Tennstedt,  in  Saxony,  corrupt,  from  Dan- 
nenstedi  (the  Danes'  station)  ;  Cruden,  in  Aberdeenshire, 
anc.  Cruor-Danomm  (the  slaughter  of  the  Danes  on  the 
site  of  the  last  battle  between  the  Celts  and  the  Danes, 
which  took  place  in  the  parish  1012).  The  Danish  king 
fell  in  this  battle,  and  was  buried  in  the  churchyard  of 
Cruden.  For  centuries  the  Erroll  family  received  an 
annual  pension  from  the  Danish  Government  for  taking  care 
of  the  grave  at  Cruden,  but  after  the  grave  had  been  dese- 
crated this  pension  was  discontinued. 


DAR,  DERA,  DEIR  (Ar.),      j  '  .  '  ' 

TIFH  CPpr*  \  *{  Dar-el-haJar    (the    rocky    district),    in 

(  Egypt  ;  Darfur  (the  district  of  the 
Foor  or  Foorians,  or  the  deer  country),  in  Central  Africa  ; 
Dera-Fati-Khan,  Dera-Ghazi-Khan,  Dera-Ismail-Khan  (i.e. 
the  camps  of  these  three  chiefs,  in  the  Derajat,  or  camp 
district)  ;  Deir  (the  monk's  dwelling),  in  Syria  ;  Diarbekr 
(the  dwellings  or  tents  of  Bekr)  ;  Dehi-Dervishan  (the 
villages  of  the  dervishes)  ;  Deh-haji  (the  pilgrims'  village)  ; 
Dekkergan  (the  village  of  wolves)  ;  Deir-Antonius  (St. 
Anthony's  monastery),  in  Egypt  ;  Buyukdereh  (Turc.  the 
great  district  on  the  Bosphorus). 

DAR,  DERO,  DERYN  (Cym.-CeL),  ' 

DAIR  (Gadhelic),  \  Lat.  drus  and  Sansc  dru, 

(  amre,  or  datre,  Gadhelic,  an 

oak-wood,  Anglicised  derry,  darach,  or  dara,  the  gen.  of 
dair;  e.g.  Daragh  (a  place  abounding  in  oaks)  ;  Adare,  i.e. 
Athdara  (the  ford  of  the  oak)  ;  Derry,  now  Londonderry, 
was  originally  Daire-Calgaigh  (the  oak-wood  of  Galgacus, 
Latinised  form  of  Calgaigli).  In  546,  when  St.  Columba 
erected  his  monastery  there,  it  became  Derry-Columkille 
(the  oak-wood  of  Columba's  Church)  ;  in  the  reign  of  James 


I.,  by  a  charter  granted  to  the  London  merchants,  it  obtained 
its  present  name  ;  Derry-fad  (the  long  oak-wood)  ;  Derry-na- 
hinch  (of  the  island,  innis)  ;  Dairbhre  or  Darrery  (the  oak 
forest),  the  Irish  name  for  the  Island  of  Valentia ;  Derry- 
allen  (beautiful  wood)  ;  Derrybane  and  Derrybawn  (white 
oak-wood)  ;  Derrylane  (broad  oak-wood)  ;  Durrow,  Irish 
Dairmagh,  and  Latinised  Robereticampus  (the  plain  of  the 
oaks) ;  New  and  Old  Deer  (the  oak-wood),  in  Aberdeenshire, 
was  a  monastery  erected  in  early  times  by  St.  Columba, 
and  given  by  him  to  St.  Drostan.  The  old  monastery  was 
situated  near  a  wooded  hill,  still  called  Aikie-Brae  (oak 
hill),  and  a  fair  was  held  annually  in  the  neighbourhood, 
called  Mercatus  querceti  (the  oak  market) — v.  Book  of  Deer, 
p.  48  ;  Craigendarroch  (the  crag  of  the  oak-wood)  ;  Dar- 
nock,  or  Darnick  (the  oak  hillock),  in  Roxburghshire  ;  Dry- 
burgh,  corrupt,  from  Darach-bruach  (the  bank  of  oaks)  ; 
Dori,  the  name  of  a  round  hill  covered  with  oak-trees,  in 
Wales  ;  Darowen  (Owen's  oak-wood),  in  Wales. 

DEICH,  DYK  (Teut.),  a  dyke  or  entrenchment.  These  dykes  were 
vast  earthen  ramparts  constructed  by  the  Anglo-Saxons  to 
serve  as  boundaries  between  hostile  tribes  ;  e.g.  Hoorndyk 
(the  dyke  at  the  corner)  ;  Grondick  (green  dyke)  ;  Wansdyke 
(Woden's  dyke)  ;  Grimsdyke  and  Offa's  dyke  (named  after 
the  chiefs  Grim  and  Offa)  ;  Houndsditch  (the  dog's  dyke)  ; 
Ditton,  Dixton  (towns  enclosed  by  a  dyke) ;  Zaadik,  in  Hol- 
land, (the  dyke)  on  the  R.  Zaad.  Cartsdike,  a  village  in  Ren- 
frewshire separated  from  Greenock  by  the  burn  Cart.  Besides 
Grimesdyke  (the  name  for  the  wall  of  Antoninus,  from  the 
R.  Forth  to  the  Clyde),  there  is  a  Grimsditch  in  Cheshire. 

DELF  (Teut.),  a  canal,  from  delfan  (to  dig)  ;  e.g.  Delft,  a  town 
in  Holland,  intersected  by  canals  ;  Delfshaven  (the  canal 
harbour)  ;  Delfbriike  (canal  bridge). 

DEN,  DEAN  (Saxon),  a  deep,  wooded  valley.  This  word  is 
traced  by  Leo  and  others  to  the  Celtic  dion  (protection, 
shelter)  ;  e.g.  Dibden  (deep  hollow)  ;  Hazeldean  (the  valley 
of  hazels)  ;  Bowden  or  Bothanden  (St.  Bothan's  valley),  in 
Roxburghshire  ;  Tenterden,  anc.  Theinwarden  (the  guarded 
valley  of  the  thane  or  nobleman),  in  Kent ;  Howden  (the 
haugr  or  mound  (in  the  valley),  in  Yorkshire ;  Howdon, 
with  the  same  meaning,  in  Northumberland ;  Otterden  (the 


otter's  valley)  ;  Stagsden  (of  the  stag)  ;  Micheldean  (great 
valley) ;  Rottingdean  (the  valley  of  Hrotan,  a  chief)  ; 
Croxden  (the  valley  of  the  cross). 

. A  c  x        (a  wild  animal — English,  a  deer;  e.g.  Deerhurst 

(\   '  A\    J  (deer's    thicket) ;    Durham,    in   Gloucester   (the 

'    (r      /*    \  dwelling  of  wild  animals).      For  Durham  on  the 

v       •/'     ^  Wear,  v.  HOLM.     Tierbach,  Tierhage  (the  brook 

and  the  enclosure  of  wild  animals). 

DESERT,  or  DISERT,  a  term  borrowed  from  the  Lat.  desertum,  and 
applied  by  the  Celts  to  the  names  of  sequestered  places 
chosen  by  the  monks  for  devotion  and  retirement ;  Dyserth, 
in  North  Wales,  and  Dyzard,  in  Cornwall ;  e.g.  Dysart,  in 
Fife,  formerly  connected  with  the  monastery  of  Culross,  or 
Kirkcaldy — near  Dysart  is  the  cave  of  St.  Serf ;  Dysertmore 
(the  great  desert),  in  Co.  Kilkenny ;  Desertmartin  in 
Londonderry,  Desertserges  in  Cork  (the  retreats  of  St. 
Martin  and  St.  Sergius).  In  Ireland  the  word  is  often 
corrupted  to  Ester  or  Isert — as  in  Isertkelly  (Kelly's  re- 
treat) ;  Isertkeeran  (St.  Ciaran's  retreat). 

DEUTSCH  (Ger.),  from  thiod,  the  people,  a  prefix  used  in  Germany 
to  distinguish  any  district  or  place  from  a  foreign  settlement 
of  the  same  name.  In  Sclavonic  districts  it  is  opposed  to 
the  word  Katholic,  in  connection  with  the  form  of  religion 
practised  by  their  inhabitants — as  in  Deutsch-hanmer  (the 
Protestant  village,  opposed  to  Katholic-hanmer,  belonging 
to  the  Catholic  or  Greek  Church).  In  other  cases  it  is 
opposed  to  Walsch  (foreign — -v.  WALSCH),  as  in  Deutsch- 
steinach  and  Walsh-steinach  (the  German  and  foreign  towns 
on  the  Steinach,  or  stony  water).  The  Romans  employed 
the  word  Germania  for  Deutsch,  which  Professor  Leo  traces 
to  a  Celtic  root  gair-mean  (one  who  cries  out  or  shouts)  ; 
e.g.  Deutschen,  in  the  Tyrol ;  Deutz,  in  Rhenish  Prussia  ; 
Deutschendorf,  in  Hungary  ;  Deutschenhausen,  in  Moravia, 
i.e.  the  dwellings  of  the  Germans.  The  earliest  name  by 
which  the  Germans  designated  themselves  seems  to  have 
been  Tungri  (the  speakers).  It  was  not  till  the  seventeenth 
century  that  the  word  Dutch  was  restricted  to  the  Low 
Germans.  The  French  name  for  Germany  is  modernised 
from  the  Alemanni  (a  mixed  race,  and  probably  means  other 
men,  or  foreigners'). 


fT       v  (  deep  ;  e.g.  Deeping,  Dibden,  Dibdale  (deep 

UYTOFiieac.*  i  yall     x      Deptford    (deep    ford);    Market- 

DWFN  (Cym.-Cel.),  J  j       •         /^  i  \ 

'*  ( deeping    (the    market -town    in    the    low 

meadow)  ;  Devonshire,  Cel.  Dwfnient  (the  deep  valleys)  ; 
Diepholz  (deep  wood)  ;  Dieppe,  Scand.  Duipa  (the  deep 
water),  the  name  of  the  river  upon  which  it  was  built ; 
Abraham's  diep  (Abraham's  hollow),  in  Holland  ;  Diepen- 
beck  (deep  brook)  ;  Tiefenthal  and  Tiefengrund  (deep 
valley)  ;  Teupitz  (the  deep  water),  a  town  in  Prussia  on  a 
lake  of  this  name  ;  Defynock  (a  deep  valley),  in  Wales. 

DINAS,  or  DIN  (Cym.-Cel.),  a  fortified  height,  a  city,  cognate  with 
the  Gadhelic  dun;  e.g.  Dinmore  (the  great  fort),  in  Hereford  ; 
Dynevor,  anc.  Dinas-faivr  (great  fortress),  in  Carmarthen ; 
Denbigh,  Welsh  Din-bach  (little  fort) ;  Ruthin,  in  Co.  Denbigh, 
corrupt,  from  Rhudd-din  (red  castle)  ;  Dinas  Bran,  a  moun- 
tain and  castle  in  Wales  named  after  an  ancient  king  named 
Bran-Dinas-Powys,  corrupt,  from  Denes  Powys,  a  mansion 
built  by  the  Prince  of  Powys  in  honour  of  the  lady  whom 
he  had  married,  whose  name  was  Denis  ;  Hawarden,  i.e. 
fixed  on  a  hill,  den,  in  Flint ;  its  ancient  name  was  Penarth- 
Halawig  (the  headland  above  the  salt  marsh)  ;  Dinefwr  (the 
fenced  hill),  an  ancient  castle  in  the  vale  of  the  R.  Tywy ; 
Tenby  (Dane's  dwelling) — v.  DAN  ;  Welsh  Denbych-y-Pysod, 
i.e.  of  the  fishes — to  distinguish  from  its  namesake  in  North 
Wales  ;  Tintern,  corrupt,  from  Din-Teyrn  (the  king's  mount), 
in  Wales  ;  Dinan  in  France  ;  Dinant  in  Belgium  (the  fortress 
on  the  water)  ;  Digne,  anc.  Dinia-Bodionticarium  (the  fort 
of  the  Bodiontici),  in  France  ;  .London,  anc.  Londinum  (the 
fort  on  the  marsh — Ion,  or  perhaps  on  the  grove — llwyri). 
Din  sometimes  takes  the  form  of  tin,  as  in  Tintagel  (St. 
Degla's  fort),  in  Cornwall ;  Tintern  (the  fort,  din,  of  the 
prince,  Welsh  teyrri),  in  Monmouth. 

DINKEL  (Ger.),  a  kind  of  grain ;  e.g.  Dinkelburg,  Dinkelstadt, 
Dinkellage,  Dinklar,  Dinkelsbuhl  (the  town,  place,  field, 
site,  hill,  where  this  grain  abounded). 

DIOT,  or  THEOD  (Teut),  the  people  ;  e.g.  Thetford,  corrupt,  from 
Theotford  (\h&  people's  ford)  ;  Detmold,  corrupt,  from  Theot- 
malli  (the  people's  place  of  meeting)  ;  Diotweg  (the  people's 
highway)  ;  Dettweiller  (the  town  of  the  Diet,  or  people's 


meeting) ;  Ditmarsh,  anc.  Thiedmarsi  (the  people's  marsh) ; 
Dettingen  (belonging  to  the  people) — v.  ING. 

DIVA,  or  DWIPA  (Sansc.),  an  island  ;  e.g.  the  Maldives  (i.e.  the 
1000  islands);  the  Laccadives  (the  10,000  islands);  Java 
or  Yava-dwipa  (the  island  of  rice,  jaiva,  or  of  nutmegs, 
jayaK)  ;  Socotra  or  Divipa-Sukadara  (the  island  of  bliss)  ; 
Ceylon  or  Sanhala-Divipa  (the  island  of  lions),  but  called 
by  the  natives  Lanka  (the  resplendent),  and  by  the  Arabs 
Seren-dib  (silk  island)  ;  Dondrahead,  corrupt,  from  Dewan- 
dere  (the  end  of  the  island),  in  Ceylon. 

DLAUHY,  DLUGY  (Sclav.),  long,  Germanised  dolge;  e.g.  Dlugen- 
most  (long  bridge)  ;  Dolgenbrodt  (long  ford)  ;  Dolgensee 
(long  lake)  ;  Dolgen,  Dolgow,  Dolgenow  (long  place). 

DOBRO,  DOBRA  (Sclav.),  good  ;  e.g.  Great  and  Little  Dobern, 
Dobra,  Dobrau,  Dobrawitz,  Dobretzee,  Dobrezin  (good 
place)  ;  Dobberstroh  (good  pasture)  ;  Dobberbus  (good 
village)  ;  Dobrutscha  (good  land),  part  of  Bulgaria  ;  Dober- 
gast  (good  inn). 

DODD  (Scand.),  a  hill  with  a  round  top  ;  e.g.  Dodd-Fell  (the 
round  rock),  in  Cumberland  ;  Dodmaen  (the  round  stone), 
in  Cornwall,  popularly  called  Dead  Man's  Point. 

DOM  (Ger.),  a  cathedral,  and,  in  French  topography,  a  house,  from 
the  Lat.  domus;  e.g.  Dom,  in  Westphalia ;  Domfront  (the 
dwelling  of  Front,  a  hermit) ;  Dompierre  (Peter's  house 
or  church)  ;  Domblain  (of  St.  Elaine)  ;  Domleger  (of  St. 
Leger)  ;  Dongermain  (of  St.  Germanus),  in  France ;  but 
the  word  domhnach,  in  Ireland  (i.e.  a  church),  has  another 
derivation.  This  word,  Anglicised  donagh,  signifies  Sunday 
as  well  as  church,  from  the  Lat.  Dominica  (the  Lord's  day)  ; 
and  all  the  churches  with  this  prefix  to  their  names  were 
originally  founded  by  St.  Patrick,  and  the  foundations  were 
laid  on  Sunday ;  e.g.  Donaghmore  (great  church) ;  Don- 
aghedy,  in  Tyrone  (St.  Caidoc's  church)  ;  Donaghanie,  i.e. 
Domnach-an-eich  (the  church  of  the  steed)  ;  Donaghmoyne 
(of  the  plain)  ;  Donaghcloney  (of  the  meadow)  ;  Donagh- 
cumper  (of  the  confluence);  Donnybrook (St.  Broc's  church). 

DONK   DUNK          (  a  mound  surrounded  by  a  marsh  ;  e.g.  Dong- 

DONcVoid  r'     ^     \  we'r  ^^e  mound  °f  the  weir)  ;  Dunkhof  (the 
"  '"    (  enclosure  at  the  mound) ;  Dongen  (the  dwelling 
at  the  mound)  ;  Hasedonk  (the  mound  of  the  brushwood). 


DORF,  DORP,  DRUP  (Teut.),  a  village  or  small  town,  originally 
applied  to  any  small  assembly  of  people  ;  e.g.  Altendorf, 
Oldendorf  (old  town) ;  Sommerstorf  (summer  town);  Baiars- 
dorf  (the  town  of  the  Boii,  or  Bavarians)  ;  Gastdorf  (the 
town  of  the  inn,  or  for  guests)  ;  Dusseldorf,  Meldorf,  Ohr- 
druff,  Vilsendorf  (towns  of  the  Rivers  Dussel,  Miele,  Ohr, 
and  Vils)  ;  Jagersdorf  (huntsman's  village)  ;  Nussdorf  (nut 
village) ;  Mattersdorf  and  Matschdorf,  Ritzendorf,  Otters- 
dorf  (the  towns  of  Matthew,  Richard,  and  Otho)  ;  Lindorf 
(the  village  at  the  linden-tree) ;  Sandrup  (sandy  village)  ; 
Dorfheim,  Dorpam  (village  home). 

,~     ,  ,„   .  ,,     f  the  thorn;  e.g.  Dornburg,  Dorn- 

DORN  (Ger.),  DOORN  (Dutch),      ,    .  '     *  „  &' 

THYRNfAsS  I  heim    or     Dornum,    Dornburen, 

J    t~"      r  i  \  •{  Thornton  (thorn  dwelling);  Doom, 

DRAENEN  (Cym.-Cel.),  v  . 

^    /raclhpl:'\  the  name  °f  several  Places  m  the 

UC)'  (_  Dutch  colony,  South  Africa ;  Dorn- 

berg  and  Doornhoek  (thorn  hill)  ;  Dornach  (full  of  thorns)  ; 
but  Dornoch,  in  Sutherlandshire,  is  not  from  this  root ;  it 
is  said  to  be  derived  from  the  Gael,  dorneich,  in  allusion  to 
a  certain  Danish  leader  having  been  slain  at  the  place  by  a 
blow  from  a  horse's  hoof.  Thornhill,  Thornbury,  village 
names  in  England  and  Scotland  ;  Thorney  (thorn  island)  ; 
Thome,  a  town  in  Yorkshire ;  Yr  Ddreinog,  Welsh  (the 
thorny  place),  a  hamlet  in  Anglesey ;  but  Thorn,  a  town  in 
Prussia — Polish  Torun — is  probably  derived  from  a  cognate 
word  for  torres,  a  tower.  In  Ireland :  Dreen,  Drinan, 
Dreenagh,  Drinney  (places  producing  the  black  thorn). 
DRECHT  (Old  Ger.),  for  /?z/?,  meadow  pasture;  e.g.  Moordrecht, 
Zwyndrecht,  Papendrecht,  Ossendrecht  (the  moor,  swine, 
oxen  pasture,  and  the  priest's  meadow)  ;  Dort  or  Dordrecht 
(the  pasture  on  the  water),  situated  in  an  island  formed  by 
the  Maas ;  Maestricht,  Latinised  into  Trajectus-ad-Moesum 
(the  pasture  or  ford  on  the  Maas  or  Meuse) ;  Utrecht, 
Latinised  Trajectus-ad-Rhenum  (the  ford  or  pasture  on  the 
Rhine),  or  Ultra-trajectum  (beyond  the  ford). 
DRIESCH  (Ger.),  fallow  ground ;  e.g.  Driesch  and  Dresche,  in 
Oldenburg  ;  Driesfelt  (fallow  field)  ;  Bockendriesch  (the 
fallow  ground  at  the  beech-trees). 

DROICHEAD  (Gadhelic),  a  bridge  ;  e.g.  Drogheda,  anc.  Droichead- 
atha  (the  bridge  at  the  ford) ;  Ballydrehid  (bridge  town)  ; 


Knockadreet  (the  hill  of  the  bridge)  ;  Drumadrehid  (the 
ridge  at  the  bridge)  ;  Kildrought  (the  church  at  the  bridge), 
in  Ireland ;  Ceann-Drochaid  (bridge  end),  the  Gaelic  name 
for  the  Castleton  of  Braemar. 

DROOG,  or  DURGA  (Sansc.),  a  hill  fort;  e.g.  Savendroog  (golden 
fort)  ;  Viziadroog  (the  fort  of  victory)  ;  Chitteldroog  (spotted 
fort) ;  Calliendroog  (flourishing  fort)  ;  Sindeedroog  (the  fort 
of  the  sun). 

DROWO,  or  DRZEWO  (Sclav.),  j  W°°d'  ™  a  f°ret ;  et  Dreb" 

DRU  (Sansc.),  TRIU  (Goth.),  a  tree,  1  Jf\  ,Dre™        '    A     7  < 

(  Drohobicz  (the  woodyplace); 

Drewiz,  Drehnow,  Drehna,  with  the  same  meaning  ;  Mis- 
droi  (in  the  midst  of  woods). 

DRUIM,  DROM  (Gadhelic),  a  ridge,  from  droma,  the  back-bone  of 
an  animal,  cognate  with  the  Lat.  dorsum;  e.g.  Drumard 
(high  ridge)  ;  Dromeen,  Drumeen,  Drymen  (little  ridge)  ; 
Dromore  (great  ridge)  ;  Dromagh  and  Drumagh  (full  of 
ridges) ;  Dromineer,  Co.  Tipperary,  and  Drumminer  in 
Aberdeenshire  (the  ridge  of  the  confluence,  inbhir)  ;  Augh- 
rim,  Irish  Each-dhruim  (the  horses'  ridge)  ;  Leitrim,  i.e. 
Liath-dhruim  (gray  ridge)  ;  Dromanure  (the  ridge  of  the 
yew-tree)  ;  Drumderg  (red  ridge)  ;  Drumlane  (broad  ridge)  ; 
Drumcliff,  i.e.  Druim-chluibh  (the  ridge  of  the  baskets)  ; 
Drummond,  common  in  Ireland  and  Scotland,  corrupt, 
from  drumen  (little  ridge).  In  Scotland  there  are  Drumoak 
(the  ridge  of  St.  Mozola,  a  virgin) — in  Aberdeenshire  it 
was  originally  Dalmaile  (the  valley  of  Mozola)  ;  Meldrum- 
Old  (bald  ridge),  in  Aberdeenshire  ;  Drem  (the  ridge  in 
East  Lothian)  ;  Drumalbin,  Lat.  Dorsum-Britanniae  (the 
back-bone  or  ridge  of  Scotland)  ;  Drummelzier,  formerly 
Dunmeller  (the  fort  of  Meldredus,  who,  according  to  tra- 
dition, slew  Merlin,  whose  grave  is  shown  in  the  parish)  ; 
Drumblate  (the  warm  ridge,  or  the  flowery  ridge)  ;  Drum- 
cliff,  Co.  Sligo,  i.e.  Druimcliabh  (the  ridge  of  the  baskets). 
DRWS  (Welsh),  a  door  or  pass  ;  e.g.  Drws-y-coed  (the  pass  of  the 
wood)  ;  Drws-y-nant  (of  the  valley)  ;  Drws-Ardudwy  (of 
the  black  water). 

b'ack  '  e-S-  Ddulas,  a  river  in  Wales;  Douglas, 
in  Scotland  (the  black  stream);  Dubyn  (the 
black  lake). 

68  DUB— DUN 

DUB  (Sclav.),  the  oak ;  e.g.  Dubicza,  Dubrau,  Diiben,  Dubrow 
(the  place  of  oak-trees)  ;  Teupliz,  corrupt,  from  Dublize, 
with  the  same  meaning  ;  Dobojze,  Germanised  into  Dauben- 
dorf  (oak  village)  ;  Dubrawice  (oak  village)  ;  Dubrawka 
(oak  wood),  Germanised  Eichenivaldchen,  a  colony  from 
Dubrow.  In  Poland  this  word  takes  the  form  of  Dom- 
browo,  Dombroka. 

DUN  (Gadhelic),  a  stronghold,  a  hill  fort,  cognate  with  the  Welsh 
din.  As  an  adjective,  dun  or  don  means  strong,  as  in 
Dunluce,  i.e.  dun-lios  (strong  fort) ;  Duncladh  (strong 
dyke).  As  a  verb,  it  signifies  what  is  closed  or  shut  in, 
dunadh,  with  the  same  meaning  as  the  Teut.  tun,  as  in 
Corra-dhunta  (the  closed  weir).  Its  full  signification, 
therefore,  is  a  strong  enclosed  place,  and  the  name  was 
accordingly  applied  in  old  times  to  forts  surrounded  by 
several  circumvallations,  the  remains  of  which  are  still  found 
in  Ireland  and  Scotland.  Many  such  places  are  called  simply 
doon  or  down;  e.g.  Doune  Castle,  in  Perthshire  ;  Down- 
Patrick,  named  from  an  entrenched  dun  near  the  cathedral ; 
Down  and  the  Downs,  King's  Co.  and  West  Meath ; 
Dooneen  and  Downing  (little  fort)  ;  Dundalk,  i.e.  Dun- 
Dealgan  (Delga's  fort)  ;  Dundonald  (the  fort  of  Domhnall)  ; 
Dungannon  (Geanan's  fort)  ;  Dungarvan  (Garvan's  fort)  ; 
Dunleary  (Laeghaire's  fort),  now  Kingston  ;  Dunhill  and 
Dunally,  for  Dun-aille  (the  fort  on  the  cliff)  ;  Downamona 
(of  the  bog)  ;  Shandon  (old  fort)  ;  Doonard  (high  fort)  ; 
and  many  others  in  Ireland.  In  Scotland :  Dumbarton 
(the  hill  fort  of  the  Britons  or  Cumbrians) ;  Dumfries 
(the  fort  among  shrubs,  preas,  or  of  the  Feresians,  Caer 
Pheris) — v.  Dr.  Skene's  Book  of  Wales ;  Dunbar  (the  fort 
on  the  summit,  or  of  Barr,  a  chief)  ;  Dunblane  (of  St. 
Blane) ;  Dundee,  Lat.  Tao-dunum,  probably  for  Dun- 
Tatha  (the  fort  on  the  Tay) ;  Dunedin,  or  Edinburgh 
(Edwin's  fort),  so  named  by  a  prince  of  Northumberland 
in  628 — its  earlier  names  were  Dunmonadh  (the  fort  of  the 
hill),  or  in  Welsh  Dinas-Agned  (the  city  of  the  painted 
people),  and  the  Castrum-Alatum  of  Ptolemy.  The  Pict- 
ish  maidens  of  the  royal  race  were  kept  in  Edinburgh 
Castle,  hence  it  was  also  called  Castrum-Puellarumj  Dun- 
ottar  (the  fort  on  the  reef,  otter) ;  Dunfermline  (the  fort  of 

DUNE  69 

the  alder-tree  pool,  or  of  the  winding  pool)  ;  Dundrennan 
(the  fort  of  the  thorn  bushes)  ;  Dunlop  (the  fortified  hill  at 
the  angle  of  the  stream,  hib)  ;  Dunkeld,  anc.  Duncalden 
(the  fort  of  hazels)  ;  Dunbeath  (of  the  birches)  ;  Dunrobin 
(Robert's  fortress),  founded  by  Robert,  Earl  of  Sutherland  ; 
Dunure  (of  the  yew-trees)  ;  Dunnichen,  i.e.  Dunn-Nechtan 
(of  Nechtan,  a  Pictish  king)  ;  Dunsyre  (the  prophet's  hill 
or  fort) ;  Donegall,  Irish  Dungall  (i.e.  the  fort  of  the 
strangers,  the  Danes) ;  Lexdon,  in  Essex,  Lat.  Legionis- 
dunum  (the  fort  of  the  legion)  ;  Ley  den,  in  Holland,  Lat. 
Lugdunum-Batavorum  (the  fortress  of  the  Batavians,  in 
the  hollow,  lug)  ;  Lyons,  anc.  Lugdunum  (the  fort  in  the 
hollow)  ;  Maldon,  in  Essex,  anc.  Camelodunum  (the  fort  of 
the  Celtic  war-god  Carnal)  ;  Melun,  anc.  Melodunum  (bald 
fort,  maol),  in  France ;  Nevers,  Lat.  Noviodunum  (new 
fort),  in  France  ;  Thuin,  in  Belgium,  and  Thun,  in  Switzer- 
land {dun,  the  hill  fort)  ;  Yverdun,  anc.  Ebrodunum  (the 
fort  on  the  water,  bior) ;  Kempten,  in  Germany,  anc 
Campodunum  (the  fort  in  the  field) ;  Issoudun  (the  fort 
on  the  water,  uisge)  ;  Emden  (the  fort  on  the  R.  Ems)  ; 
Dijon,  anc.  Dibisdunum  (the  fort  on  two  waters),  at  the 
conf.  of  the  Ouche  and  Suzon ;  Mehun,  Meudon,  and 
Meuny,  in  France  (the  fort  on  the  plain),  Lat.  Magdunum  ; 
Verdun,  anc.  Verodunum  (the  fort  on  the  water,  bior),  on 
the  R.  Meuse,  in  France ;  Verden,  in  Hanover,  on  the  R. 
Aller,  with  the  same  meaning ;  Autun,  corrupt,  from 
Augustodunum  (the  fortress  of  Augustus)  ;  Wimbledon,  in 
Surrey,  anc.  Wibbandun  (from  an  ancient  proprietor,  Wibba); 
Sion,  in  Switzerland,  Ger.  Sztten,  corrupt,  from  its  ancient 
Celtic  name  Suidh-dunum  (the  seat  of  the  hill  fort).  From 
Daingeann  (a  fortress)  are  derived  such  names  as  Dangen 
and  Dingen,  in  Ireland ;  also  Dingle,  in  its  earlier  form 
Daingean-ui-Chuis  (the  fort  of  O'Cush  or  Hussey)  ;  it  re- 
ceived its  present  name  in  the  reign  of  Elizabeth  ;  Ballen- 
dine  and  Ballendaggan  (the  town  of  the  fort) ;  Dangan  was 
also  the  ancient  name  of  Philipstown. 

DUNE,  Or  DOWN  (A.S.),       f  a  g™SSy  hilj  °r  5™™? 5  *f  ^  °°WnS' 

•mm  fC  ]  \  \  m         south  of  England  ;  the  Dunes, 

(  in  Flanders  ;   Halidon  Hill  (the  holy 

hill)  ;  Dunham,  Dunwick,  and   Dutton,  originally  Dunton 

70  D  UR—D  YFFR  YN 

(hill  town)  ;  Croydon  (chalk  hill)  ;  Dunkirk,  in  Flanders 
(the  church  on  the  dunes)  ;  Snowdon  (snowy  hill),  in  Wales  ; 
its  Welsh  name  is  Creigiawr  (the  eagle's  rock),  eryr  (an 
eagle)  ;  Dunse,  a  town  in  Berwickshire,  now  Duns,  near 
a  hill  of  the  same  name  ;  the  Eildon  Hills,  in  Roxburgh- 
shire, corrupt,  from  Moeldun  (the  bald  hill)  ;  Eddertoun,  in 
Ross-shire  (between  the  hills  or  dunes). 

/^    11    ••  »     (  water  :    e.g.    Dour,    Douro,     Dore, 
DUR,  or  DOBHR  (Gadhehc),   I  _.   .  ' 

r,  /r-         c*  \\    }  Duir>  THUR,  Doro,  Adour,  Durance, 
DWFR,  or  DWR  (Cym.-Cel.),  4  ~      '    ,.  \    „,    ',     , 

'  .  v    3  '     \  Duron  (river  names)  ;  Glasdur  (green 

DOUR  (Breton),  /  \  \~  u  s*  u        / 

V  water)  ;  Calder,  anc.  Calaover(  woody 

water)  ;  Derwent  (bright  or  clear  water)  ;  Lauder  (the  gray 
water)  ;  Ledder  and  Leader  (the  broad  water)  ;  Dorking, 
Co.  Surrey,  anc.  Durchinges,  or  more  correctly,  Durvicingas 
(dwellers  by  the  water  —  witian,  to  dwell)  ;  Briare,  on  the 
Loire,  anc.  Briva-durum  (the  town  on  the  brink  of  the 
water,  probably  Dover,  from  this  root)  ;  Dorchester  (the 
fortress  of  the  Durotriges  —  dwellers  by  the  water),  ttigo, 
Cym.-Cel.  (to  dwell),  called  by  Leland  Hydropolis  j  Rother 
(the  red  river)  ;  Cawdor,  anc.  Kaledor  (woody  water). 

nttppp-  (C^\  (  dr>"'    sterile  ;    *'£•    Diirrenstein    (the    barren 

/\V7  iU  <  rock)  ;  Diirrental  (the  barren  valley)  ;  Diirr- 

DROOG  (Dutch),  )        ,  ,  '  '           ,            v  .     ..              ,.        '' 

n  {  wald   (the  dry  or  sterile  wood)  ;    Droogberg 

(the  barren  hill)  ;  Drupach  (dry  brook). 

DWOR  CSclav  )  r  a  door  or  °Pening'  an  °Pen  court  >  e-S-  Dvoretz 

//-      \  (the  town  at  the  opening),  in  Russia  ;  Dwarka 

THUR  (Ger.),  ^    *  „.  *"  t                  ' 

Vr  1  \  1  (         court  or  gate),  Hmdostan  ;    Hurdwar  (the 

A      ''\       court  of  Hurry  or  Siva),  called  also  Gangadiuara 
DWAR  (Sansc.),      ,,  .     3    ,  4,      7'  v     .      „•    , 

"  [  (the    opening   of  the    Ganges),    in    Hmdostan  ; 

Issoire,  anc.  Issiodorum  (the  town  at  door  or  meeting  of  the 
waters,  uisge),  a  town  in  France  at  the  conf.  of  the  Allier 
and  Couze  ;  Durrisdeer,  Gael.  Dorus-darach  (at  the  opening 
of  the  oak-wood),  in  Dumfriesshire  ;  Lindores,  in  Fife,  anc. 
Lindoruis  (at  the  outlet  of  the  waters),  on  a  lake  of  the 
same  name  which  communicates  by  a  small  stream  with 
the  Tay. 

DYFFRYN  (Welsh),  a  river  valley  ;  e.g.  Dyffryn-Clydach,  Dyffryn- 
Gwy,  in  the  valleys  of  the  R.  Clwyd  and  Gwy,  in  Wales  ; 
Dyffryn-golych  (the  vale  of  worship),  in  Glamorgan. 

EA  71 

TTVAV       fan  island;  from  ea>  a->  aa>  running  water; 

£•  i  *    AY.  •     .        .1  . .•  /- 

ea  or  ^y  enter  into  the  composition  of  many 
EGE  or  EG  A  «^  r    i  1-1  •  •      i 

,„        ,  x    <  A.b.  names  of  places  which  are  now  loined 
OE,  o,  or  A  (Scand.),  .  ,     \  .  ,  £    ., 

JT%_.  v\  to  the  mainland  or  to  rich  pastures  by  the 

OOG    (DlltCh),  .  ,  •          T7.  1?    /  13  T7 

[  river-side,  as  in  Eton,  Eaton,  Eyam,  Ey- 
worth,  Eywick  (dwellings  by  the  water) ;  Eyemouth,  Moulsy, 
on  the  R.  Mole  ;  Bermondsey,  now  included  in  the 
Metropolis  ;  Eamont,  anc.  Eamot  (the  meeting  of  waters)  ; 
Fladda  and  Fladday  (flat  island)  ;  Winchelsea  (either  the 
corner,  A.S.  ivincel,  of  the  water,  or  the  island  of  Wincheling, 
son  of  the  Saxon  king  Cissa,  who  founded  it)  ;  Swansea 
(Sweyn's  town,  on  the  water),  at  the  mouth  of  the  Tawey ; 
Anglesea  (the  island  of  the  Angles  or  English),  so  named 
by  the  Danes — its  Welsh  name  was  Ynys-Fonn  or  Mono. ; 
Portsea  (the  island  of  the  haven)  ;  Battersea  (St.  Peter's 
isle),  because  belonging  to  St.  Peter's  Abbey,  Westminster ; 
Chelsea  (ship  island,  or  the  island  of  the  sandbank) — v.  p. 
46,  CEOL,  CEOSEL  ;  Ely  (eel  island)  ;  Jersey  (Caesar's  isle)  ; 
Olney  (holly  meadow)  ;  Odensee  (Woden's  island  or  town 
on  the  water)  ;  Whalsey  (whale  island,  hval}  ;  Rona  (St. 
Ronan's  isle)  ;  Mageroe  (scraggy  island)  ;  Nordereys  and 
Sudereys — from  this  word  Sudereys,  the  Bishop  of  Sodor 
and  Man  takes  his  title — (the  north  and  south  isles),  names 
given  by  the  Norsemen  to  the  Hebrides  and  the  Orkneys 
under  their  rule  ;  Oesel  (seal  island) ;  Oransay  (the  island  of 
St.  Oran)  ;  Pabba  and  Papa  (priest's  isle).  The  Papae  or 
Christian  anchorites  came  from  Ireland  and  the  west  of  Scot- 
land to  Orkney  and  Shetland,  and  traces  of  them  were  found 
in  Iceland  on  its  discovery  by  the  Norsemen,  hence  probably 
such  names  as  Pappa  and  Crimea  (the  island  of  the  Cymri 
or  Cimmerians)  ;  Morea  (the  mulberry -shaped  island)  ; 
Shapinsay  (the  isle  of  Hjalpand,  a  Norse  Viking) ;  Faroe  (the 
sheep  islands — -faar,  Scand.)  ;  Faroe,  also  in  Sweden  ;  but 
Farr,  a  parish  in  the  north  of  Scotland,  is  from  fatre,  Gael, 
a  watch  or  sentinel,  from  a  chain  of  watch-towers  which 
existed  there  in  former  times  ;  Staffa  (the  island  of  the 
staves  or  columns,  Scand.  stem) ;  Athelney  (the  island  of 


the  nobles)  ;  Bressay,  Norse  Bardie's  ay  (giant's  island)  ; 
Bardsey  (the  bard's  island),  the  last  retreat  of  the  Welsh 
bards  ;  Femoe  (cattle  island)  ;  Fetlar,  anc.  Fedor's-oe 
(Theodore's  island)  ;  Romney  (marsh  island),  Gael.  Rumach; 
Sheppey,  A.S.  Sceapige  (sheep  island)  ;  Langeoog  (long 
island) ;  Oeland  (water  land) ;  Torsay  (the  island  with 
conical  hills,  torr)  ;  Chertsey,  A.S.  Ceortes-ige  (Ceorot's 
island)  ;  Lingley  (heathery  island),  ling,  Norse  (heather)  ; 
Muchelney  (large  island)  ;  Putney,  A.S.  Puttanige  (Putta's 
isle) ;  Thorney  (thorny  island),  but  its  more  ancient  name  was 
Ankerige,  from  an  anchorite  who  dwelt  in  a  cell  in  the  island. 

,~  ,  N  ,  4  ( e.g.  Eddertoun,  Co.  Ross  (be- 

EADAR,  EDAR  (Cel.),  between,  1  * 

/T-  o  j  r,  *.  \  J  tween  hills) — v.  DUNE:  Eddra- 

ENTRE(Fr.,  Span.,  and  Port.),  <  ,....  .  '  „  .  .  '  . 

/T    t \  '     \  chillis,    i.e.    Eadar    da    Chaolas 

((between  two  firths),  Co.  Suther- 
land ;  Killederdaowen,  in  Galway,  i.e.  Coill-eder-da-abhainn 
(the  wood  between  two  rivers)  ;  and  Killadrown,  King's 
County,  with  the  same  meaning ;  Cloonederowen,  Gal- 
way  (the  meadow  between  two  rivers)  ;  Ballydarown  (the 
townland  between  two  rivers).  In  France :  Entre-deux-mers 
(between  two  seas) ;  Entrevaux  (between  valleys) ;  Entre-rios 
(between  streams),  in  Spain ;  Entre-Douro-e-Minho  (between 
these  rivers),  in  Portugal ;  Interlacken  (between  lakes),  in 

//-   jt.  v  \  f a  church.     These  and  synonymous  words 
EAGLAIS  (Gadhelic),  .,       „  ,    . 

/V        /-  i  \  m    tne    Romance    languages    are    derived 

EGLWYS(Cym.-CeL),  ,  T    .          7    .  , 

. .   v   } .  .         "  <  from     Lat.    ecclesta,    and    that    from    the 

ILIZ  (Armonc),  „  .     ,     •.  ,  , .  .  „     , 

/TT        \  e/cKATjo-ia  (an  assembly) ;  e.g.  Eccles, 

°'''  [  a  parish  and  suburb  of  Manchester,  also 
the  name  of  two  parishes  in  Berwickshire  ;  Eccleshall,  in 
Staffordshire,  so  called  because  the  bishops  of  Lichfield 
formerly  had  a  palace  there  ;  Eccleshill  (church  hill), 
in  Yorkshire  ;  Eccleston  (church  town),  in  Lancashire  ; 
Ecclesmachan  (the  church  of  St.  Machan),  in  Linlithgow  ; 
Eaglesham  (the  hamlet  at  the  church),  Co.  Renfrew  ;  Eccles- 
craig  or  Ecclesgrieg  (the  church  of  St.  Gregory  or  Grig),  in 
Kincardine ;  Eglishcormick  (St.  Cormac's  church),  Dumfries ; 
Ecclescyrus  (of  St.  Cyrus),  in  Fife  ;  Lesmahago,  Co.  Lanark, 
corrupt,  from  Ecdesia-Machuti  (the  church  of  St.  Machute, 
who  is  said  to  have  settled  there  in  the  sixth  century)  ; 


Carluke,  in  Lanarkshire,  corrupt,  from  Eccles-maol-Luke 
(the  church  of  the  servant  of  St.  Luke)  ;  Terregles,  anc. 
Traver-eglys  (church  lands),  Gael,  treabhair  (houses),  in 
Kirkcudbright.  In  Wales :  Eglwys  Fair  (St.  Mary's  church) ; 
Hen-eglwys  (old  church)  ;  Aglish  and  Eglish  (the  church), 
the  names  of  parishes  in  Ireland ;  Aglishcloghone  (the 
church  of  the  stepping-stones)  ;  Iglesuela  (little  church),  in 
Spain  ;  Feher  eghaz  (white  church),  in  Hungary.  In 
France  :  Eglise-aux-bois  (the  church  in  the  woods)  ;  Eglise 
neuve  (new  church)  ;  Eglisolles,  Eligaberry,  and  Eligaberria 
(the  church  in  the  plain).  Such  names  as  Aylesford,  Ayls- 
worth,  Aylesby,  etc.,  may  be  derived  from  eglwys  or  ecclesia, 

EAS,  ESS,  ESSIE  (Gadhelic),  a  waterfall ;  e.g.  the  R.  Ness  and  Loch 
Ness  (i.e.  the  river  and  lake  of  the  Fall  of  Foyers)  ;  Ess- 
nambroc  (the  waterfall  of  the  badger)  ;  Essmore  (the  great 
waterfall)  ;  Doonass  (i.e.  Irish  Dun  easa  (the  fort  of  the 
cataract),  on  the  Shannon ;  Caherass,  in  Limerick,  with 
the  same  meaning ;  Pollanass  (the  pool  of  the  waterfall)  ; 
Fetteresso,  in  Kincardine  (the  uncultivated  land,  fiadhair, 
near  the  waterfall)  ;  Edessa,  in  Turkey,  seems  to  derive 
its  name  from  the  same  root,  as  its  Sclavonic  name  is 
Vodena,  with  the  same  meaning ;  Edessa,  in  Mesopotamia, 
is  on  the  R.  Daisan ;  Portessie  (the  port  of  the  waterfall), 

EBEN  (Ger.),  a  plain  ;  e.g.  Ebenried  and  Ebenrinth  (the  cleared 
plain)  ;  Ebnit  (on  the  plain)  ;  Breite-Ebnit  (broad  plain)  ; 
Holzeben  (woody  plain). 

,™  ,  c.       j  \      ( a    nook    or     corner  ;     e.g. 

ECKE,  or  EGG  (Teut.  and  Scand.),        c  ,  ..  ,,        ,.,  ,    '     ,  f 

r//"  A  r  \  \  Schonegg  (beautiful  nook)  ; 

VIG  (Gadhelic),  )  „  ,  ,    ?    /  -n       \ 

(  Eckdorf    (corner    village)  ; 

Eggberg  (corner  hill)  ;  Reinecke  (the  Rhine  corner)  ;  Ran- 
decke  (the  corner  of  the  point,  rand)  ;  Vilseek  (at  the 
corner  of  the  R.  Vils)  ;  Wendecken  (the  corner  of  the 
Wends  or  Sclaves)  ;  Edgcott  (the  corner  hut)  ;  Wantage, 
Co.  Berks  (Wanta's  corner),  on  the  edge  of  a  stream  ; 
Stevenage,  Co.  Herts  (Stephen's  corner)  ;  Gourock  (the 
goal's  corner)  ;  Landeck,  in  the  Tyrol  (at  the  meeting  or 
corner  of  three  roads)  ;  Nigg,  Gael.  N-uig  (at  the  corner), 


a  parish  in  Co.  Kincardine,  and  also  in  Ross  and  Cromarty ; 
Haideck  (heath  corner),  in  Bavaria. 

EGER  (Hung.),  the  alder-tree  ;  e.g.  the  R.  Eger  with  the  town  of 
the  same  name. 

//-  ju  T  \     f an    island,    cognate  with   the   Lat.  insula. 
EILEAN  (Gadhehc),       „,       „      '       &    .    . 
EALAND  fA  S  "l  I  Gaelic   word    is  generally  applied  to 

EYLANDT  (Dutch)       \  *™^™    '^™^    ^**    '""" °*     *'&    EUean- 

INSEL  (Ger  )  I  5S^athach    or    Skye    (the    winged    island)  ; 

[  Eilean-dunan  (the  isle  of  the  small  fort)  ; 
Eilean-na-goibhre  (of  the  goats)  ;  Eilean-na-monach  (of  the 
monks)  ;  Eilean-na-Clearach  (of  the  clergy)  ;  Eilean-na- 
naoimbh  (of  the  saints),  often  applied  to  Ireland ;  Eilean- 
nam-Muchad  or  Muck  (the  island  of  pigs),  in  the  Hebrides  ; 
Flannan,  in  the  Hebrides,  i.e.  Eilean-an-Flannan  (of  St. 
Flannan)  ;  Groote  Eylandt  (great  island),  off  the  coast  of 
Australia ;  Rhode  Island,  in  the  United  States,  Dutch  (red 
island),  or,  according  to  another  interpretation,  so  named 
from  its  fancied  resemblance  in  form  to  the  island  of 

EISEN  (Ger.),  iron  ;  e.g.  Eisenstadt  (iron  town)  ;  Eisenach,  in 
Germany  (on  a  river  impregnated  with  iron)  ;  Eisenberg 
(iron  hill  fort),  in  Germany ;  Eisenburg  (iron  town),  Hung. 
Vasvar,  in  Hungary  ;  Eisenirz  (iron  ore),  on  the  Erzberg 
Mountains  ;  Eisenschmidt  (iron  forge),  in  Prussia. 
,p  ,  v  fa  river ;  e.g.  Alf,  Alb,  Elbe,  Elben,  river  names ; 

FT  v  '•"  •<  Laagenelv  (the  river  in  the  hollow)  ;  Dol-elf  (valley 

[  river)  ;   Elbing,  a  town   on   a  river  of  the   same 

ENAGH,  or  ^ENAGH  (Irish),  an  assembly  of  people,  such  as  were 
held  in  old  times  by  the  Irish  at  the  burial  mounds,  and  in 
modern  times  applied  to  a  cattle  fair  ;  e.g.  Nenagh,  in  Tip- 
perary,  anc.  ^n-^Enach-Urmhumhan  (the  assembly  meeting- 
place  of  Ormund),  the  definite  article  n  having  been  added 
to  the  name — this  place  is  still  celebrated  for  its  great  fairs  ; 
Ballinenagh,  Ballineanig,  Ballynenagh  (the  town  of  the  fair)  ; 
Ardanlanig  (the  height  of  the  fair)  ;  Monaster-an-enagh  (the 
monastery  at  the  place  of  meeting).  But  this  word  is  not 
to  be  confounded  with  eanach  (a  watery  place  or  marsh), 
found  under  such  forms  as  enagh  and  annagh,  especially  in 
Ulster.  Thus  Annabella,  near  Mallow,  is  in  Irish  Eanach- 

ENDE — ETAN  75 

bile  (the  marsh  of  the  old  tree)  ;  Annaghaskin  (the  marsh 
of  the  eels). 

ENDE  (Teut.),  the  end  or  corner;  Ostend,  in  Belgium  (at  the 
west  end  of  the  canal  opening  into  the  ocean)  ;  Ostend,  in 
Essex  (at  the  east  end  of  the  land)  ;  Oberende  (upper  end)  ; 
Siiderende  (the  south  corner)  ;  Endfelden  (the  corner  of 
the  field),  probably  Enfield,  near  London.  Purmerend  (at 
the  end  of  the  Purmer),  a  lake  in  Holland,  now  drained. 

ENGE  (Teut.),  narrow;  e.g.  Engberg  (narrow  hill);  Engbriick 
(narrow  bridge)  ;  Engkuizen  (the  narrow  houses). 

ERBE  (Ger.),  an  inheritance  or  property ;  e.g.  Erbstellen  (the 
place  of  the  inheritance,  or  the  inherited  property)  ;  Erbhof 
(the  inherited  mansion-house)  ;  Sechserben  (the  property 
or  inheritance  of  the  Saxons). 

ERDE  (Teut.),  cultivated  land  ;  e.g.  Rotherde  (red  land)  ;  Schwarz- 
enerde  (black  land). 

ERLE  (Ger.),  the  alder-tree ;  e.g.  Erla  and  Erlabeka  (alder-tree 
stream)  ;  Erlangen  (the  dwelling  near  alder-trees)  ;  Erlau, 
a  town  in  Hungary,  on  the  Erlau  (alder-tree  river). 

ERMAK  (Turc.),  a  river;  e.g.  Kizel-Ermack  (red  river);  Jekil- 
Ermak  (green  river). 

ESCHE  (Old  Ger.),  a  common  or  sowed  field  ;  e.g.  Summeresche, 
Winteresche  (the  field  sown  in  summer  and  winter)  ;  Brach- 
esche  (the  field  broken  up  for  tillage)  ;  Kaiseresche  (the 
emperor's  common).  For  this  word  as  an  affix,  v.  p.  5  : 
as  a  prefix  it  signifies  the  ash- tree,  as  in  the  Aschaff  or 
ash-tree  river ;  Aschaffenberg  (the  fortress  on  the  Aschaff)  ; 
Eschach  (ash-tree  stream)  ;  Escheweiller  (ash-tree  town)  ; 
Eschau  (ash-tree  meadow). 

ESGAIR  (Welsh),  a  long  ridge  ;  e.g.  Esgair-hir  (the  long  ridge)  ; 
Esgair-yn-eira  (the  snow  ridge). 

ESKI  (Turc.),  old;  e.g.  Eski-djuma  (old  ditch). 

ESPE,  or  ASPE  (Ger.),  the  poplar-tree ;  e.g.  Aspach  (a  place 
abounding  in  poplars,  or  the  poplar-tree  stream)  ;  Espen- 
field  (the  field  of  poplars) ;  Aspenstadt  (the  station  of 
poplars) — v.  AESP,  p.  5. 

ESTERO  (Span.),  a  marsh  or  salt  creek ;  e.g.  Estero-Santiago  (St. 
James's  marsh)  ;  Los-Esteros  (the  salt  creeks),  in  South 

ETAN,  TANA  (Basque),  a  district,  with  the  same  meaning  as  the 

76  E  UDAN—FAL  U 

Cel.  tan,  Latinised  tania;  e.g.  Aquitania  (the  district  of  the 
waters)  ;  Mauritania  (of  the  Moors)  ;  Lusitania  (the  ancient 
name  of  Portugal).  This  root-word  enters  into  the  name 
of  Britain,  according  to  Taylor — v.  Words  and  Places. 

EUDAN,  or  AODANN  (Gadhelic),  the  forehead — in  topography,  the 
front  or  brow  of  a  hill ;  e.g.  Edenderry  (the  hill-brow  of  the 
oak-wood);  Edenkelly  (the  front  of  the  wood);  Ednashanlaght 
(the  hill-brow  of  the  old  sepulchre)  ;  Edenmore  (the  great 
hill-brow) ;  Edina  (one  of  the  ancient  names  of  Edinburgh). 

EVES  (A.S.),  a  margin  ;  e.g.  Evedon  (on  the  brink  of  the  hill)  ; 
Evesbatch  (the  brink  of  the  brook)  ;  Evesham  (the  dwell- 
ing on  the  bank  of  the  River  Avon,  in  Worcester,  or  the 
dwelling  of  Eoves,  a  shepherd,  afterwards  made  Bishop  of 

FAGUS  (Lat.),  a  beech-tree ;  Fagetum,  a  place  planted  with 
beeches ;  e.g.  La  Fage,  Le  Faget,  Fayet,  Les  Faus,  Fau- 
mont,  in  France. 

FAHR,  FUHR  (Teut.  and  Scand.),  a  way  or  passage — fromfahren, 
to  go  ;  e.g.  Fahrenhorst  (the  passage  at  the  wood)  ;  Fahren- 
bach,  Fahrwasser  (the  passage  over  the  water)  ;  Fahrwangen 
(the  field  at  the  ferry)  ;  Rheinfahr  (the  passage  over  the 
Rhine)  ;  Langefahr  (long  ferry)  ;  Niederfahr  (lower  ferry)  ; 
Vere  or  Campvere,  in  Holland  (the  ferry  leading  to  Kampen) ; 
Ferryby  (the  town  of  the  Ferry),  in  Yorkshire  ;  Broughty- 
Ferry,  in  Fife  (the  ferry  near  a  brough  or  castle,  the  ruins 
of  which  still  remain)  ;  Ferry-Port-on-Craig  (the  landing- 
place  on  the  rock),  opposite  Broughty-Ferry)  ;  Queensferry, 
West  Lothian,  named  from  Queen  Margaret ;  Connal-Ferry 
(the  ferry  of  the  raging  flood),  confhath-tutl,  in  Argyleshire  ; 
Fareham,  Co.  Hants  (the  dwelling  at  the  ferry). 

FALU,  or  FALVA  (Hung.),  a  village  ;  e.g.  Uj-falu  (new  village)  ; 
Olah-falu  (the  village  of  the  Wallachians  or  Wallochs,  a  name 
which  the  Germans  applied  to  the  Sclaves)  ;  Hanus-falva 
(John's  village) ;  Ebes-falva  (Elizabeth's  village),  Ger. 
Elizabeth-stadt ;  Szombat-falva  (the  village  at  which  the 
Saturday  market  was  held)  ;  Balars-falva  (the  village  of 
Blaise)  ;  Bud-falva  (the  village  of  Buda). 


FANUM  (Lat.),  a  temple  ;  e.g.  Fano,  in  Italy,  anc.  Fanum-Fortunce 
(the  temple  of  fortune),  built  here  by  the  Romans  to  com- 
memorate the  defeat  of  Asdrubal  on  the  Metaurus  ;  Famars, 
anc.  Fanum-Martis  (the  temple  of  Mars)  ;  Fanjeaux,  anc. 
Fanum-Jovis  (of  Jove)  ;  St.  Die,  anc.  Fanum-Deodati  (the 
temple  of  Deodatus,  Bishop  of  Nevers)  ;  St.  Dezier,  anc. 
Fanum-Desiderii  (the  temple  of  St.  Desiderius)  ;  Florent- 
le-Vieul,  anc.  Fanum- Florentii  (of  St.  Florentius) ;  St. 
Flour,  Fanum-Flori  (of  St.  Florus). 

FARR  (Norse),  a  sheep.  This  word  seems  to  have  given  names 
to  several  places  in  the  north  of  Scotland,  as  affording 
good  pasture  for  sheep  ;  e.g.  Farr,  a  parish  in  Sutherland- 
shire)  ;  Farra,  Faray,  islands  in  the  Hebrides  and  Orkneys  ; 
Fare,  a  hill  in  Aberdeenshire. 

,„,,...  (  the  alder-tree  :  e.g.   Fernagh, 

FEARN  (Gadhelic),  „  j  tr  / 

,  '      x  <  Farnagh,  and  Ferney  (a  place 

FAUR,  or  VAUR  (great) — Z/.MAUR,        ,          °.  ,,      *  v     \     . 

'  (  abounding   in  alder -trees),  in 

Ireland  ;  Glenfarne  (alder-tree  valley)  ;  Ferns,  Co.  Wexford, 
anc.  Fearna  (the  place  of  alders)  ;  Gortnavern  (the  field  of 
alders) ;  Farney,  Co.  Monaghan,  corrupt,  from  Fearn- 
mhagh  (alder-tree  plain)  ;  Altanfearn  (the  little  stream  of 
alders);  Sronfearn  (the  point  of  alders) — v.  p.  178;  Fearns 
(the  alder-trees),  in  Ross  -  shire  ;  Fearn,  also  in  Forfar ; 
Ferney,  on  the  Lake  of  Geneva,  probably  with  same  mean- 
ing as  Ferney  in  Ireland. 

FEHER  (Hung.),  white ;  Szekes-Fehervar,  Ger.  Stuliveissenburg 
(the  throne  of  the  white  fortress). 

FEKETE  (Hung.),  black  ;  e.g.  Fekete-halam  (black  hill). 

FEL  (Hung.),  upper,  in  opposition  to  a!,  lower  ;  e.g.  Felsovaros 
(upper  town)  ;  Alvaros  (lower  town). 

FELD,  or  VELD  (Teut.),  a  plain  or  field ;  lit.  a  place  where  trees 
had  been  felled ;  e.g.  Feldham  (field  dwelling)  ;  Feldberg 
(field  fortress)  ;  Bassevelde,  in  Belgium  (low  plain)  ;  Gurk- 
feld  (cucumber  field)  ;  Leckfeld,  Rhinfeld  (the  plain  of  the 
Rivers  Leek  and  Rhine)  ;  Great  Driffield,  in  Yorkshire 
(dry  field)  ;  Huddersfield,  in  Doomsday  Oderesfeld,  from  a 
personal  name ;  Macclesfield  (the  field  of  St.  Michael's 
church)  ;  Sheffield,  on  the  R.  Sheaf;  Mansfield,  on  the  R. 
Mann  ;  Lichfield,  Co.  Stafford  (the  field  of  corpses),  A.S. 
Licenfelt,  where,  according  to  tradition,  a  great  slaughter 

78  FELL — FENN 

of  the  Christians  took  place  in  the  reign  of  Diocletian  ; 
Wakefield  (the  field  by  the  wayside,  waeg)  ;  Spitalfields, 
(i.e.  the  fields  near  the  hospital  or  place  of  entertainment), 
Lat.  hospitalium.  There  is  a  watering-place  near  Berwick 
called  Spital,  also  a  suburb  of  Aberdeen  called  the  Spital  ; 
Smithfield,  in  London,  is  a  corruption  of  Smethfield  (smooth 
field)  ;  Beaconsfield,  Berks,  so  called  from  having  been 
built  on  a  height  on  which  beacon  fires  were  formerly 
lighted)  ;  Coilsfield,  in  Ayrshire  (the  field  of  Coilus  or 
King  Coil).  There  is  a  large  mound  near  it  said  to  mark 
the  site  of  his  grave. 

FELL,  FIALL,  or  FJELD  (Scand.),    (  *  *&  m°Untaln  °r   ™™f™ 

FEL,  FELSEN  (Ger.),  ]*?*'•    ^.     Dovrefehl    (the 

[  gloomy  mountains)  ;  Donners- 

feld  (the  mountain  range  of  thunder  or  of  Thor)  ;  Snafel, 
Iceland,  and  Sneefell,  in  the  Isle  of  Man  (snow  moun- 
tain) ;  Blaefell  (blue  mountain)  ;  Drachenfells  (the  dragon's 
rock)  ;  Weissenfels  (the  white  rock)  ;  Rothenfels  (red 
rock)  ;  Scawfell  (the  mountain  of  the  sca-w  or  promontory)  ; 
Hartfell  (of  harts)  ;  Hestfell  (of  the  steed)  ;  Lindenfels  (of 
the  linden-tree)  ;  Lichtenfels  (the  mountain  of  light),  a 
Moravian  settlement  in  Greenland  ;  Fitful  Head,  corrupt. 
from  fitfioll  (the  hill  with  the  promontory  running  into  the 
sea),  Old  Norse  fit  —  in  Shetland  ;  Falaise,  in  France,  a 
promontory,  derived  from  the  Ger.  fell  ;  Fellentin  (the 
fort,  dun,  on  the  rock),  in  France  ;  Souter-fell,  Cumber- 
land ;  Saudfjeld,  Norway  ;  Saudafell,  in  Iceland  (sheep 
hill),  from  Old  Norse  sauder,  a  sheep  ;  perhaps  Soutra  Hill, 
in  Mid-  Lothian,  may  come  from  the  same  word;  Criffel 
(the  craggy  rock),  Dumfries  ;  Felza,  Felsbach  (rocky 
stream),  in  France  ;  Felsberg  (rock  fortress),  in  Germany  ; 
Goat-fell,  in  Arran,  Gael.  Gaoth-ceann  (the  windy  point), 
to  which  the  Norsemen  added  their  fell. 

.„      .  /a  marsh:    e.g.    the    Fenns   or   marshy 

FENN  (Ger.),  ,      „  '     ,P.       ..  ,          ,       ,  . 

/-r^      i_\     )  lands  :  Fen-ditton  (the  enclosed  town  on 

VEN,  Or  VEEN   (Dutch),    <  iV  i.\       T7  c.      .r     j    /^       r     j 

'  v  ''    j  the  marsh)  ;  Fenny-Stratford  (the  ford 

r  (A-b-'> 

(on  the  Roman  road,  strat,  in  the 
marshy  land)  ;  Fenwick,  Fenton,  Finsbury  (the  town  or 
enclosed  place  on  the  marsh)  ;  Venloo,  in  Belgium  (the 
place  in  the  marsh)  ;  Veenhof,  Veenhusen  (dwellings  in  the 


marsh)  ;  Houtveen  (woody  marsh)  ;  Diepenveen  (deep 
marsh)  ;  Zutphen,  in  Holland  (the  south  marsh)  ;  Ravenna, 
in  Italy,  called  Pludosa  (the  marshy).  It  was  originally 
built  in  a  lagoon,  on  stakes,  like  Venice  ;  Venice,  named 
from  the  Veneti,  probably  marsh  dwellers  ;  Vannes,  in 
France,  and  La  Vendee,  may  be  from  the  same  word, 
although  others  derive  the  names  from  venna  (a  fisherman), 
others  from  gwent,  Cel.  (the  fair  plain)  ;  Finland  (the  land 
of  marshes).  The  natives  call  themselves  Suomilius,  from 
suoma  (a  marsh).  Fang  in  German  and  Dutch  names, 
and  faing  in  French  names,  are  sometimes  used  instead  of 
fenn  —  as  in  Zeefang  (lake  marsh)  ;  Aalfang  (eel  marsh)  ; 
Habechtsfang  (hawk's  marsh)  ;  Faing-du-buisson,  Dom- 
faing,  etc.,  in  the  valleys  of  the  Vosges. 

FERN,  or  FARN  (Teut.),  the  fern  ;  e.g.  Ferndorf,  Farndon,  Farn- 
ham,  Farnborough  (dwellings  among  ferns)  ;  Farnhurst  (fern 
thicket)  ;  Ferndale  (fern  valley)  ;  Farringdon  (fern  hill)  ; 
Fernruit  (a  place  cleared  of  ferns). 

f  a  grave  or  trench  ;  e.g.  Farta,  Ferta,  and 

'    /,-   ji.  T  \      \  Fartha  (i.e.  the  graves)  :  Fertagh  and  Far- 
FERTA  (Gadhehc),      |  ,.     ,     /^       ,  r 

[  tagh   (the   place   of  graves)  ;    Moyarta,  in 

Clare,  Irish  Magh-fherta  (the  field  of  the  graves)  ;  Fortin- 
gall,  in  Perthshire,  is  supposed  to  have  derived  its  name 
from  this  word,  Feart-na-gall  (the  grave  of  the  strangers), 
having  been  the  scene  of  many  bloody  battles. 
LA  FERTE,  contracted  from  the  French  La  fermeti,  from  the  Lat. 
firmitas  (strength),  applied  in  topography  to  a  stronghold  ; 
e.g.  La  Ferte  Bernardi  (Bernard's  stronghold)  ;  Ferte'-freshal, 
from  Firmitas  Fraxinelli  (the  stronghold  of  little  ash-trees)  ; 
La  Ferte,  in  Nievre  and  in  Jura,  etc. 

FESTE(Ger)  (a  fortress  >   e^   Altefeste   (high   fortress); 

/-r\\  u\        )  Franzenfeste  (the  fortress  of  the  Franks)  ; 

VESTING  (Dutch),        <   „  /,  r       L         r 

FAESTUNG  (Scand  )     )FestenburS    (the    town    of    the    fortress); 
'•"    ^  Ivanich-festung  (John's  fortress),  in  Croatia. 

FEUCHT  (Ger  )  f  moist'  marshy5  e&  Feuchtwang  (the  marshy 

VOICHTIG  (Dutch),    1  fiel7d)'  .in  ^^  .f°rmf  ^  Called  Hudr°- 
(  POUS,  in    Greek,  with   the   same  meaning  ; 

Feucht  (the  damp  place),  also  in  Bavaria  ;  Viecht-gross  and 
Viecht-klein  (the  great  and  little  damp  place),  in  Bavaria. 


LES  FEVES  (Fr.),  beans,  Lat.  faba,  from  which  come  such  places 
in  France  as  La  Faviere,  Favieres,  Faverage,  Favray, 
Faverelles,  etc. 

FICHTE  (Ger.),  the  pine-tree ;  e.g.  Schoenfichten  (the  beautiful 
pine-trees)  ;  Finsterfechten  (the  dark  pine-trees) ;  Ficht- 
horst  (pine-wood)  ;  Feichheim  (a  dwelling  among  pines). 
In  topography,  however,  it  is  difficult  to  distinguish  this 
word  from  feucht  (damp). 

FIN,  FIONN  (Gadhelic),  fair,  white,  Welsh  gwynn;  e.g.  Findrum 
(white  ridge)  ;  Fionn-uisge  (the  clear  water).  The  Phoenix 
Park,  in  Dublin,  was  so  called  from  a  beautiful  spring  well 
on  the  grounds  ;  Findlater  (the  fair  slope,  letter)  ;  Fingart 
(fair  field)  ;  Finnow,  Finnan,  and  Finglass  (fair  stream)  ; 
Finglen  (fair  glen)  ;  Knockfin  (fair  hill)  ;  Loch  Fyne  (clear 
or  beautiful  lake) ;  Fintray,  in  Aberdeenshire ;  Fintry,  in 
Stirling  (fair  strand,  traigK)  ;  Ventry,  Co.  Kerry,  i.e.  Fionn- 
traigh  (fair  strand)  ;  Finnow  (the  fair  stream). 

FIORD,  or  FJORD  (Scand.),  a  creek  or  inlet  formed  by  an  arm  of 
the  sea,  Anglicised  ford,  or  in  Scotland  firth;  e.g.  Selfiord 
(herring  creek) ;  Laxfiord  (salmon  creek) ;  Hvalfiord  (whale 
creek)  ;  Lymefiord  (muddy  creek)  ;  Skagafiord  (the  inlet  of 
the  promontory,  skagi)  ;  Halsfiord  (the  bay  of  the  neck  or 
hals,  i.e.  the  narrow  passage);  Waterford,  named  by  the  Danes 
Vadre-fiord  (the  fordable  part  of  the  bay) — the  Irish  name 
of  the  town  was  Port-lairge  (the  port  of  the  thigh),  from  its 
form  ;  Wexford  (the  western  creek  or  inlet),  also  named  by 
the  Danes  Flekkefiord  (the  flat  inlet) — its  Irish  name  was 
Inverslanie  (at  the  mouth  of  the  Slaney) ;  Strangford  Lough 
(i.e.  the  loch  of  the  strong  fiord}  ;  Carlingford,  in  Irish 
Caerlmn,  the  fiord  having  been  added  by  the  Danes  ;  Vaer- 
ingefiord,  in  Norway  (the  inlet  of  the  Varangians  or 
Warings) ;  Breidafiord  (broad  inlet),  in  Ireland ;  Haver- 
ford,  probably  from  Scand.  havre  (oats). 

FLECKE  (Teut.  and  Scand.),  a  spot  or  level  place,  hence  a  hamlet ; 
e.g.  Flegg,  East  and  West,  in  Norfolk ;  Fleckney  (the  flat 
island)  ;  Fletton  (flat  town)  ;  Pfaffenfleck  (the  priest's 
hamlet)  ;  Amtsfleck  (the  amptman's  hamlet)  ;  Schcenfleck 
(beautiful  hamlet)  ;  Marktflecten  (the  market  village)  ; 
Fladda,  Flatholme,  Fleckeroe  (flat  island)  ;  Fladstrand 
(flat  strand). 


FLEOT,  FLIEZ  (Teut.),  ' 

VLIET  (Dutch)  1  *?    °n    WhlCh    VCSSf .    m^,°?K;-  tf 

(  Fleet  (a  nver  name),  in  Kirkcudbright ; 

Fleet  Loch  ;  Swinefleet  (Sweyn's  channel)  ;  Saltfleetby  (the 
dwelling  on  the  salt  water  channel)  ;  Shalfleet  (shallow 
channel)  ;  Depenfleth  (deep  channel)  ;  Adlingfleet  (the 
channel  of  the  Atheling  or  noble)  ;  Ebbfleet,  a  place  which 
was  a  port  in  the  twelfth  century,  but  is  now  half  a  mile 
from  the  shore  ;  Purfleet,  Co.  Essex,  anc.  Poitrteflete  (the 
channel  of  the  port)  ;  Fleetwood  (the  wood  on  the  channel 
of  the  R.  Wyre)  ;  Miihlfloss  (mill  channel)  ;  Flushing,  in 
Holland,  corrupt,  from  Vliessengen  (the  town  on  the  channel 
of  the  R.  Scheldt).  In  Normandy  this  kind  of  channel 
takes  the  form  of  fleur,  e.g.  Barfleur  (the  summit  or  pro- 
jection on  the  channel)  ;  Harfleur  or  Havrefleur  (the  harbour 
on  the  channel)  ;  Biervliet  (the  fruitful  plain  on  the  channel). 
Flad  as  a  prefix  sometimes  signifies  a  place  liable  to  be 
flooded,  as  Fladbury,  Fledborough.  The  Lat.  flumen  (a 
flowing  stream)  is  akin  to  these  words,  along  with  its 
derivations  in  the  Romance  languages  :  thus  Fiume  (on 
the  river),  a  seaport  in  Croatia,  at  the  mouth  of  the  R. 
Fiumara  ;  Fiumicina,  a  small  seaport  at  the  north  mouth 
of  the  Tiber ;  Fiume-freddo  (the  cold  stream),  in  Italy  and 
Sicily  ;  Flims,  in  Switzerland,  Lat.  Ad-flumina  (at  the 
streams)  ;  Fiume-della  Fine,  near  Leghorn,  is  a  corrupt,  of 
its  ancient  name,  Ad-Fines  (the  river  at  the  boundary). 

FOLD  (Hung.),  land  ;  e.g.  Foldvar  (land  fortress)  ;  Alfold  (low 
land)  ;  Felfold  (high  land)  ;  Szekel-fold  (the  land  of  the 
Szeklers)  ;  Havasel-fold  (the  land  beyond  the  mountains), 
which  is  the  Hungarian  name  for  Wallachia. 

FONS  (Lat  \  r  a  fountain>  a  wel1  5  e-g-   Fon- 

FONTE  (It  and  Port.), 


FUENTE,  and  MONTANA  (Span.), 
FUARAN  and  UARAN  (Gadhelic), 
FFYNNON  (Cym.-Cel.), 

(the  spring  of 

beautiful  water) ;  Fontenoy  (the 
place  of  the  fountain)  ;  Fon- 
tenay  (the  place  of  the  foun- 

tain)  ;  Les  Fontaines,  Fontanas 
(the  fountains)  ;  Fontenelles  (the  little  fountains) ;   Fonte- 
vrault,  Lat.  Fons-Ebraldi  (the  well  of  St.  Evrault)  ;  Fuente 
(the  fountain),  the  name  of  several  towns  in  Spain  ;  Fuen- 

82  FORD 

caliente  (the  warm  fountain)  ;  Fuensagrada  (holy  well)  ; 
Fuente-el-fresna  (of  the  ash-tree)  ;  Fuente-alamo  (of  the 
poplar)  ;  Fontarabia,  Span.  Fttentarrabia,  corrupt,  from  the 
Lat.  Fons-rapidans  (the  swift-flowing  spring)  ;  Fuenfrido 
(cold  fountain)  ;  Fossano,  in  Italy,  Lat.  Fons-sanus  (the 
healing  fountain)  ;  Hontanas,  Hontanares,  Hontananza,  Hon- 
tangas  (the  place  of  springs),  in  Spain  ;  Hontomin  (the 
fountain  of  the  R.  Omino),  in  Spain ;  Pinos-fuente  (pine- 
tree  fountain),  in  Granada ;  Saint -fontaine,  in  Belgium, 
corrupt,  from  Terra- de- centum  fontanis  (the  land  of  the 
hundred  springs)  ;  Spa,  in  Belgium,  corrupt,  from  Espa  (the 
fountain)  —  its  Latin  name  was  Fons-Tungrorum  (the  well 
of  the  Tungri)  ;  Fonthill  (the  hill  of  the  spring).  The  town 
of  Spalding,  Co.  Lincoln,  is  said  to  have  derived  its  name 
from  a  spa  of  mineral  water  in  the  market-place.  The 
Celtic  uaran  or  fuaran  takes  the  form  of  oran  in  Ireland  : 
thus  Oranmore  (the  great  fountain  near  a  holy  well)  ;  Knock- 
an-oran  (the  hill  of  the  well)  ;  Ballynoran  (the  town  of  the 
well)  ;  Tinoran,  corrupt,  from  Tigh-an-uarain  (the  dwelling 
at  the  well)  ;  Foveran,  in  Aberdeenshire,  took  its  name  from 
a  spring,  fuaran,  at  Foveran  Castle ;  Ffynon-Bed  (St. 
Peter's  well),  in  Wales. 

FORD  (A  S  }  (  a  shallow  PassaSe  over  a  river 

FURT,  or  FURTH  (Ger.),    J  Bradford  (tAhe  br°*d  !?rd>  i^0rk 
VOORD  (Dutch),   *        ^     j  ™  the  K  Air* '  Bedf°rd'  Beacon  ford 
\  (the    protected    ford),   on    the   Ouse  ; 

Brentford,  on  the  R.  Brenta  ;  Chelmsford,  on  the  Chelmer  ; 
Camelford,  on  the  Camel ;  Charford  (the  ford  of  Ceredic)  ; 
Aylesford  (of  ^Egle)  ;  Hacford  and  Hackfurth  (of  Haco)  ; 
Guildford  (of  the  guilds  or  trading  associations)  ;  Hunger- 
ford,  corrupt,  from  Ingle  ford  (corner  ford)  ;  Oxford,  Welsh 
Rhyd-ychen  (ford  for  oxen)  ;  Ochsenfurt,  in  Bavaria,  and 
probably  the  Bosphorus,  with  the  same  meaning ;  Hertford 
(the  hart's  ford)  ;  Hereford  (the  ford  of  the  army),  or  more 
probably  a  mistranslation  of  its  Celtic  name,  Caer-ffaivydd 
(the  town  of  the  beech-trees)  ;  Horsford,  Illford,  and  Knuts- 
ford  (the  fords  of  Horsa,  Ella,  and  Canute).  Canute  had 
crossed  this  ford  before  gaining  a  great  battle  ;  Watford  (the 
ford  on  Watling  Street) ;  Milford,  the  translation  of  Rhyd- 
y-milwr  (the  ford  of  the  Milwr),  a  small  brook  that  flows 


into  the  haven ;  Haverford  West — v.  HAVN — the  Welsh  name 
is  Hvulfford  (the  sailing  way,  fiord},  so  called  because  the 
tide  comes  up  to  the  town  ;  Tiverton,  anc.  Twyford  (the 
town  on  the  two  fords)  ;  Stamford,  A.S.  Stanford  (stony 
ford),  on  the  Welland  ;  Stoney  Stratford  (the  stony  ford  on 
the  Roman  road)  ;  Stafford,  anc.  Stafford  (the  ford  at  the 
station,  or  a  ford  crossed  by  staffs  or  stilts)  ;  Crayford,  on 
the  R.  Cray  ;  but  Crawford,  in  Lanarkshire,  is  corrupt,  from 
Caerford  (castle  ford)  ;  Wallingford,  anc.  Gual-hen,  Latin- 
ised Gallena  (the  old  fort  at  the  ford)  ;  Thetford,  anc.  Theod- 
ford  (the  people's  ford),  on  the  R.  Thet ;  Dartford,  on  the 
R.  Darent ;  Bideford,  in  Devonshire  (by  the  ford)  ;  Furth 
and  Pforten  (the  fords),  in  Prussia ;  Erfurt,  in  Saxony,  anc. 
Erpisford  (the  ford  of  Erpe)  ;  Hohenfurth  (the  high  ford), 
Bohemia  ;  Frankfort,  on  the  Maine  and  on  the  Oder  (the 
ford  of  the  Franks)  ;  Quernfurt  and  Velvorde  (the  fords  of 
the  Rivers  Quern  and  Wolowe)  ;  Steenvoord  (stony  ford)  ; 
Verden,  in  Hanover  (at  the  ford  of  the  R.  Aller). 

FORS,  FOSS  (Scand.),  a  waterfall ;  e.g.  High-force,  Low-force,  on 
the  R.  Tees  ;  Skogar-foss  (the  waterfall  on  the  promontory), 
in  Ireland  ;  Wilberforce,  in  Yorkshire  (the  cascade  of 
Wilbera)  ;  Sodorfors  (the  south  cascade),  in  Sweden  ;  Foston 
(the  town  of  the  waterfall). 

FORST,  VORST  (Teut.),  a  wood ;  e.g.  Forst-lohn  (the  path  through 
the  wood) ;  Forst-bach  (forest  brook) ;  Eichenforst  (oak 
forest)  ;  Forstheim  (forest  dwelling). 

FORT,  a  stronghold  ;  from  the  Lat.fortzs,  strong — akin  to  the  Irish 
Longphorth  (a  fortress),  and  the  French  La  Ferte,  abridged 
fromfermete — v.  p.  79  ;  e.g.  Rochefort  (the  rock  fortress)  ; 
Fort  Augustus,  named  after  the  Duke  of  Cumberland  ;  Fort- 
George  (after  George  II.)  ;  Fort- William,  anc.  Inverlochy 
(at  the  mouth  of  the  lake),  and  surnamed  after  William 
III.  ;  Fortrose  (the  fortress  on  the  promontory)  ;  Fort- 
Louis,  in  Upper  Rhine,  founded  and  named  by  Louis  XIV.  ; 
Charles-Fort,  in  Canada,  named  after  Charles  I.  In  Ireland 
the  town  of  Longford  is  called  in  the  annals  Longphorth 
O'Farrell  (the  fortress  of  the  O'Farrells).  This  Irish  word 
is  sometimes  corrupted,  as  in  Lonart  for  Longphorth,  and 
in  Athlunkard  for  Athlongford  (the  ford  of  the  fortress). 

FORUM  (Lat.),  a  market-place  or  place  of  assembly  ;  e.g.   Forli, 


anc.  Forum-Livii  (the  forum  of  Livius),  in  Italy  ;  Feurs,  in 
France,  anc.  Forum -Segusianorum  (the  forum  of  the 
Segusiani) ;  Forlimpopoli  (the  forum  of  the  people) ;  Ferrara, 
anc.  Forum- Alieni  (the  market-place  of  the  foreigner)  ; 
Fornova  (new  forum)  ;  Fossombrone,  anc.  Forum- Sem- 
pronii  (of  Sempronius)  ;  Frejus  and  Friuli,  anc.  Forum-Julii 
(of  Julius)  ;  Frontignan,  anc.  Forum-Domitii  (of  Domitius), 
also  called  Frontiniacum  (on  the  edge  of  the  water)  ;  Voor- 
burg,  in  Holland,  anc.  Forum- Hadriani  (the  market-place 
of  Hadrian)  ;  Klagenfurt,  anc.  Claudii-  Forum  (the  forum 
of  Claudius)  ;  Fordongianus,  in  Sardinia,  anc.  Forum- 
Trajani  (the  forum  of  Trajan)  ;  Forcassi,  anc.  Forum-Cassii 
(of  Cassius)  ;  Fiora,  anc.  Forum- Aurelii  (of  Aurelius)  ; 
Appii-Forum  (of  Appius)  ;  Marazion,  in  Cornwall,  or  Mar- 
ketjeu,  Latinised  by  the  Romans  into  Forum-Jovis  (the 
forum  of  Jove  or  of  God),  resorted  to  in  former  times  from 
its  vicinity  to  the  sacred  shrine  of  St.  Michael. 

FOSSE,  a  ditch  or  trench  dug  around  a  fortified  place,  from  the 
Lat.  fodio,  to  dig  ;  e.g.  Fosseway  (the  road  near  the  trench)  ; 
Foston  (the  town  with  the  trench  or  moat) ;  Fosse,  in 
Belgium ;  Fos,  at  the  mouths  of  the  Rhone,  anc.  Fossce 
Mariana  Portus  (the  port  of  the  trench  or  canal  of  Marius). 

FRANK  (Ger.),  free,  but  in  topography  meaning  belonging  to  the 
Franks  ;  e.g.  Franconia  (the  district  of  the  Franks) ;  France, 
abridged  from  Frankreich  (the  kingdom  of  the  Franks  or 
freemen)  ;  Frankenthal  (the  valley  of  the  Franks)  ;  Franken- 
berg  and  Frankenfels  (the  hill  and  rock  of  the  Franks)  ; 
Frankenburg  and  Frankenhausen  (the  dwellings  of  the 
Franks)  ;  Frankenstein  (the  rock  of  the  Franks)  ;  Franken- 
markt  (the  market  of  the  Franks)  ;  Ville-franche  and  Ville- 
franche  sur  Saone  (free  town),  in  France  ;  Villa-franca  (free 
town),  several  in  Italy  ;  Villa-franca  (free  town),  in  Spain. 

FREI,  or  FREY  (Ger.),  a  privileged  place,  as  also  freiheit  (freedom)  ; 
e.g.  Freyburg  and  Fribourg  (the  privileged  city)  ;  Schloss- 
freiheit  and  Berg-freiheit  (the  privileged  castle)  ;  Oude- 
Vrijheid  (the  old  privileged  place),  in  Holland  ;  Freystadt, 
in  Hungary,  Grk.  Eleutheropolis  (free  city). 
*  [  the  ash-tree  ;  e.g.  Les  Frenes, 

FRENE  (Fr.),  FRASSINO  (It.),  ,.? 

v._  "    .  Vn  _.\    \  Les   Fresnes  (the   ash  -  trees)  ; 

FRESNO  (Span.),  FREIXO  (Port.),    )  ,-,        .      ,,      V    r        .        ' 

"    (  Frenois,  Frenoit,  Frenai,  Fre- 


nay,  Fresney  (the  place  abounding  in  ash-trees),  in  France  ; 
Frassinetto-di-Po  (the  ash-tree  grove  on  the  R.  Po). 

FREUDE  (Ger.),  joy  ;  e.g.  Freudenthal  (the  valley  of  joy)  ;  Freuden- 
stadt  (the  town  of  joy). 

FRIDE,  a  hedge,  from  the  Old  Ger.  word  vride — akin  to  the  Gael. 
fridh,  and  the  Welsh  fridd  (a  wood)  ;  e.g.  Burgfried  (the 
hedge  of  the  fortress)  ;  Friedberg,  anc.  Vi  iduperg  (a.  fortress 
surrounded  by  a  hedge)  ;  but  Friedland,  in  East  Prussia, 
Grk.  Irenopyrgos  (the  tower  of  peace),  is  iromfriede,  Ger. 
peace.  The  prefix  fried  is  also  sometimes  a  contraction  for 
Frederick — thus  Friedburg  may  mean  Frederick's  town. 

FRITH,  or  FIRTH,  the  navigable  estuary  of  a  river,  akin  to  fiord 
and  the  Lat.  /return,  a  channel ;  e.g.  the  Firths  of  Forth, 
Tay,  and  Clyde  ;  the  Solway  Firth.  This  word  Solway  has 
had  various  derivations  assigned  to  it :  one  derivation  is 
from  the  Selgovcz,  a  tribe  ;  Ferguson  suggests  the  Old  Norse 
word  sulla,  Eng.  sully,  from  its  turbid  waters,  particularly 
as  it  was  called  in  Leland's  Itinera  Sulway.  I  would 
suggest  the  A.  S.  sol  (mire),  as  this  channel  is  a  miry  slough 
at  low  tide,  and  can  be  crossed  on  foot ;  Pentland  Firth, 
corrupt,  from  Petland  Fiord  (the  bay  between  the  land  of 
the  Picts  and  the  Orkneys). 

FROU,  FRAU  (Ger.),  lord  and  lady  ;  e.g.  Froustalla  (the  lord  or 
nobleman's  stall)  ;  Frousthorp  (the  nobleman's  farm)  ;  Frau- 
brunnen  (our  lady's  well)  ;  Frauenberg,  Frauenburg,  Frau- 
stadt  (our  lady's  town)  ;  Frauenkirchen  (our  lady's  church)  ; 
Frauenfeld  (our  lady's  field). 

FUL  (A.S.),  dirty  ;  e.g.  Fulbeck,  Fulbrook  (dirty  stream)  ;  Fulneck 
or  Fullanig  (dirty  water)  ;  Fulham  or  Fullenham  (either 
the  dwelling  on  the  miry  place  or,  according  to  another 
derivation,  hom/ugel,  a  bird). 

FURED  (Hung.),  a  bath  or  watering-place  ;  e.g.  Tisza-Fiired  (the 
watering-place  on  the  R.  Theis  or  Tisza) ;  Balaton-Fiired, 
on  Lake  Balaton. 

FURST  (Ger.),  a  prince  or  the  first  in  rank;  e.g.  Furstenau, 
Furstenberg,  Furstenfeld,  Furstenwald,  Furstenwerder, 
Furstenzell  (the  meadow,  hill,  field,  wood,  island,  church, 
of  the  prince)  ;  but  Furstberg  means  the  chief  or  highest 


GABEL  (Teut  }  (  a  f°rk'  aPPlied  to  river  forks  '  *•£' 

/r*  ju  r  \  \  Gabelbach  (the  forked  stream) ; 

GABHAL,  or  GOUL  (Gadhelic),  )  „  ,    .,    ,  ,Ji 

'  {  Gabelhof  (the  court  or  dwelling 

at  the  forked  stream),  in  Germany.  In  Ireland :  Goul, 
Gowel,  and  Gowl  (the  fork)  ;  Gola  (forks)  ;  Addergoul, 
Addergoule,  and  Edargoule,  Irish  Eadar-dha-ghabhal  (the 
place  between  two  river-prongs)  ;  Goule,  in  Yorkshire  (on 
the  fork  of  two  streams. 

GAD  EN  (Ger.),  a  cottage  ;  e.g.  Holzgaden  (wood  cottage)  ;  Stein- 
gaden  (rock  cottage). 

fan  enclosure,  a  city,  or  fortified  place,  from 
GADR  (Phren.),       (  ,.  „  *'  _    ,.    J 

v  )  for,  a  wall ;  e.g.  Gades  or  Cadiz,  anc.  Gaar, 

'  /TT  u  \  \  in  Spain  ;  Carthage,  anc.  Kartha-hadtha  (the 
m"  (new  city,  in  opposition  to  Utica,  the  old); 
Carthagena  (New  Carthage) ;  Kirjath-Arba  (the  city  of 
Arba,  afterwards  Hebron)  ;  Kirjath-sepher  (of  the  book)  ; 
Kirjath-jearim  (of  forests)  ;  Kirjath-Baal  (Baal's  town)  ; 
Kirjath-Sannah  (of  palms)  ;  Keriathaim  (the  double  town)  ; 
Kir-Moab  (the  citadel  of  Moab) ;  Cordova,  in  Spain, 
Phcen.  Kartha-Baal  (which  may  mean  the  city  of  Baal). 

GAMA  (Tamul),  a  village  ;  e.g.  Alut-gama  (new  village),  in  Ceylon. 

GANG  (Ger.),  a  narrow  passage,  either  on  land  or  by  water;  e.g. 
Birkengang  (the  birch-tree  pass) ;  Strassgang  (a  narrow 
street)  ;  Gangbach  (the  passage  across  the  brook)  ;  Gang- 
hofen  (the  dwelling  at  the  ferry),  on  the  R.  Roth,  in 

GANGA,  or  GUNGA  (Sansc.),  a  river ;  e.g.  Borra  Ganga  or  the 
Ganges  (the  great  river)  ;  Kishenganga  (the  black  river)  ; 
Neelganga  (the  blue  river) ;  Naraingunga  (the  river  of 
Naranyana  or  Vishnu)  ;  Ramgunga  (Ram's  river). 

GARBH  (Gadhelic)      ( r°Ugh ;    e'g'    RiverS   Gara'    Gany'    Garwe' 
GARW  ( Cvm  -Cel  ('     1  Garwv>     Owengarve,     Garonne,     Garvault, 
'''     (  Yair,  Yarrow   (rough  stream)  ;   Garracloon 
(rough  meadow)  ;  Garroch  head  or  Ard-Kingarth  (the  point 
of  the  rough  headland),  in  Bute ;  Garioch  (the  rough  dis- 
trict), in  Aberdeenshire. 
GARENNE,  a  word   of  Germanic  or   Celtic  origin,  from  the  Low 


Lat.  warenna,  and  that  from  the  High  Ger.  war  an  (to  take 
precautions),  had  at  first  the  sense  of  a,  protected  or  guarded 
place,  and  more  lately  of  a  wood  to  which  was  attached  the 
exclusive  right  of  the  chase ;  e.g.  La  Garenne,  Garenne, 
Varenne,  Varennes,  Warennes,  in  various  departments  of 

GARIEF  (South  Africa),  a  river  ;  e.g.  Ky-garief  (yellow  river)  ;  Nu- 
garief  (black  river). 

-   ji_  i-  \      (a  garden  :  e.g.   Garryowen  (Owen's  gar- 
GARRDH  (Gadhehc),  &x      „  .     *  ,    ,,.  J,          A     .       -o  ?v 

PARnn  CCvm   Cel  f    1  den>  ;    Gairyard    (hlSh    garden)  ;    Ballm- 
•    f      (  garry  (the  town  of  the  garden)  ;  Garrane 
and  Garrawn  (the  shrubbery);  Garranbane (white  shrubbery). 
GARTH   (Welsh),  a  hill ;  e.g.  Tal-garth  (the  brow  of  the  hill),  in 
Brecknockshire ;     Brecknock,    named    after    Brychan,    its 
king,  who  came   from    Ireland  in   the  sixth  century.      Its 
ancient  name  was  Garth-Madryn  (the  fox's  hill). 

,  ~        ,  .  /an  enclosed  place,  either  for 

GARTH,  GART  (Teut.  and  Scand.),  I    ,                  .%     T         r 

'    ._    ,.v  ..  .  1  plants  or  cattle,  then  a  farm. 

GARRAD  (Gadhehc),  <  lL  •             *•         c      A  •    ^\, 

.„    ''       .  .  }  It  is  sometimes  found  in  the 

GARRD,  GARZ  (Cym.-Cel.),  l  ,           ,        .  •     T    ,      ,       , 

^  form  of  gort  in  Ireland  and 

Scotland ;  e.g.  Garton  (the  enclosure  or  enclosed  town)  ; 
Applegarth  (the  apple  enclosure  or  farm)  ;  Hogarth  (an 
enclosure  for  hay)  ;  Weingarten  (an  enclosure  for  vines,  or 
a  vineyard)  ;  Stuttgart  and  Hestingaard  (an  enclosure  for 
horses) ;  Nornigard  (the  sibyl's  dwelling,  norn,  a  pro- 
phetess) ;  Fishgarth  or  Fishguard  (the  fisher's  farm),  in 
Wales  ;  Noostigard  (the  farm  at  the  naust  or  ship  station)  ; 
in  Shetland ;  Smiorgard  (butter  farm) ;  Prestgard  (the 
priest's  farm) ;  Yardley  (the  enclosed  meadow) ;  Yard- 
borough  (the  enclosed  town)  ;  Gartan  (little  field)  ;  Gordon, 
a  parish  in  Berwickshire,  corrupt,  from  Goirtean  (little 
farm)  ;  Gartbane  and  Gortban  (fair  field)  ;  Gartfarran  (the 
farm  at  the  fountain,  fuarari)  ;  Gartbreck  (spotted  field)  ; 
Gortnagclock  (the  field  of  the  stones)  ;  Gortreagh  (gray 
field)  ;  Gortenure  (the  field  of  the  yew-tree)  ;  Oulart,  in 
Ireland,  corrupt,  from  Abhalghort  (apple-field  or  orchard)  ; 
Bugard  (an  enclosure  for  cattle),  in  Shetland  ;  Olligard  (the 
farm  or  dwelling  of  Olaf),  in  Shetland  ;  Girthon,  corrupt, 
from  Girthavon  (the  enclosure  on  the  river),  in"  Kirkcud- 
bright). On  the  other  hand,  Garda  or  Warda  in  French 


names  signified  originally  a  fortified  or  protected  place, 
from  an  old  Teutonic  word  ivarta;  hence  Gardere,  Gardiere, 
La  Garderie,  La  Garde,  La  Warde,  etc. 

,„  ,  .  /an  opening  or  passage ;  e.g.  the  Cattegat  (the 
/A  c  v  )  cat's  throat  or  passage)  ;  Margate  (the  sea-gate 
.A  \  )  or  Passage)>  anc-  Meregate,  there  having  been 
"''  ^formerly  a  mere  or  lake  here  which  had  its  influx 
into  the  sea ;  Ramsgate  (the  passage  of  Ruim,  the  ancient 
name  of  Thanet)  ;  Reigate,  contraction  from  Ridgegate  (the 
passage  through  the  ridge)  ;  Yetholm  (the  valley  at  the 
passage  or  border  between  England  and  Scotland,  yet, 
Scot,  a  gate)  ;  Harrowgate,  probably  the  passage  of  the 
army,  A.S.  here,  as  it  is  situated  near  one  of  the  great 
Roman  roads  ;  Crossgates,  a  village  in  Fife  (at  the  road 
crossings)  ;  Ludgate  did  not  derive  its  name  from  a  certain 
King  Lud,  according  to  popular  tradition,  but  is  an  instance 
of  tautology,  there  having  been  an  ancient  A.S.  word  hlid 
(a  door),  hence  Geathlid  (a  postern  gate) — v.  BOSWORTH. 
In  India  the  word  ghat  is  applied  to  a  pass  between  hills 
or  mountains,  as  in  the  Ghauts  (the  two  converging  mountain 
ranges)  ;  Sheergotta  (the  lion's  pass),  between  Calcutta  and 
Benares  ;  and  Geragaut  (the  horse's  pass),  or  to  a  passage 
across  a  river,  as  well  as  to  the  flights  of  steps  leading  from 
a  river  to  the  buildings  on  its  banks.  Thus  Calcutta  is 
Kalikttti  (the  ghauts  or  passes  leading  to  the  temple  of  the 
goddess  Kali),  on  the  R.  Hoogly ;  also  Calicut,  on  the 
Malabar  coast. 

GAU,  GOVIA  (Ger.),  a  district ;  e.g.  Sundgau,  Westgau,  Nordgau 
(south,  west,  and  north  district)  ;  Aargau,  Rheingau,  Thur- 
gau  (the  districts  watered  by  the  Rivers  Aar,  Rhine,  and 
Thur)  ;  Schdengau  (beautiful  district)  ;  Wonnegau  (the 
district  of  delight)  ;  Hainault,  Ger.  Hennegau  (the  district  of 
the  R.  Haine.  and  ault,  the  stream) ;  Pinzgau  (the  district 
of  rushes,  binse),  in  Tyrol ;  Oehringen  or  Oringowe  (the 
district  of  the  R.  Ohr). 

GEBEL,  or  DJEBEL  (Ar.),  a  mountain;  e.g.  Gebel-Kattarin,  in 
Sinai  (St.  Catharine's  mountain),  where,  according  to  tradi- 
tion, the  body  of  St.  Catharine  was  transported  from  Alex- 
andria ;  Djebel-Mousa  (the  mountain  of  Moses),  in  Horeb  ; 
Djebel-Nimrod  (of  Nimrod),  in  Armenia  ;  Jebel-Khal  (black 


mount),  in  Africa  ;  Gibraltar,  Ar.  Gebel-al-Tarik  (the  moun- 
tain of  Tarik,  a  Moor,  who  erected  a  fort  on  the  rock  of 
Calpe,  A.D.  711);  Jebel-Libnan  or  Lebanon  (the  white 
mountain),  supposed  to  be  so  called  because  covered  with 
snow  during  a  great  part  of  the  year ;  Gebel-Oomar  (the 
mountain  of  Omar)  ;  Gibel-el-Faro  (the  mountain  with  the 
lighthouse),  near  Malaga  ;  Djebel-es-,Sheikh  (the  mount  of 
the  sheik  or  shah,  i.e.  of  the  king),  the  Arabian  name  for 
Mount  Hermon — v.  INDEX. 

GEESTE  (Ger.),  barren  land  ;  e.g.  Gaste,  Geist,  Geeste  (the  barren 
land)  ;  Geestefeld  (barren  field)  ;  Holzengeist  (the  barren 
land  in  the  wood)  ;  Nordergast,  Middelgast  (the  northern 
and  middle  barren  land). 

GEISE  (Ger.),  a  goat ;  e.g.  Geisa  and  Geisbach  (the  goat's  stream)  ; 
Geismar  (rich  in  goats) ;  Geiselhoring,  Geisenhausen,  Geisen- 
heim  (the  goat's  dwelling)  ;  Geisberg  (goat's  hill). 

GEMENDE  (Ger.),  a  common  ;  e.g.  Gmeind  (the  common)  ;  Peters- 
gemeinde  (Peter's  common)  ;  Gemeindmiihle  (the  mill  on 
the  common). 

GEMUND  (Ger.),  a  river-mouth  or  a  confluence ;  e.g.  Neckarge- 
mund  (at  the  mouth  of  the  R.  Neckar)  ;  Saaregemund  (at 
the  conf.  of  the  R.  Saare  and  the  Belise)  ;  Gmiind,  in  Wur- 
temberg  (at  the  conf.  of  the  two  streams)  ;  Gemund  and 
Gemunden,  in  various  parts  of  Germany.  In  Holland  this 
word  takes  the  form  ofmonde,  as  in  Roermonde  and  Dender- 
monde  (at  the  mouths  of  the  Roer  and  Dender)  ;  Emden, 
in  Hanover,  is  a  corrupt,  of  Emsmiinder  (at  the  conf.  of  the 
Ems  and  a  small  stream). 

GEN,  an  abbreviated  form  of  magen  or  megen,  the  Teutonic  form 
for  the  Cel.  magh  (a  field) — qu.  v.  j  e.g.  Remagen  or  Rhem- 
maghen  (the  field  on  the  Rhine)  ;  Nimeguen,  for  Novio- 
magus  (the  new  field)  ;  Schleusingen  (the  field  or  plain  of 
the  R.  Schleuse)  ;  Munchingen  (the  field  of  the  monks)  ; 
Beverungen,  on  the  R.  Bever  ;  Meiningen  (the  great  field 
or  plain),  in  the  valley  of  the  R.  Wara. 

GEN,  GENAU  (Cel.),  a  mouth  or  opening ;  e.g.  Llanfihangel- 
genaur'-glyn  (the  church  of  the  angel  at  the  mouth  of  the 
glen),  in  Wales  ;  Genappe  and  Gennep  (the  mouth  of  the 
water,  abh) ;  Geneva  (either  the  opening  or  mouth  of  the 
water,  or  the  head,  ceann,  of  the  water,  where  the  Rhone 


proceeds  from  the  lake)  ;  Genoa,  probably  with  the  same 
meaning ;  Ghent  or  Gend,  at  the  conf.  of  the  Scheldt  and 
Lys,  may  also  mean  at  the  mouth  of  the  rivers,  although, 
according  to  tradition,  it  acquired  its  name  from  a  tribe  of 
Vandals,  the  Gandani,  and  was  called  in  the  ninth  century 
Gandavum-vicum,  from  the  name  of  its  inhabitants. 

GENT,  in  French  topography,  beautiful ;  e.g.  Gentilly,  anc.  Gen- 
tiliacum  (the  place  of  beautiful  waters),  on  the  Bievre — 
v.  OEUIL  ;  Nogent  (beautiful  meadow). 

GERICHT  (Ger.),  a  court  of  justice ;  e.g.  Gerichtsbergen  (the  hill 
of  the  court  of  justice)  ;  Gerichtstetten  (the  station  of  the 
court  of  justice). 

GHAR  (Ar.),  a  cave  ;  e.g.  Garbo  (the  cave),  in  Malta  ;  Trafalgar, 
i.e.  Taraf-al-gar  (the  promontory  of  the  cave). 

nrroRF/carv.\      (a  fort;  e&  Ahmednaghar  (the 

CjnAK,  VjrlUK,  Or  IjUKHi  1  oanSC.  ),        I    r      ,        r     AI  i\         T->  i  r    f 

. '  "    -<  fort  of  Ahmed)  ;    Ramghur   (of 

NAGAR,  a  city,  )  T-,       ,    „.  ,        '       ,  r,?.  ,     \ 

(  Ram);  Kishenagur (of Krishna); 

Furracknagur  (of  Furrack)  ;  Moradnagur  (of  Morad) ; 
Jehanagur  (of  Jehan)  ;  Allighur  (of  Allah  or  of  God)  ;  Bis- 
naghur  (triumphant  fort)  ;  Futtegur  (fort  of  victory)  ;  Deo- 
ghur  (God's  fort) ;  Neelgur  (blue  fort)  ;  Seringagur  (the 
fort  of  abundance)  ;  Chandernagore  (the  fort  of  the  moon)  ; 
Haidernagur  (of  Hyder  Ali)  ;  Bissengur  (the  fort  of  Vishnu)  ; 
Chunarghur  (the  fort  of  the  district  of  Chunar). 

GHARI,  or  GHERRY  (Sansc.),  a  mountain ;  e.g.  Ghaur,  a  mountainous 
district  in  Afghanistan  ;  Boughir  (the  woody  mountain)  ; 
Kistnagherry  (Krishna's  mountain);  Rutnagiri  (the  mountain 
of  rubies)  ;  Chandgherry  (of  the  moon) ;  Shevagherry  (of 
Siva)  ;  Neilgherries  (the  blue  mountains)  ;  Dhawalageri  (the 
white  mountain),  being  the  highest  peak  of  the  Himalayas. 

GILL,  GJA  (Scand.),  a  ravine  ;  e.g.  Buttergill,  Horisgill,  Ormsgill, 
Thorsgill,  etc.  (ravines  in  the  Lake  District  named  after 
Norse  leaders)  ;  Hrafngia  (the  ravens'  ravine,  or  of  Hrafan, 
a  Norse  leader)  ;  Almanna-gja  (Allman's  ravine),  in  Ice- 
land. The  Hebrew  gde  (a  ravine)  answers  in  meaning  to 
this  word,  as  in  Ge-Hinnom  (the  ravine  of  the  children  of 
Hinnom),  corrupt,  to  Gehenna.  This  word,  in  the  form  of 
goe,  is  applied  to  a  small  bay,  i.e.  a  ravine  which  admits 
the  sea,  as  in  Redgoe,  Ravengoe,  in  the  north  of  Scotland. 

GLAISE   (Gadhelic),   a   small  stream  ;    e.g.   Glasaboy  (the  yellow 


stream)  ;  Tullyglush  (hill  stream)  ;  Glasheena  (abounding 
in  small  streams) ;  Douglas,  i.e.  Dubhglaise  (the  black 
stream),  frequent  in  Ireland  and  Scotland ;  Douglas,  in  the 
Isle  of  Man,  is  on  the  R.  Douglas  ;  also  the  name  of  a 
parish  and  village  in  Lanarkshire,  from  which  the  Douglas 
family  derive  their  name.  Glasheenaulin  (the  beautiful 
little  stream),  in  Co.  Cork ;  Ardglashin  (the  height  of  the 
rivulet),  in  Cavan. 

GLAN  (Cym.-Cel),  a  shore,  a  brink,  a  side  ;  e.g.  Glan-yr-afon, 
Welsh  (the  river  side). 

GLAS  (Cel.),  gray,  blue,  or  green ;  e.g.  Glasalt  (gray  stream)  ; 
Glascloon  (green  meadow)  ;  Glasdrummond  (green  ridge)  ; 
Glaslough  (green  lake)  ;  Glasmullagh  (green  summit),  in 
Ireland  ;  Glass,  a  parish  in  Scotland.  In  Wales  :  Glascoed 
(greenwood)  ;  Glascombe  (green  hollow).  Glasgow  is  said 
by  James,  the  author  of  Welsh  Names  of  Places,  to  be  a 
corrupt,  of  G 'las-coed. 

//-  ji_  v  \  fa  small  valley,  often  named  from 

GLEANN  (Gadhehc),  .,         ,    . 

;'          „  .  .     I  the  river  which  flows  through  it ; 
GLYN  and  GLANN  (Cym.-Cel. ),<  „.       ,     , 

/Aq\  I**1     Glen-fender,     Glen-finnan, 

(Glen-tilt,    Glen-shee,    Glen-esk, 

Glen-bervie,  Glen-bucket,  Glen-livet,  Glen-lyon,  Glen-almond, 
Glen-dochart,  Glen-luce,  Glen-isla,  Glen-ary,  Glen-coe,  Glen- 
devon  (valleys  in  Scotland  watered  by  the  Rivers  Fender, 
Finnan,  Tilt,  Shee,  Esk,  Bervie,  Bucket,  Livet,  Lyon, 
Almond,  Dochart,  Luce,  Isla,  Aray,  Cona,  Devon).  In 
Ireland :  Glennagross  (the  valley  of  the  crosses)  ;  Glen- 
mullion  (of  the  mill)  ;  Glendine  and  Glandine  and  Glen- 
dowan,  Irish  Gleann-doimhin  (the  deep  valley) — sometimes 
it  takes  the  form  of  glan  or  glyn,  as  in  Glin  on  the 
Shannon,  and  Glynn  in  Antrim  ;  Glennan,  Glenann,  Glen- 
tane,  Glenlaun,  etc.  (little  valley).  When  this  word  occurs 
at. the  end  of  names  in  Ireland  the  g  is  sometimes  sup- 
pressed ;  e.g.  Leiglin,  in  Carlow,  anc.  Leith-ghlionn  (half  glen) ; 
Crumlin,  Cromlin,  and  Crimlin  (the  winding  glen) ;  Glencross 
or  Glencorse,  in  the  Pentlands,  named  from  a  remarkable 
cross  which  once  stood  there  ;  Glenelg  (the  valley  of  hunt- 
ing or  of  the  roe)  ;  Glengarnock  (of  the  rough  hillock)  ; 
Glencroe  (of  the  sheepfold)  ;  Glenmore  or  Glenmore-nan- 
Albin  (the  great  glen  of  Scotland  which  divides  the  High- 


lands  into  two  nearly  equal  parts) ;  Glenmoreston  (the 
valley  of  the  great  cascade,  i.e.  of  Foyers)  ;  Glenbeg  (little 
valley)  ;  Glenburnie  (of  the  little  stream) ;  Glenmuick 
(the  boars'  valley)  ;  Glenure  (of  the  yew)  ;  Glenfinlas  (of 
the  clear  stream) ;  Glengariff  (rough  glen)  ;  Glendalough, 
Co.  Wicklow,  is  in  Irish  Gleann-da-locha  (the  glen  of  the 
two  lakes)  ;  Glennamaddy  (of  the  dogs,  madadK)  ;  Glinties 
(the  glens),  Co.  Donegal ;  Forglen,  a  parish  in  Banffshire 
(the  cold  or  the  grassy  glen).  In  Wales,  Glyn-Nedd  (of  the 
R.  Nedd). 

GLEIZ  (Old  Ger.),  shining;  e.g.  Glisbach  (shining  brook);  Gleis- 
berg  (shining  hill) ;  Gleesdorf,  Gleesweiler  (shining  dwelling). 

GLINA  (Sclav.),  clay ;  e.g.  Glinzig,  Glindow,  Glintock,  Glianicke, 
Glinow  (names  of  places  near  clay  pits)  ;  Glina  (the  clayey 

GLOG  (Sclav.),  the  white  thorn ;  e.g.  Glogau,  Gross,  and  Upper 
Glogau,  in  Silesia  (places  abounding  in  white  thorn) ; 
Glognitz,  with  the  same  meaning. 

GNADE  (Ger.),  grace  ;  e.g.  Gnadenhiitten  (the  tabernacles  of  grace), 
a  Moravian  settlement  on  the  Ohio  ;  Gnadenthal  (the  valley 
of  grace),  in  Africa ;  Gnadenburg  and  Gnadenfeld  (the 
city  and  field  of  grace). 

GOBHA  (Gadhelic),  a  blacksmith — in  topography  GOTV  or  Cowan; 
e.g.  Ardgowan  (the  blacksmith's  height)  ;  Balgowan,  Balna- 
gowan,  Balgownie,  Balgonie,  in  Scotland,  and  Ballygow, 
Ballygowan,  Ballingown,  Ballynagown,  in  Ireland  (the 
dwelling  of  the  blacksmith)  ;  Athgoe  (the  blacksmith's  ford). 
In  early  times  the  blacksmith  was  regarded  as  an  important 
personage,  being  the  manufacturer  of  weapons  of  war,  and 
the  ancient  Irish,  like  other  nations,  had  their  smith  god, 
Goban,  hence  the  frequent  use  of  the  word  in  their  topo- 

GOLA,  or  GALA  (Sclav.),  a  wood  ;  e.g.  Golschow,  Goltzen,  Golkojye 
or  Kolkwitz,  and  Gahlen  (the  woody  place) ;  Galinchen 
(the  little  Gahlen,  i.e.  a  colony  from  that  town)  ;  Kallinichen, 
i.e.  the  colony  from  Gallun  (the  woody  place)  ;  Gollnow,  in 
Pomerania,  from  this  root ;  but  Gollnitz,  near  Finsterwalde, 
is  corrupt,  from  Jelenze  (stag  town),  from  jelen. 

GOLB,  GULB  (Sclav.),  the  dove  ;  e.g.  Gulbin,  Golbitten,  Golembin, 


Golembecks,     Golembki    (dove     town) ;     Gollombken,     in 

Prussia,  Ger.  Taubendorf  (dove  town). 

,„  ,      .      (  a  mountain  or  hill ;  e.g.  Goritz,  Ger.  Goi's  (the 

<r>  tr  ir  \  \  town  on  the  hill),  in  Hungary,  in  a  province  of 
'''  (  the  same  name  ;  Gorlitz  (behind  the  hill),  called 
also  Sgoretz;  Gorigk,  Ger.  Bergheide  (hilly  heath)  ;  Gor- 
gast  (hill  inn),  gosta  corrupt,  into  gast ;  Podgorze,  Pod- 
gorach,  Podgoriza,  Poschgorize  (near  the  hill).  This  word 
sometimes  takes  the  form  of  hora,  as  in  Zahora,  in  Turkey 
(behind  the  hill)  ;  Czernahora  (the  black  hill). 

GORT  (Gadhelic),  a  field,  cognate  with  the  Lat.  hortus  and  Span. 
huerta,  and  the  Teut.  garth — v.  p.  87  ;  e.g.  Huerta-del- 
rey  (the  king's  orchard),  in  Spain. 

GRAB  (Sclav.),  the  red  beech ;  e.g.  Grabkow,  Grabitz,  Grabig, 
Grabow  (the  place  of  red  beeches)  ;  Grabin,  Ger.  Finster- 
ivalde  (the  place  of  red  beeches  or  the  dark  wood). 

a  ^"ave  or  trench'  from  graben,  grafan 

t0    dig);    e*    MtihlSraben    (the    mil1 
trench  or  dam)  ;  Vloedgraben  (the  trench 

for  the  flood)  ;  Schutzgraben  (the  moat  of  the  defence)  ; 
Grafton  and  Graffham  (the  moated  town)  ;  Gravesend  (the 
town  at  the  end  of  the  moat)  ;  Bischofsgraef  (the  bishop's 
trench).  In  Ireland  the  prefix  graf  is  applied  to  lands 
that  have  been  grubbed  up  with  a  kind  of  axe  called  a 
grafan — hence  such  names  as  Graffan,  Gramn,  Graffee, 

GRAF,  GRAAF  (Teut.  and  Scand.),  a  count  or  earl ;  e.g.  Graffenau, 
Graffenberg,  Grafenschlag,  Grafenstein  (the  meadow,  hill, 
wood-clearing,  and  rock  of  the  count)  ;  Grafenworth  and 
Grafenhain  (the  count's  enclosure  or  farm)  ;  Grafenthal  (the 
count's  valley)  ;  Grafenbriick  (the  count's  bridge)  ;  Grafen- 
miihle  (the  count's  mill) ;  Gravelines,  in  Flanders,  anc. 
Graveninghem  (the  count's  domain).  In  Sclavonic  names, 
Grabik,  Grabink,  Grobitz,  Hrabowa,  Hrabaschin  (the 
count's  town)  ;  Grobinow  (count's  town),  Germanised  into 

GRANGE  (Fr.  and  Scot.),  a  farm  or  storehouse  for  grain,  from  the 
Lat.  granaria,  cognate  with  the  Gadhelic  grainnseach,  Low 
Lat.  grangiaj  e.g.  Grange,  a  parish  and  village  in  Banff- 
shire  ;  Les  Granges  (the  granaries) ;  La  Neuve  Grange 


(the  new  farm),  in  France  ;  La  Granja,  in   Spain  ;  Grange- 
geeth  (the  windy  farm),  in   Ireland.     From  the  same  root 
.  such    names   in   Ireland   as    Granagh,   Granaghan   (places 
producing  grain). 

,„      ,      (  the  boundary  or  corner  ;  e.g.  Grenzhausen  (the 
'          ,„  j      '•"   -'  dwellings    on    the    boundary)  ;     Banai-Militar 
''*     (  Granze  (the  border  territory  under  the  govern- 
ment of  a  military  officer  called  The  Ban)  ;   Gransee  (the 
corner    lake) ;     Graniz,     Granowo    (boundary    towns),    in 
Hungary ;  Gran,  a  town  in  Hungary,  in  a  province  of  the 
same  name  through  which  the  R.  Gran  flows. 

GRIAN  (Gadhelic),  the  sun  ;  e.g.  Greenock,  either  from  grianach 
(sunny)  or  the  knoll,  cnoc  (of  the  sun)  ;  Greenan,  Greenane, 
Greenawn,  and  Grennan  (literally,  a  sunny  spot),  trans- 
lated by  the  Irish  Latin-writers  solarium;  but  as  it  occurs 
in  topographical  names  in  Ireland,  it  is  used  as  another 
name  for  a  royal  palace  ;  Grenanstown,  in  Co.  Tipperary,  is 
a  sort  of  translation  of  its  ancient  name  Baile-an-ghrianain 
(the  town  of  the  palace)  ;  Greenan-Ely  (the  palace  of  the 
circular  stone  fortress,  aileacK)  ;  Tullagreen  (the  hill  of  the 
sun)  ;  Monagreany  (sunny  bog). 

GRIES  (Ger.),  sand  or  gravel ;  e.g.  Griesbach  (sandy  brook)  ; 
Griesau,  Griesthal  (sandy  valley) ;  Grieshaim  (sandy  dwell- 
ing) ;  Grieswang  (sandy  field) ;  Griesberg  (sand  hill) ; 
Grieskirchen  (the  church  on  the  sandy  land).  Gressius  and 
Gresum  in  bos  Lat.  have  the  same  meaning,  and  have 
given  names  to  such  places  in  France  as  Les  Gres,  Greses, 
Les  Gresillons,  La  Gressee,  La  Grezille,  etc. 

/c,  ,      .     (a  fortified   town ;    e.g.    Belgrade 

GROD,  GOROD,  GRAD  (Sclav.),  ,     ,,   ,  i    /    vrT     r— 

,„         '  v  ''  J  and    Belgorod   (white    fortress)  ; 

HRAD  (Turc.),  )  „,         .  ft      ,      v,   „,.    ,    iU     ',' 

(  Ekatenngrad  and  Elizabethgrad 

(the  fortified  town  of  the  Empress  Catharine  and  Elizabeth) ; 
Zaregorod  (the  fortress  of  the  Czar  or  Emperor)  ;  Novgorod 
(new  fortress)  ;  Paulograd  and  Ivanograd  (the  fortress  of 
Paul  or  Ivan,  i.e.  John) ;  Gratz,  Gradiska,  Gradizsk, 
Gradentz,  Grodek,  Grodno,  Grodzizk  (the  fortified  towns), 
in  Poland  and  Russia ;  Hradeck  and  Hradisch,  with  the 
same  meaning,  in  Bohemia. 

GRODEN  (Frisian),  land  reclaimed  from  the  sea ;  e.g.  Moor- 
groden,  Ostergroden,  Salzgroden,  places  in  Holland. 


GRON,  GROEN,  GRUN  (Teut.  and  Scand.),  green  ;  e.g.  Groenloo, 
Gronau  (the  green  meadow) ;  Grunavoe  (green  bay) ; 
Grunataing  (green  promontory)  ;  Grunaster  (green  dwell- 
ing), in  Shetland  ;  Greenland,  translated  from  Terra-verde, 
the  name  given  to  the  country  by  Cortoreal  in  I  500,  but  it 
had  been  discovered  by  an  Icelander  (Lief,  son  of  Eric  the 
red),  in  the  ninth  century,  and  named  by  him  Hvitsaerk 
(white  shirt),  probably  because  covered  with  snow  ;  Green- 
wich, A.S.  Grenavie,  Lat.  viridus-vicus  (green  town). 

GRUND  (Ger.),  a  valley  ;  e.g.  Amsel-grund,  Itygrund  (the  valleys 
of  the  Rivers  Amsel  and  Ity)  ;  Riesengrund  (the  giant's 
valley)  ;  Laucha-grund  (the  valley  of  the  R.  Laucha),  in 

GUADA,  the  name  given  to  the  rivers  in  Spain  by  the  Moors,  from 
the  Arabic  wddy  (the  dried-up  bed  of  a  river)  ;  e.g.  Guada- 
laviar,  i.e.  Ar.  Wadi-l-abyadh  (the  white  river)  ;  Guadalete 
(the  small  river) ;  Guadalimar  (red  river) ;  Guadarama 
(sandy  river)  ;  Guadalertin  (the  muddy  river)  ;  Guadaloupe 
(the  river  of  the  bay,  upl)  ;  Guadiana  (the  river  of  joy), 
called  by  the  Greeks  Chrysus  (the  golden)  ;  Guadalquivir, 
i.e.  Wad-al-kebir  (the  great  river)  ;  Guaalcazar  (of  the 
palace)  ;  Guadalhorra  (of  the  cave,  ghar) ;  Guadalbanar 
(of  the  battlefield)  ;  Guadaira  (of  the  mills). 

GU£  (Fr.),  a  ford,  perhaps  from  the  Celtic  gwy,  water ;  e.g.  Gue- 
du- Loire  (the  ford  of  the  Loire);  Gue-de-PIsle  (of  the 
island)  ;  Le  Gue-aux-biches  (of  the  hinds)  ;  Bone,  formerly 
Bonum-vadum,  Lat.  (the  good  ford),  in  France  ;  Bungay, 
in  Suffolk,  on  the  R.  Waveney,  corrupt,  from  Bon-giie  (good 

GUISA  (Old  Ger.),  to  gush,  found  in  river  names ;  e.g.  Buachgieso 
(the  bending  stream)  ;  Goldgieso  (golden  stream)  ;  Wisgoz 
(the  white  stream). 

GUNGE  (Sansc.),  a  market-town  ;  e.g.  Saibgunge  (the  market-town 
of  the  Englishmen)  ;  Futtegunge  (the  town  of  victory)  ; 
Sultangunge  (of  the  Sultan) ;  Shevagunge  (of  Siva)  ; 
Jaffiergunge  (of  Jaffier). 

GUT,  GOED  (Ger.),  a  property  ;  e.g.  Schlossgut  (the  property  of 
the  castle)  ;  Wiistegut  (the  property  in  the  waste  land)  ; 
but  this  word,  used  as  a  prefix,  denotes  good,  as  in  Gutten- 

96  G  WEN— HA  A  R 

berg,  Guttenbrun,  Guttenstein  (the  good  hill,  well,  and 

GWEN  (Cym.-Cel.),  fair,  white,  cognate  with  the  Gadhelic  fionn; 
e.g.  Gwenap  (the  fair  slope)  ;  Gwendur  and  Derwent  (the 
fair  water)  ;  Berwyn  (the  fair  boundary)  ;  Corwen  (the  fair 
choir)  ;  Ventnor  (the  fair  shore)  ;  Guinty  or  Guindy  (the 
fair  or  white  dwelling),  common  in  Wales.  Gwent,  Latin- 
ised Venta,  meant  a  fair  open  plain,  and  was  applied  to  the 
counties  of  Monmouth,  Gloucester,  and  Hereford,  and 
Hampshire,  as  well  as  to  the  coast  of  Brittany :  thus  Win- 
chester was  formerly  Caer-givent  (the  fortress  of  the  fair 
plain),  Latinised  Venta-Belgorum  (the  plain  of  the  Belgians). 
There  was  a  gwent  also  in  Norfolk,  Latinised  Venta-Icen- 
orum  (the  plain  of  the  Iceni).  This  root-word  may  be  the 
derivation  of  Vannes  and  La  Vendee,  in  Normandy,  if  not 
from  the  Veneti — v.  FEN. 

GWENT  (Welsh),  a  fair  or  open  region,  a  campaign.  It  is  a  name 
now  confined  to  nearly  all  Monmouthshire,  but  which 
anciently  comprehended  also  parts  of  the  counties  of 
Gloucester  and  Hereford,  being  a  district  where  Caer-weni 
or  the  Venta-Silurum  of  the  Romans  was  the  capital ; 
Corwen  (the  blessed  choir  or  church)  ;  Yr  Eglwys-Wen 
(the  blessed  choir  or  church) ;  Wenvoe,  in  Glamorgan, 
corrupt,  from  Gwenvai  (the  happy  land). 

GWERN  (Cym.-Cel.),  the  alder-tree,  also  a  swamp;  e.g.  Coed- 
gwern  (alder-tree  wood). 

GWY,  or  WY  (Cym.-Cel.),  water;  e.g.  the  Rivers  Wye,  the  Elwy 
(gliding  water) ;  Llugwy  (clear  water)  ;  Mynewy  (small 
water)  ;  Leveny  (smooth  water)  ;  Garway  (rough  water)  ; 
Conway  (the  chief  or  head  water,  cyri)  ;  Gwydir,  i.e.  Gwy-tir 
(water  land),  the  ancient  name  of  Glastonbury ;  Gwynedd 
(water  glen),  an  ancient  region  in  North  Wales. 

GWYRDD  (Welsh),  green,  verdant  ;  e.g.  Gwyrdd-y-coed  (the  winter 


HAAR  (Teut.),  an  eminence  ;  e.g.  Haarlem   (the  eminence  on  the 
clayey  soil,  leem). 


HAFEN,  HAVN  (Teut.  and  Scand.),    (a    hai;bour'   *?.  V  ft 

HOFEN    HAMM,  J  'f^  '  f  <*     ^f6  ^ 

HAVRE  (m  )  (freshwater    haven);    Kur- 

\ische-haff  (the  harbour  of 

the  Cures,  a  tribe)  ;  Ludwig's-hafen  (the  harbour  of  Louis)  ; 
Charles's -haven,  Frederick's -haven  (named  after  their 
founders)  ;  Delfshaven  (the  canal  harbour)  ;  Vilshaven  (the 
harbour  at  the  mouth  of  the  R.  Vils) ;  Thorshaven  (the 
harbour  of  Thor)  ;  Heiligenhaven  (holy  harbour)  ;  Hamburg 
(the  town  of  the  harbour),  formerly  Hochburi  (high  town)  ; 
Soderhamm  (the  south  harbour)  ;  Osterhafen  (east  har- 
bour) ;  Ryehaven,  in  Sussex  (the  harbour  on  the  bank, 
rive)  ;  Milford-haven  (the  harbour  of  Milford),  the  modern 
name  of  the  Cel.  Aber-du-gledian  (the  confluence  of  the  two 
swords\  a  word  applied  to  streams  by  the  ancient  Britons  ; 
Whitehaven,  in  Cumberland,  according  to  Camden  named 
from  its  white  cliffs  ;  Stonehaven  (the  harbour  of  the  rock), 
in  allusion  to  the  projecting  rock  which  shelters  the  har- 
bour ;  Newhaven,  Co.  Sussex,  in  allusion  to  the  new 
harbour  made  in  1713 — its  former  name  was  Meeching; 
Newhaven,  Co.  Edinburgh,  named  in  contradistinction 
from  the  old  harbour  at  Leith. 

.,—  ,  c        ,  ,    ( an  enclosure,  literally  a  place 

HAG,  HAG  EN  (Teut.  and  Scand.),  I  ,    , ,  '     ,     ,  3 

HAIGH   HAY   H  AIN  \  surrounded  by  a  hedSe>  cognate 

nAiwU),  riAiiN.  .  -     .       —,   ,  .  TT 

\  with  the  Celtic  cae;  e.g.  Hagen, 

in  Germany,  and  La  Haye,  Les  Hayes,  and  Hawes  (the  en- 
closures), in  France,  Belgium,  and  England  ;  Hagenbach 
(the  hedged-in  brook)  ;  Hagenbrunn  (the  enclosed  well)  ; 
Hagueneau  (the  enclosed  meadow),  a  town  in  Germany  ; 
Fotheringay  (probably  originally  an  enclosure  for  fodder  or 
fother)  ;  The  Hague,  Ger.  Gravenhage  (the  duke's  en- 
closure, originally  a  hunting-seat  of  the  Princes  of  Orange) ; 
Hain-Grossen  (the  great  enclosure)  ;  Jacob's-hagen  (James's 
enclosure),  in  Pomerania  ;  Urishay  (the  enclosure  of  Uris), 
in  Hereford  ;  Haigh  and  Hay  wood  (the  enclosed  wood),  in 

HAGO,  HEGY  (Hung.),  a  hill ;  e.g.   Kiraly-hago  (the  king's  hill)  ; 
Szarhegy  (the  emperor's  hill). 

HAI  (Chinese),  the  sea ;  e.g.  Hoanghai  (the  yellow  sea), ;  Nankai 
(the  southern  sea). 


98  HAIDE — HAM 

HAIDE,  or  HEIDE  (Teut.),  a  heath  or  wild  wood ;  e.g.  Falkenheid 
(the  falcon's  wood) ;  Birchenheide  (the  birch  -  wood)  ; 
Hohenheid  and  Hochheyd  (high  heath) ;  Hatfield,  Hadleigh, 
Hatherley,  and  Hatherleigh  (the  heathy  field  or  meadow)  ; 
Hadlow  (heath  hill)  ;  Haidecke  (heath  corner)  ;  Heyde- 
capelle  (the  chapel  on  the  heath),  in  Holland. 

HAIN  (Ger.),  a  grove  or  thicket  ;  e.g.  Wildenhain  (the  wild  beasts' 
thicket)  ;  Wilhelmshain  (William's  grove  or  thicket)  ;  Lan- 
genhain  (long  thicket)  ;  Grossenhain  (the  thick  grove). 

HALDE  (Ger.),  a  declivity,  cognate  with  hald,  Scand.  (a  rock)  ;  e.g. 
Leimhalde  (clayey  declivity)  ;  Frederick's-hald,  in  Norway, 
so  named  by  Frederick  III.  in  1665.  Its  old  name  was 
simply  Halden  (on  the  declivity). 

,„       .      [  a  stone  house,  a  palace  ;  e.g.  Eccleshall 
HALL,  or  ALH  (Teut.),     I  ,  ,  \     . ^    Ci    Z    j ° ,. 

(\c\  \  (church  house),  in  Staffordshire,  where 

(  the  Bishops  of  Lichfield  had  a  palace  ; 
Coggeshall,  in  Essex  (Gwgan's  mansion)  ;  Kenninghall 
(the  king's  palace),  in  Norfolk,  at  one  time  the  residence  of 
the  princes  of  East  Anglia. 

HALL  and  HALLE,  in  German  topography,  is  a  general  name  for  a 
place  where  salt  is  manufactured.  The  word  has  its  root 
in  the  Cym.-Cel.  halen  (salt),  cognate  with  the  Gadhelic 
salen  and  the  Teut.  sals,  probably  from  the  Grk.  hals  (the 
sea).  Hall  and  Halle,  as  town  names,  are  found  in  con- 
nection with  Salz;  as  in  Hall  in  Upper  Austria,  near  the 
Salzberg  (a  hill  with  salt  mines),  and  Hall,  near  the  salt 
mines  in  the  Tyrol  ;  Halle,  in  Prussian  Saxony,  on  the  R. 
Saale  ;  Reichenhall  (rich  salt-work),  in  Bavaria  ;  Hallein, 
celebrated  for  its  salt-works  and  baths,  on  the  Salza ; 
Hallstadt,  also  noted  for  its  salt-works  ;  Hall,  in  Wurtem- 
berg,  near  salt  springs ;  Halton,  in  Cheshire,  probably 
takes  its  name  from  the  salt  mines  and  works  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood ;  Penardhalawig  (the  headland  of  the  salt  marsh) 
was  the  ancient  name  of  Hawarden,  in  Flint  and  Cheshire  ; 
Halys  and  Halycus  (salt  streams),  in  Galatia  and  Sicily. 

,  c        ,  .      (a  home   or  family  residence, 
HAM,  HEIM  (Teut.  and  Scand.),     I  ...  .  ',    . 

"    <  literally  a  place  of  shelter,  from 
HJEM,  HEIM,  )   j    .  r-         ,1  .     , 

(  heimen,  Ger.  (to  cover),  hama, 

A.S.  (a  covering),  cognate  with  the  Grk.  heima;  e.g.  Hamp- 
stead  and  Hampton  (the  home  place) ;  Okehampton  (the 

HAM  99 

dwelling  on  the  R.  Oke),  in  Devonshire ;  Oakham  (oak 
dwelling),  so  called  from  the  numerous  oaks  that  used  to 
grow  in  its  vicinity  ;  Buckingham  (the  home  of  the  Buc- 
cingus  or  dwellers  among  beech  -  trees) ;  Birmingham, 
probably  a  patronymic  from  the  Boerings  ;  Addlingham 
and  Edlingham  (the  home  of  the  Athelings  or  nobles)  ; 
Horsham  (Horsa's  dwelling)  ;  Clapham  (Clapa's  home)  ; 
Epsom,  anc.  Thermce- Ebb e sham  (the  warm  springs  of 
Ebba,  a  Saxon  queen)  ;  Flitcham  (Felex's  home)  ;  Blen- 
heim, Ger.  Blindheim  (dull  home),  in  Bavaria ;  Notting- 
ham, A.S.  Snotengaham  (the  dwelling  near  caves)  ;  Shore- 
ham  (the  dwelling  on  the  coast)  ;  Waltham  (the  dwelling 
near  a  wood)  ;  Framlingham  (the  dwelling  of  the  strangers), 
from  the  A.S.  ;  Grantham  (Granta's  dwelling)  ;  Ightham 
(the  parish  with  eight  villages),  in  Kent ;  Wrexham, 
anc.  Writtlesham  (the  town  of  wreaths),  A.S.  wreath; 
Ingelheim  (the  dwelling  of  the  Angli) ;  Ingersheim  (of 
Ingra)  ;  Oppenheim  (of  Uppo)  ;  Rodelheim  (of  Rodolph)  ; 
Southampton  (the  south  dwelling,  in  distinction  from  North- 
ampton) ;  Twickenham  (the  dwelling  between  the  streams, 
where  the  Thames  seems  to  be  divided  into  two  streams)  ; 
Rotherham,  anc.  Cel.  Yr  odre  (the  boundary),  Lat.  Ad-fines 
(on  the  boundary)  ;  Wolverhampton  (the  dwelling  endowed 
by  the  Lady  Wulfrana  in  the  tenth  century)  ;  Godmanham, 
in  Yorkshire  (the  holy  man's  dwelling),  the  site  of  an  idol 
temple,  destroyed  under  the  preaching  of  Paulinus,  whose 
name  it  bears.  This  root-word  is  often  joined  to  the  name 
of  a  river,  thus — Coleham,  Coverham,  Debenham,  Hexham 
or  Hestildisham,  Jaxtham,  Lenham,  Trentham,  Tynningham 
(i.e,  towns  or  villages  on  the  Rivers  Colne,  Cover,  Deben, 
Hestild,  Jaxt,  Len,  Trent,  Tyne)  ;  Cheltenham,  on  the  Chelt ; 
Oxnam,  Co.  Roxburgh,  formerly  Oxenham  (a  place  of  shelter 
for  oxen)  ;  Hameln,  on  the  R.  Hamel,  in  Hanover  ;  Dron- 
theim  or  Trondjeim  (throne  dwelling)  ;  Kaiserheim  (the 
emperor's  dwelling) ;  Heidelsheim  (the  dwelling  of  Haidulf), 
in  Bavaria  ;  Hildesheim,  probably  the  dwelling  near  the 
field  of  battle,  Old  Ger.  hilti  (a  battle)  ;  Mannheim  (the 
dwelling  of  men),  as  contrasted  with  Asheim  or  Asgarth 
(the  dwelling  of  the  gods),  in  Baden ;  Hildersham,  in 
Yorkshire,  anc.  Hildericsham  (the  dwelling  of  Childeric). 


Ham  is  often  contracted  into  om,  um,  en,  or  am,  etc. — as 
in  Dokum  (the  town  of  the  port  or  dock),  in  Holland ; 
Nehon,  in  Normandy,  corrupt,  from  Nigel's  home ;  Angeln 
(the  dwelling  of  the  Angli)  ;  Oppeln,  in  Silesia  (the  dwelling 
of  Oppo)  ;  Edrom,  in  Berwickshire,  corrupt,  from  Adderham 
(the  dwelling  on  the  R.  Adder)  ;  Ednam,  on  the  Eden,  in 
Roxburghshire  ;  Hitchen,  on  the  Hiz  or  Hitche,  in  Herts  ; 
Fulham,  anc.  Fullenham  (the  home  of  birds),  A.S.  fugil; 
Hownam  (the  dwelling  of  Howen  or  Owen),  in  Roxburgh- 
shire. In  Flanders  ham  or  heim  often  takes  the  forms  ofeim, 
em,  etc.,  as  in  Killim  (the  dwelling  of  Kilian)  ;  Ledringhem 
(of  Ledro) ;  Hem  (of  Hugnes) ;  Pitgain  (of  the  well) ; 
Wolsen,  for  Wolfsheim  ;  Bohemia  (the  home  of  the  Boii)  ; 
Dahlen  (valley  dwelling)  ;  Wolsen  (Wolfa's  dwelling). 

,.  ,  „       .       (hot  springs;  e.g.  Hamman-Mousa 

H AMMAN  (Ar.  and  Turc.),      \  ...     £      6   .'     &    ,  ,, 

'      <  (the  hot  springs  of  Moses)  ;  Ham- 

HAMMAH,  -_.,  /    /•   T.I  i_\       TT 

(  man-Pharoon  (of  Pharaoh)  ;  Ham- 

mah-de-Cabes  (the  warm  baths  of  Cabes),  in  North  Africa  ; 
Alhama  (the  town  of  the  warm  baths),  the  name  of  several 
places  in  Spain. 

HAMMER  (Scand.)  This  word  sometimes  signifies  a  village  or 
small  town,  and  sometimes  a  rock ;  e.g.  Lillehammer  (the 
little  town)  ;  Oesthammer  (east  village)  ;  Hamr  (a  steep 
place),  in  Shetland  ;  Hammerfeste,  in  the  island  of  Qualoe, 
probably  means  the  rock  fortress,  faestung.  In  German 
topography  it  is  generally  connected  with  the  blacksmith's 
hammer,  and  is  common  in  localities  where  metals  are 
worked,  thus — Hammersmeide  (hammer -  smithy)  ;  Silber- 
hammer  (a  place  where  silver  is  wrought),  near  Dantzic. 
Kemble  also  suspects  a  reference  to  Thor's  hammer  in  the 
names  of  some  towns  or  villages  in  England  ;  e.g.  Hamerton, 
in  Huntingdon,  and  also  in  Middlesex  ;  Hammerwich,  in 
Staffordshire  ;  Hamerton-kirk,  in  Yorkshire. 

HANG  (Ger.),  a  declivity,  from  hangen  (to  hang),  A.S.  hongian; 
e.g.  Hangenheim  (the  dwelling  on  the  declivity)  ;  Panns- 
hanger  (Penn's  slope),  in  Herts  ;  Clehonger  (clayey  slope), 

HAR,  HAER  (Teut.),  the  army ;  e.g.  Harwich  (army  town  or  bay), 
in  Essex,  so  called  because  the  Danes  had  a  great  military 
depot  at  this  place ;  Herstal,  in  Belgium,  anc.  Hari-stelle 


(army  place)  ;  Hargrave  (the  army  entrenchment),  in  Nor- 
folk ;  Harbottle  (the  army's  quarters),  in  Northumberland. 
In  Edmond's  Names  of  Places  this  prefix,  as  well  as  hor,  is 
referred  to  an  A.S.  word  signifying  hoary;  under  which  he 
places  Harborough,  in  Leicestershire,  the  name  of  which  is 
traced  by  Bailey  to  havre  (oats). 

HART  HARZ  (Teut )     f brushwood    or   a    wood  '    e-S-    the    Harz 

HVRST  fA  sV  i  Mountains,  with  the  town  of  Harzburg 

(  (the  fortress  in  the  wood)  ;  Harsefeld 
(woody  field),  in  Hanover ;  Hurst,  in  Kent ;  Deerhurst 
(deer  wood  or  thicket)  ;  Hurst -Monceaux  (the  wood  of 
Monceaux,  probably  a  Norman  baron),  in  Sussex ;  Hurst, 
a  town  in  Lancashire  ;  Lyndhurst  (the  wood  of  lime-trees)  ; 
Midhurst  (in  the  middle  of  the  wood) ;  Hawkhurst  (hawk 
wood)  ;  Gravenhorst  (the  count's  wood)  ;  Horstmar  (rich 
in  wood) — v.  MAR;  Billing's-hurst  (the  wood  of  the  Billings), 
a  patronymic  ;  Farnhurst  and  Ferneyhurst  (ferny  wood)  ; 
Sendenhorst  (the  rushy  wood),  in  Westphalia ;  Herzovia  or 
Herzegovia  (a  woody  district),  in  Turkey ;  Murrhard,  in 
Wurtemberg,  means  the  wood  on  the  R.  Muhr ;  Delmen- 
horst,  on  the  Delme,  in  Hanover.  Hart,  in  English  topo- 
graphy, however,  refers  more  commonly  to  heart  (the  hart), 
as  in  Hart£7W<?,  Hart/and,  Hart/^y,  Hart/foW,  Harts/0n/, 
Harts/«7/.  It  occasionally  takes  the  form  of  chart,  as  in 
Seal -chart  (holy  wood)  ;  Chart -Sutton  (the  wood  at  the 
south  town). 

HASEL,  HAEZEL  (Teut.),  the  hazel-tree ;  e.g.  Hessle  (the  place  of 
hazels)  ;  Haselburn  and  Haselbrunnen  (the  stream  and 
well  of  the  hazels)  ;  Haslau  (hazel  meadow)  ;  Heslington 
(the  dwelling  among  hazels) ;  Hasselt,  in  Belgium,  i.e. 
Hasselholt,  Lat.  Hasseletum  (hazel  grove)  ;  Hasseloe  (hazel 
island),  in  Sweden  and  Denmark ;  Hazeldean  and  Hasling- 
den  (the  hollow  of  the  hazels). 

HATCH,  HJECA  (A.S.),  a  bolt,  a  gate,  hence  an  enclosed  dwelling; 
e.g.  Hatch -Beauchamp  (the  enclosed  dwelling  of  Beau- 
champ,  a  personal  name) ;  Colney-Hatch  (of  Colney) ;  West- 
Hatch,  in  Somerset ;  Pilgrim's  Hatch,  in  Essex. 

WATTPW   HFTT/-W      (  In  Scotland  these  words  generally  denote  a 

xlAUOrl,    xlrLULjH.       I   .  ,    .  ,  .  .  ...  ., 

'  <  low -lying  meadow  between   hills   or   on   the 

HOW,     HOPE.  J     i  i  r  •T-rii'ty.  1 

(  banks  of  a  stream, — as  in  Hobkirk  (i.e.  the 

102  HA  UPT—HA  US 

church  in  the  hope  or  meadow)  ;  Howwood  (the  wood  in  the 
hollow)  ;  Hutton,  for  Hoiaton  (the  dwelling  in  the  hollow), 
parishes  in  Scotland.  In  England  how  and  haugh  come 
more  frequently  from  the  Scand.  haugr  (a  heap  or  mound 
often  raised  over  a  grave,  like  the  cairns  in  Scotland), — as  in 
Silver-how,  Butterlip-how,  in  the  Lake  District,  probably 
from  mounds  over  some  Norse  leader's  grave ;  Haugh,  in 
Lincoln  ;  Haugham  (the  dwelling  near  the  mound)  ;  How- 
den,  in  Yorkshire  (the  valley  of  the  haugr  or  mound)  ; 
Haughley  (the  meadow  near  the  mound).  La  Hogue,  in 
France,  is  from  haugr  or  from  the  houg,  as  also  Les  Hogues 
and  La  Hoguette  (the  little  mound)  ;  Gretna  Green  is  the 
modern  name  for  Cretan-how  (the  great  hollow).  Haugr 
also  means  a  temple  or  high  place,  fenced  off  and  hallowed, 
among  the  Scandinavians  ;  and  to  this  word  so  derived 
Dasent  traces  Harrow-on-the-hill  and  Harrowby. 

HAUPT  (Ger}  (a  head'  a  Promontory;  f&  Howth  Head,  in 

/o       j  \  )  Ireland,    from    the    Danish   hofed — its    Irish 

HOVED  (Scand.),  •<             .     D       ~  ,  .    ,,     ,.,,    ,  —  ,    x     -r, 

v  ,.  „  .  n  \  name  is  Ben  Edatr  (the  hill  of  Edar)  ;  Brun- 

*•'>  (  houbt  (the  well  head) ;  Berghaupt  (hill  head) ; 
Ruckshoft  (ridge  head),  in  Germany ;  Hoft  (the  headland), 
in  the  island  of  Rugen  ;  Sneehatten  (snowy  head),  in  Nor- 
way ;  Hoddam  (holm  head),  in  Dumfriesshire. 
,  .  /a  dwelling,  allied  to  casa,  Lat.,  It.,  Span.,  and 
}„  'T.  J  Port.  ;  e.g.  Miihlhausen  (at  the  mill  house)  ; 
UUS  (bcand),  s  Saxenhausen  (the  dwelling  of  the  Saxons)  ; 
unS-)>  (wendenhausen  (of  the  Wends)  ;  Schaffhausen 
(the  ship  station),  which  consisted  originally  of  a  few  store- 
houses on  the  banks  of  the  Rhine  for  the  reception  of  mer- 
chandise ;  Dunkelhauser  (the  dark  house)  ;  Aarhuus  (the 
town  on  the  watercourse),  a  seaport  in  Denmark  ;  Aggers- 
huus,  in  Norway,  on  the  R.  Agger.  This  district  and 
river  seems  to  have  been  named  from  an  agger  or  rampart 
erected  near  Christiania  in  1302,  on  the  Aggerfiord.  Ward- 
huus  (the  dwelling  in  the  island  of  the  watch-tower),  on  the 
coast  of  Fenmark  ;  Holzhausen  (the  dwelling  at  the  wood)  ; 
Burghausen  (the  fortified  dwelling) ;  Distilhousen  (the  dwell- 
ing among  thistles),  in  Belgium.  In  Hungary,  Bogdan-haza 
(God's  house)  ;  Oroshaza  (the  dwelling  of  the  Russians) ; 
Chaise-Dieu,  Lat.  Casa-Dei  (the  house  of  God),  in  France. 

HEL — HEL  Y  103 

Also  in  France,  Chaise,  Les  Chaises;  Casa-nova  (new house); 
Casa-vecchia  (old  house),  in  Corsica ;  Chassepierre,  Lat. 
Casa-petrea  (stone  house),  in  Belgium  ;  Casa-bianca  (white 
house),  in  Brazil. 

„  [  prefixes  with  various  meanings  in  Eng.,  Ger., 

<  and  Scand.  topography.  Sometimes  they  mean 
(  holy,  Ger.  heilig,  as  in  Heligoland  (holy  isle)  ; 
Heilbron  (holy  well)  ;  Heligensteen  (holy  rock)  ;  Heilberg 
and  Hallidon  (holy  hill)  ;  Heiligencreuz  (the  town  of  the 
holy  cross),  Hung.  Nemet-keresztur  (the  grove  of  the  cross) ; 
Heiligenhaven  (holy  harbour)  ;  Heiligenstadt  (holy  town)  ; 
Halifax,  in  Yorkshire  (holy  face),  is  said  to  have  been 
named  from  an  image  of  John  the  Baptist,  kept  in  a  her- 
mitage at  the  place ;  Hoxton,  in  Sussex,  was  originally 
Hageltoun  (holy  town),  because  it  was  there  that  St.  Edmund 
suffered  martyrdom.  Sometimes,  however,  hell  denotes  a 
covered  place,  as  in  Helwell,  in  Devonshire  (the  covered 
well)  ;  sometimes  it  means  clear,  as  in  Hellebrunn  (clear  or 
bright  fountain)  ;  Heilbronn,  in  Wurtemberg  (fountain  of 
health),  named  from  a  spring  formerly  used  medicinally. 
Hellefors,  a  waterfall  in  Norway,  and  Hellgate,  New  York, 
seem  to  derive  their  names  from  a  superstition  connected 
with  Hel)  the  goddess  of  the  dead  ;  Holyhead,  in  Wales, 
is  in  Welsh  Pen-Caer-Gibi  (the  hill  fort  of  St.  Cybi,  called 
holy  in  his  honour) ;  Holy  Island,  Lat.  Insula-sancta, 
obtained  its  name  from  the  monastery  of  St.  Cuthbert — its 
more  ancient  name,  Lindisfarne,  is  probably  the  ferry,  fahr, 
of  the  brook  Lindis,  on  the  opposite  shore  ;  Holywell,  in 
Flint,  took  its  name  from  St.  Winifred's  Well,  celebrated  for 
its  miraculous  cures — its  Welsh  name  is  Tref-fynnon  (the 
town  of  the  clear  water)  ;  Holywood,  Dumfriesshire,  Cel. 
Der  Congal  (the  oak  grove  of  St.  Congal). 

HELLR  (Scand.),  a  cave  into  which  the  tide  flows  ;  e.g.  Hellr- 
hals  (the  neck  or  strait  of  the  cave)  ;  Heller-holm  (the 
island  of  the  cave) ;  Hellersness  (the  headland  of  the 

HELY  (Hung.),  a  place ;  e.g.  Vasarhely  (the  market-place)  ;  Var- 
hely  (the  place  of  the  fortress) ;  Marosvasarhely  (the 
market-place  on  the  R.  Maros),  in  Ger.  Neumarkt ; 
Vasarhely- hod -Mezo  (the  market-place  of  the  beaver's 


meadow) ;  Szombathely  (the  place  where  the  Saturday 
market  is  held,  szombaf)  ;  Csotortokhely  (the  Thursday 
market-place),  Germanised  Donners-markt;  Udvarhely 
(court  place)  ;  Szerdahely  (Wednesday  market-place), 
Vasar,  Hung,  (a  market),  from  Turc.  Bazar. 

HEN  (Cym.-Cel.),  old  ;  e.g.  Henly  (the  old  place),  on  the  Thames  ; 
Hentland,  for  Hen-llan  (old  church,  now  St.  Asaph's) ; 
Henlys  (old  palace)  ;  Hen-egglys  (old  church),  in  Anglesea. 

HEN  (Cym.-Cel.),  old,  ancient ;  e.g.  Henlys  (the  ancient  hall). 

HENGST  (Teut.),  a  horse — hence  Hengiston,  in  Cornwall,  either 
an  enclosure  for  horses  or  the  town  of  Hengist ;  Hengest- 
dorf  or  Pferdsdorf  (horse's  village)  ;  Hengistridge  (horse's 
ridge)  ;  Hinksey  (the  horse's  island  or  marshy  place)  ; 
Hinkley  (the  horses'  meadow). 

,„     \   (  a  duke  or  lord  ;  e.g.  Herzogenbosch  or 

HERR,  HERZOG  (Ger.),       „    .      ,      „          ... '      jf  .     . 

/T^      i_\          X  Bois-le-Duc  (the  dukes  grove);    Her- 
HERTOG  (Dutch),  )  ^  ,,      /A,  ^     ,  ,    .         ,  .       <   ,     js 

(  togspodler  (the  duke  s  reclaimed  land)  ; 

Herzogenburg  (the  duke's  fortress) ;  Herzogenrath  (the 
duke's  cleared  land) ;  Herrnsbaumgarten  (the  duke's 
orchard)  ;  Herrnhut  (the  Lord's  tabernacle),  founded  by 
Count  Zinzendorf,  in  Saxony,  for  the  Moravian  Brethren, 
in  1722 ;  Herisau  (the  duke's  meadow),  Lat.  Augia- 
Domim,  in  Switzerland. 

HESE,  or  HEES  (Teut.),  a  hedge  or  thicket ;  e.g.  Hessingen  (the 
dwelling  in  the  thicket) ;  Maashees  (the  thicket  on  the  R. 
Maas)  ;  Wolfhees  (the  wolfs  thicket). 

/A  e  \  I  an   elevation,  cognate  with  the   Ger.  hugel; 

\-    ''',  .      '<  e.g.   Silver-hill,  named  after  Solvar,  a  Norse 
[<L»       (  leader,  in  the  Lake  District  ;   Hilton,  Hilston 
(hill  town)  ;  Woolwich,  anc.  Hyl-vich  (hill  town)  ;  Butter- 
hill  (the  hill  of  Buthar),  a  personal  name  in  the  Lake  District. 

HINDU  (Pers.),  water ;  e.g.  the  Rivers  Indus,  Inde,  Indre,  etc. ; 
Hindostan  (the  district  watered  by  the  R.  Indus). 

HIPPO  (Phcen.),  a  walled  town ;  e.g.  Hippo,  near  Carthage. 
There  were  three  cities  called  Hippo  in  Africa  and  two  in 
Spain  :  Olisippo  (the  walled  town),  now  Lisbon  ;  Oreppo, 
Belippo,  Lacippo. 

HIR  (Cym.-Cel.),  long. 

HIRSCH  (Ger.),  the  hart ;  e.g.  Hirzenach  (the  hart's  stream)  ; 
Hersbrock  (the  hart's  marsh);  Hirschberg,  Lat.  Cotva- 


montem  (the  hart's  hill)  ;  Hirschfeld,  Herschau,  Hirsch- 
holm,  Hirschhorn  (the  field,  meadow,  hill,  peak  of  the  harts). 

HISSAR  (Turc.),  a  castle  ;  e.g.  Kezil-hissar  (red  castle)  ;  Kara- 
hissar  (black  castle)  ;  Eski-hissar  (old  castle),  anc.  Lao- 
dicea ;  Demir-hissar  (iron  castle) ;  Guzel-hissar  (white 
castle) ;  Sevri-hissar  (cypress  castle) ;  Sultan-hissar  (the 
sultan's  castle)  ;  Kulci-hissar  (the  castle  on  the  R.  Khelki). 

HITHE  (A.S.),  a  haven;  e.g.  Hythe,  in  Kent;  Greenhithe  (the 
green  haven)  ;  Lambeth,  anc.  Lomehithe  (clayey  haven)  ; 
Maidenhead,  anc.  Mayden-hithe,  i.e.  the  wharf  midway 
between  Marlow  and  Windsor ;  Queenhithe  (the  queen's 
haven)  ;  Redriff,  in  Surrey,  anc.  Rethra-hythe  (the  haven 
of  sailors),  A.S.  rethra,  also  called  Rotherhithe  (the  haven 
for  horned  cattle),  Old  Eng.  rather ;  Stepney,  anc.  Stebon- 
hythe  (Stephen's  haven  or  timber  wharf)  ;  Erith,  A.S.  Ora- 
hithe  (shore  haven),  in  Kent ;  Challock,  in  Kent,  corrupt, 
from  ceale  hythe  (chalk  haven). 

HJALTI  (Scand.),  a  Viking ;  e.g.  Shapansay,  anc.  Hjalpansay  (the 
Viking's  island)  ;  Shetland,  i.e.  Hjaltiland,  with  the  same 

HLINC  (A.S. ),  a  ridge  ;  e.g.  Linch,  in  Sussex;  Rouselinch  (Rouse's 
ridge),  in  Worcestershire. 

HO  (Chinese),  a  river  or  water ;  e.g.  Euho  (the  precious  river)  ; 
Hoangho  (the  yellow  river)  ;  Peiho  (white  river)  ;  Yuho 
(imperial  river)  ;  Keangho  (rapid  river)  ;  Hoonan  (south  of 
the  lake) ;  Hoohe  (north  of  the  lake,  i.e.  of  Lake  Tongting). 

HOCH    HOHEN  (Ger  )       (hlgh  '   *"*'  (&  hdght)  '   *&  HohurSt  and 
HFAH'  HFAP  CA  <±\       )  Hohenhart    (high    wood)  ;     Hohenberg 

HOOG  (Dutch  1  (high  hill>;    Homburg  <high  hil1   fort); 

^  Homburg-von-der-hohe  (the  high  fort  in 

front  of  the  height)  ;  Hochfeld  (high  field)  ;  Hochain  (high 
enclosure)  ;  Hochstadt,  Hochstetten,  Hochstatten  (high 
dwelling)  ;  Hocheim  (high  home  or  dwelling),  from  which 
place  Hock  wines  are  named  ;  Hochwiesen,  Sclav.  Velko- 
polya  (high  meadow  or  plain)  ;  Hochst  for  Hochstadt,  and 
Hoym  for  Hochham  (high  town) ;  Hohenelbi,  Grk.  Albipolis 
(the  high  town  on  the  Elbe) ;  Hohenlohe  (the  high  meadow 
or  thicket)  ;  Hohenstein  and  Hohenstauffen  (high  rock)  ; 
Hohenwarth,  Lat.  Altaspecula  (the  high  watch-tower)  ; 
Hohenzollern  (the  high  place  belonging  to  the  Zwolf  family) ; 

io6  HOF— HOLM 

Hohenscheid  (the  high  watershed)  ;  Hockliffe  (high  cliff), 
in  Bedford  ;  Higham,  Highworth  (high  manor  or  dwelling) ; 
Highgate  (high  road) ;  Wilhelmshohe  (William's  high  place) ; 
Hoy,  in  Shetland  (the  high  island). 
™       >  I"  an  enclosure,  manor,   and  court.       In  Scan- 

'OEVE  (Dutch)  1  dinavia  hoff means  a  temple  ;  e.g.  Eyndhoven 
''  (  (the  manor  at  the  corner) ;  Neuhof  and  Neun- 
hoffen,  in  France  (new  manor) ;  Hof  and  Hoff  (the  enclosure), 
in  Belgium  ;  Hof,  in  Bavaria,  on  the  R.  Saale  ;  Stadt-am- 
hof,  in  Bavaria,  anc.  Curia  Bavarica  (the  place  at  the 
court)  ;  Hof-an-der- March  (the  court  or  manor  on  the  R. 
March)  ;  Schoonhoven  (beautiful  manor),  in  Holland ; 
Nonnenhof  (the  nun's  enclosure)  ;  Meerhof  (the  dwelling 
on  the  marshy  land)  ;  Peterhof  (the  court  dwelling  founded 
by  Peter  the  Great)  ;  Hoff  (the  temple),  in  Iceland  ;  Hoff, 
a  village  near  Appleby,  has  the  same  meaning,  as  it  is 
situated  in  a  wood  called  Hoff-land  (the  temple  grove).  In 
Iceland,  when  a  chieftain  had  taken  possession  of  a  district, 
he  erected  a  temple  (Jiojf)  and  became,  as  he  had  been  in 
Norway,  the  chief,  the  pontiff,  and  the  judge  of  the  district ; 
and  when  the  Norwegians  took  possession  of  Cumberland  and 
Westmoreland  they  would  naturally  act  in  the  same  manner. 

HOHN  (Old  Ger.),  a  low  place,  as  in  Die-Hohne  (the  hollows),  in 
the  Brocken. 

HOLLE  (Teut.),  a  cave,  from  hohl  (hollow);  e.g.  Hohenlinden,  anc. 
Hollinden  (the  hollow  place  of  lime-trees)  ;  Holland  or  the 
Netherlands  (the  low  countries)  ;  also  Holland,  a  low-lying 
district  in  Lincolnshire  ;  Holdeornesse  (the  low  promontory 
of  the  province  of  Deira)  ;  Holmer,  in  Hereford  (the  low 
lake,  mere). 

HOLM  (Scand.),  a  small  island  ;  e.g.  Flatholm  (flat  island)  ;  Steep- 
holm  (steep  island)  ;  Priestholm  (of  the  priest)  ;  Alderholm 
(of  alders)  ;  Holm,  in  Sweden,  and  Hulm,  in  Norway  (the 
island) ;  Stockholm,  anc.  Holmia  (the  island  city,  built  upon 
stalces).  But  holm  also  signifies  occasionally  a  hill,  as  in 
Smailholm,  in  Roxburghshire  (little  hill)  ;  and  Hume,  or 
holm,  Castle,  in  Berwickshire  (on  a  hill).  Sometimes  also 
it  signifies  a  low  meadow  on  the  banks  of  a  stream,  as  in 
Durham,  corrupt,  from  Dun-holm  or  Dunelme  (the  fortress 
on  the  meadow),  almost  surrounded  by  the  R.  Wear ;  Lang- 

HOLT— HORN  107 

holm  (the  long  meadow)  ;  Denholm  (the  meadow  in  the 
deep  valley)  ;  Twynholm,  anc.  Twynham  (the  dwelling  on 
the  hillock),  Welsh  twyn,  a  parish  in  Kirkcudbright  ; 
Brachenholm  (ferny  meadow)  ;  Lingholme  (heather  island), 
in  Windermere  ;  also  Silverholme  (the  island  of  Solvar,  a 
Norse  leader) ;  Bornholm,  in  the  Baltic,  anc.  Burgundaland 
(the  island  of  the  Burgundians) ;  Axholme,  an  insulated  dis- 
trict in  Co.  Lincoln,  formed  by  the  Rivers  Trent,  Idle,  and 
Don,  from  utsge,  Cel.  (water)  ;  Drotningholm,  in  the  Malar 
Lake  near  Stockholm  (queen's  island),  from  Swed.  drottmig 
(a  queen)  ;  Battleholme,  found  in  some  places  in  the  north 
of  England,  according  to  Ferguson,  means  fertile  island, 
from  an  Old  English  word  battel  or  bette  (fertile). 

HOLT,  HOLZ  (A.S.  and  Ger.),  a  wood  ;  e.g.  Aldershot  (alder-tree 
wood)  ;  Bergholt  (the  hill  or  hill  fort  in  the  wood)  ;  Evershot 
(the  boar's  wood,  eofer)  ;  Badshot  (badger's  wood)  ;  Boch- 
holt  (beech-wood)  ;  Jagerholz  (huntsman's  wood)  ;  Ooster- 
hout  (east  wood)  ;  Holzkirchen  (the  church  at  the  wood)  ; 
Thourhout,  in  East  Flanders  (the  wood  consecrated  to  the 
god  Thor)  ;  Tourotte,  in  the  department  of  Oise,  in  France 
(also  "Dior's  wood)  ;  Hootenesse  (woody  promontory),  in 
Belgium  ;  Diepholz  (deep  wood)  ;  Meerholt  and  Meerhout 
(marshy  wood)  ;  Holt,  a  woody  district  in  Norfolk. 

HOO,  or  HOE  (Scand.),  a  spit  of  land  running  into  the  sea  ;  e.g. 
Sandhoe  (the  sandy  cape)  ;  The  Hoe,  in  Kent  ;  Kew,  in 
Surrey,  anc.  Kay-hoo  (the  quay  on  the  spit  of  land). 

HORN  (C  \  (  a  h°rn'like  projection  or  cape  jutting  into  the 

«T/ / a  c\  )  sea>  or  a  valley  between  hills,  curved  like  a 

ri \  RNli,  (/\.o.  )«  -\   i  T ,  ,  , 

HOORN  (Dutch)  )  hom  ;  e'g-  Hoorn  (the  Promontory)>  a  seaport 
\m.  Holland,  from  which  place  the  Dutch 
navigator  Schoutens  named  Cape  Horn,  Hoorn  being  his 
native  place ;  Hornburg  (the  town  on  the  projection)  ; 
Hornby  (corner  dwelling)  ;  Horncastle  (the  castle  on  the 
promontory)  ;  Hornbergand  Horndon  (the  projecting  hill)  ; 
Hornsea  (the  projection  on  the  coast)  ;  Matterhorn  (the 
peak  in  the  meadows),  so  called  from  the  patches  of  green 
meadow-land  which  surround  its  base  ;  Schreckhorn  (the 
peak  of  terror)  ;  Finsteraarhorn  (the  peak  out  of  which  the 
Finster-Aar,  or  dark  Aar,  has  its  source).  This  river  is  so 
named  to  distinguish  it  from  the  Lauter  or  clear  river. 

io8  HOUC—IA 

Skagenshorn  (the  peak  of  the  Skaw),  in  Denmark) ;  Faul- 
horn  (the  foul  peak),  so  called  from  the  black  shale  which 
disintegrates  in  water  ;  Wetterhorn  (stormy  peak)  ;  Katzen- 
horn  (the  cat's  peak)  ;  Silberhorn  (the  silvery  peak)  ;  Jung- 
frauhorn  (the  peak  of  the  maiden). 

HOUC,  or  HOOG  (Teut.),  a  corner  or  little  elevation,  akin  to  the 
Spottish  heugh  and  the  Scand.  haugr;  e.g.  Hoogzand  and 
Hoogeveen  (the  sand  and  marsh  at  the  corner)  ;  Hoogheyd 
(corner  heath)  ;  Hoogbraek  (the  broken-up  land  at  the 
corner)  ;  Stanhoug  (stone  corner). 

HUBEL,  or  HUGEL  (Ger.),  a  little  hill ;  e.g.  Haidhugel  (heath  hill)  ; 
Steinhugel  (stony  hill)  ;  Huchel  and  Hivel  (the  little  hill)  ; 
Lindhovel  (the  hill  of  lime-trees)  ;  Gieshiibel  (the  hill  of 
gushing  brooks). 

xF      ,        f  a  district  supposed  to  have  originally  com- 

rlU JNJJKr/lJ   ll^ng.  1,  .,  ,  .  ,        .     r         ..        .         .. 

/)-      \         \  prised  at  least  one  hundred  family  dwell- 
HUNTARI  (Ger.),        IF         ...       ....  .  ,      _          ,.  ,r 

(  ings,    like    Welsh    Cantref  (from    cant,    a 

hundred),  the  name   of  a  similar  division  in  Wales  ;  e.g. 

Hundrethwaite  (the  cleared  land  on  this  Hundred),  a  district 

in  Yorkshire. 
HUTTE  (Teut.  and  Scand.),  a  shed  or  cottage  ;  e.g.  Uunkelhiitte 

(dark  cottage)  ;  Mooshutten  (the  cottage  in  the  mossy  land)  ; 

Buxtehude  (the  hut  on  the  ox  pasture)  ;  Huttenwerke  (the 

huts   at  the   works   or   mines) ;    Hudemiihlen   (mill  hut)  ; 

Hutton   (the  town  of  huts).       But   Landshut,    in   Bavaria, 

does  not  seem  to  be  derived  from  hutte,  but  from  schutz, 

Ger.  (a  defence),  as  it  is  in  the  neighbourhood  of  an  old 

fortress,  on  the  site  of  a  Roman  camp. 
HVER  (Norse),  a  warm,  bubbling  spring ;  e.g.  Uxaver  (the  oxen's 

spring),  in  Iceland. 


I  (Gadhelic),  an  island ;  e.g.  I-Colum-chille  or  lona  (the  island  of 
St.  Columba's  cell)  ;  lerne  or  Ireland  (the  western  island  or 
the  island  of  Eire,  an  ancient  queen). 

I A  (Cel.),  a  country  or  land  ;  e.g.  Galatia  and  Galicia,  and  anc. 
Gallia  (the  country  of  the  Gauls)  ;  Andalusia,  for  Van- 
dalusia  (the  country  of  the  Vandals)  ;  Batavia  (the  good 


land),  bette,  good  ;  Britania  or  Pictavia  (probably  the  land 
of  painted  tribes)  ;  Catalonia,  corrupt,  from  Gothalonia  (the 
land  of  the  Goths)  ;  Circassia  (the  land  of  the  Tcherkes,  a 
tribe)  ;  Croatia  (the  land  of  the  Choriots  or  mountaineers)  ; 
Suabia  (of  the  Suevii)  ;  Moravia  (the  district  of  the  R. 
Moravia)  ;  Moldavia  (of  the  R.  Moldau).  It  is  called  by 
the  natives  and  Turks  Bogdania,  from  Bogdan,  a  chieftain 
who  colonised  it  in  the  thirteenth  century.  Ethiopia  (the 
land  of  the  blacks,  or  the  people  with  the  sunburnt  faces), 
from  Grk.  ops  (the  face),  and  aitho  (to  burn)  ;  Phoenicia  (the 
land  of  palms  or  the  brown  land),  Grk.  Phoenix;  Silesia 
(the  land  of  the  Suisli)  ;  Bosnia  (the  district  of  the  R. 
Bosna) ;  Russia,  named  after  Rourik,  a  Scandinavian 
chief ;  Siberia,  from  Siber,  the  ancient  capital  of  the  Tartars ; 
Kaffraria  (the  country  of  the  Kaffirs  or  unbelievers),  a 
name  given  by  the  Arabs  ;  Dalmatia  (the  country  of  the 
Dalmates,  who  inhabited  the  city  Dalminium)  ;  Iberia,  the 
ancient  name  of  Spain,  either  from  the  R.  Ebro  or  from  a 
tribe  called  the  Iberi  or  Basques  ;  Caledonia,  perhaps  from 
Coille  (the  wood). 

IACUM,  an  affix  used  by  the  Romans,  sometimes  for  ia  (a  district), 
and  sometimes  the  Latinised  form  of  the  adjectival  termina- 
tion ach — qu.  v.  p.  5  ;  e.g.  Juliers,  Lat.  Juliacum  (belonging 
to  Julius  Cassar)  ;  Beauvais,  Lat.  Bellovacum  (belonging  to 
the  Bellovaci) ;  Annonay,  Lat.  Annonicum  (a  place  for 
grain,  with  large  magazines  of  corn)  ;  Bouvignes,  in  Bel- 
gium, Lat.  Boviniacum  (the  place  of  oxen)  ;  Clameny,  Lat. 
Clameniacum  (belonging  to  Clement,  its  founder)  ;  Joigny, 
anc.  Joiniacum,  on  the  R.  Yonne  ;  Annecy,  Lat.  Anneacum 
(belonging  to  Anecius) ;  Cognac,  Lat.  Cogniacum  (the  corner 
of  the  water),  Fr.  coin,  Old  Fr.  coiny,  Cel.  cuan. 

IERE,  an  affix  in  French  topography  denoting  a  possession,  and 
generally  affixed  to  the  name  of  the  proprietor ;  e.g.  Guil- 
letiere  (the  property  of  Guillet)  ;  Guzoniere  (of  Guzon). 

ILI  (Turc.),  a  district;  e.g.  Ili-Bosnia  (the  district  of  the  R. 
Bosna)  ;  Rumeli  or  Roumelia  (the  district  of  the  Romans). 

ILLIA  (Basque),  a  town  ;  e.g.  Elloirio,  Illora,  and  Illura  (the  town 
on  the  water,  ura)  ;  Lorca,  anc.  Illurcis  (the  town  with  fine 
water)  ;  Elibyrge  (the  town  with  the  tower),  Grk.  pyrgos ; 
Elche",  anc.  Illici  (the  town  on  the  hill,  ct)  ;  Illiberus  (new 

1 10  IM—ING 

town,  surnamed  Elne  after  the  Empress  Helena),  in  Spain ; 
the  isle  of  Oleron,  anc.  Illura  (the  town  on  the  water). 
IM  and  IN,  a  contraction  for  the  Ger.  in  der  (in  or  on  the)  ;  e.g. 
Imgrund  (in  the  valley)  ;  Imhorst  (in  the  wood)  ;  Eimbeck 
(on  the  brook)  ;  Imruke  (on  the  ridge). 

(  an  affix  used  by  the  Teutonic  races,  as  a  patronymic, 
'  '  <  in  the  same  sense  as  Mac  is  used  in  Scotland,  afi 

I  NT"*  A 

(  in  Wales,  and  O  in  Ireland.    Ing  is  generally  affixed 
to  the  settlement  of  a  chief,  and  ingen  to  that  of  his  descend- 
ants.    Ing;  preceding  ham,  ton,  dean,  ley,  thorp,  worth,  etc., 
is  generally  an  abbreviation  of  ingen,  and  denotes  that  the 
place  belonged  to  the  family  of  the  tribe,  as  in  Bonnington, 
Collington,  Collingham,  Islington  (the  home  of  the  Bonnings, 
the  Collings,  and  the  Islings).     In  French  topography  ingen 
takes  the  forms  of  igny,  igne~,  or  inges;  and  it  appears,  by 
comparing  the  names  of  many  towns  and  villages  in  Eng- 
land and  the  north-west  of  France  with  those  of  Germany, 
that  Teutonic  tribes  forming  settlements  in  these  countries 
transferred   the   names  in   their  native   land  to  their  new 
homes.     For  the  full  elucidation  of  this  subject  reference 
may  be  made  to  Taylor's  Words  and  Places,  chap.  vii.  and 
the  Appendix,  and  to  Edmund's  Names  of  Places,  p.   5  8. 
Only  a  few  examples  of  the  use  of  this  patronymic  can  be 
given  here ;  thus,  from  the  Offings — Oving  and  Ovingham, 
corresponding  to  the  Ger.  Offingen  and  the  Fr.  Offignes. 
From  the  Eppings — Epping,  Ger.  Eppinghofen,  and  Fr. 
Epagne.       The    Bings — Bing,    Bingham,    Bingley  ;    Ger. 
Bingen  ;  Fr.  Buigny.     The  Basings — Eng.  Basing,  Basing- 
ham,    Bessingby ;     Fr.    Bazigny.       From    the    Raedings — 
Reading,   Co.    Berks.     The  Harlings — Harlington.     The 
Billings — Bellington.     From  the  Moerings  or  Merovingians 
many  French  towns  and  villages  are  named  ;  e.g.  Morigny, 
Marignd,    Merignac,    Merrigny  ;    in    England — Herring, 
Merrington.     We  can  sometimes  trace  these  tribe  names 
to  the  nature  of  the  localities  which  they  inhabited.     Thus 
the  Bucings,  from  which  we  have  Boking  and  Buckingham, 
to  a  locality  abounding  in  beech-trees,  hoc;  the  Durotriges, 
from    which    we    have    Dorset    and    Dorchester,    are    the 
dwellers    by  the  water,  dur ;   as  well    as   the  Eburovices, 
who  gave  their  name  to  Evreux,  in  France.     Ing,  also,  in 


A.S.  names,  sometimes  means  a  meadow,  as  in  Clavering-, 
in  Essex  (clover  meadow),  A.S.  Claefer;  Mountnessing, 
Co.  Essex  (the  meadow  of  the  Mountneys,  who  were 
formerly  lords  of  the  manor)  ;  Godalming  (the  meadow  of 

INNER   (Ger.),  opposed  to   ausser  (the   inner  and  outer),  as   in 
Innerzell,  Ausserzell  (the  inner  and  outer  church). 

f  an  island,  also  in  some  cases  pasture 
INNIS  (Gadhelic),  .      \ 

/^         /-  i  \        land  near  water,  or  a  peninsula.      It 

YNYS,  ENEZ  (Cym.-Cel.),  ,  ,,      '  f  f    •      r 

fr      ^  j  often   takes   the   form   of  inch,  as   in 

EL  (yer-)>  1  Inchkeith    (the    island    of  the    Keith 

ULA  (Lat.),  family)  ;      Inchcolm     (St.     Columba's 

NESOS  (Grk.),  T  ,      j(        T      t-r  j    /i  •  i   \        T      i. 

Island)  ;    Inchfad   (long    isle) ;    Inch- 

garvie  (the  rough  island)  ;  Inchard  (high  isle) ;  Inch- 
Cailleach  (the  island  of  the  old  women  or  nuns),  in  Loch 
Lomond,  being  the  site  of  an  ancient  nunnery;  Inchmarnoch 
(of  St.  Marnoch),  in  the  Firth  of  Clyde  ;  Inchbrackie  (the 
spotted  isle)  ;  Inchgower  (the  goat's  isle)  ;  Inchtuthill  (the 
island  of  the  flooded  stream)  ;  Craignish,  anc.  Craiginche 
(the  rocky  peninsula)  ;  Durness,  in  Sutherlandshire,  is  a 
corrupt,  from  Doirbh-innis  (the  stormy  peninsula)  ;  Ynys- 
Bronwen  (the  island  of  Bronwen,  a  Welsh  lady  who  was 
buried  there),  in  Anglesey  ;  Ynis-wyllt  (wild  island),  off  the 
coast  of  Wales  ;  Inysawdre  (the  isle  and  home  of  refuge), 
in  Glamorgan.  In  Ireland :  Ennis  (the  river  meadow)  ; 
Enniskillen,  Irish  Inis-Cethlenn  (the  island  of  Cethlenn,  an 
ancient  queen  of  Ireland)  ;  Ennisheen  (beautiful  island)  ; 
Devenish,  in  Lough  Erne,  is  Daimhinis  (the  island  of  oxen). 
But  Enniskerry  is  not  from  this  root ;  it  is  corrupt,  from 
Ath-na-scairbhe  (the  rough  ford)  ;  Orkney  Isles,  Gael.  Orc- 
innis  (the  islands  of  whales)  ;  they  are  sometimes  called 
Earr-Cath  (the  tail  of  Caithness)  ;  Innisfallen,  in  Lake 
Kallarney  (the  island  of  Fathlenn)  ;  the  Hebrides  or 
Sudereys,  called  Innisgall  (the  islands  of  the  Gaels)  ;  the 
Aleutian  Islands,  from  Russ.  alent  (a  bald  rock)  ;  in  Hol- 
land, Duiveland  (pigeon  island),  and  Eyerlandt  (the  island 
of  the  sand-bank)  ;  Eilenburg,  in  Saxony  (the  town  on  an 
island  in  the  R.  Mulda)  ;  Isola.  a  town  in  Illyria  (on  an 
island)  ;  Issola  or  Imo-Isola  (low  island),  in  Italy ;  Lille, 
in  Flanders,  anc.  L'lsle,  named  from  an  insulated  castle  in 


the  midst  of  a  marsh  ;  Peloponnesus  (the  island  of  Pelops) ; 
Polynesia  (many  islands). 

/r»  jv  i-  \    (  a  river  confluence  or  a  creek  at 
INVER,  or  INBHIR  (Gadhehc),   I    .  ,,      ,  _,. 

"  <  the  mouth  of  a  river.     This  word 


(  is  an  element  in  numerous  names 

throughout  Scotland  ;  and  although  it  is  not  so  common  in 
Ireland,  it  exists  in  old  names,  as  in  Dromineer,  for  Druim- 
inbhir  (the  ridge  of  the  river  mouth).  In  Scotland  it  is 
used  in  connection  with  aber,  the  word  inver  being  found 
sometimes  at  the  mouth  and  aber  farther  up  'the  same 
stream:  thus — Abergeldie  and  Invergeldie,  on  the  Geldie  ; 
Abernyte  and  Invernyte,  etc.  ;  Inversnaid  (the  needle  or 
narrow  confluence,  snathad,  a  needle)  ;  Innerkip  (at  the 
conf.  of  the  Kip  and  Daff)  ;  Inveresk  and  Inverkeilor  (at 
the  mouths  of  the  Esk  and  Keilor),  in  Mid  Lothian  and 
Forfar ;  Innerleithen  (at  the  conf.  of  the  Leithen  and 
Tweed),  in  Peebles  ;  Inveraven  (at  the  conf.  of  the  Aven 
and  Spey)  ;  Inverness  (at  the  conf.  of  the  Ness  with  the 
Beauly)  ;  Inveraray  (at  the  mouth  of  the  Aray)  ;  Inverury 
the  Urie)  ;  Inverkeithing  (of  the  Keith)  ;  Inverbervie  or 
Bervie  (at  the  mouth  of  the  Bervie) ;  Peterhead,  anc. 
Inverugie  Petri  or  Petri  promontorium  (the  promontory  of 
the  rock  of  St.  Peter),  on  the  R.  Ugie,  with  its  church 
dedicated  to  St.  Peter ;  Inverleith,  now  Leith  (at  the 
mouth  of  the  Leith)  ;  Inverarity  (at  the  mouth  of  the  Arity), 
in  Forfar ;  Cullen,  anc.  Invercullen  (at  the  mouth  of  the 
back  river) — v.  CUL. 

ITZ,  iz,  IZCH,  a  Sclavonic  affix,  signifying  a  possession  or  quality, 
equivalent  to  the  Teut.  ing;  e.g.  Carlovitz  (Charles's  town)  ; 
Mitrowitz  (the  town  of  Demetrius)  ;  Studnitz  (of  the  foun- 
tain) ;  Targowitz  (the  market  town)  ;  Trebnitz  and  Trebitsch 
(poor  town)  ;  Schwanitz  (swine  town)  ;  Madlitz  (the  house 
of  prayer)  ;  Publitz  (the  place  of  beans)  ;  Janowitz  (John's 
town) ;  Schwantewitz  (the  town  of  the  Sclavonic  god 


JABLON  (Sclav.),  the  apple-tree ;  e.g.  Jablonez,  Jablonka,  Jablona, 
Jablonken,  Jablonoko,  Gablenz,  Gablona  (places  abounding 
in  apples)  ;  Jablonnoi  or  Zablonnoi  (the  mountain  of  apples). 


JAMA  (Sclav.),  a  ditch  ;  e.g.  Jamlitz,  Jamnitz,  and  Jamno  (places 
with  a  ditch  or  trench)  ;  Jamburg  (the  town  in  the  hollow 
or  ditch) ;  but  Jamlitz  may  sometimes  mean  the  place  of 
medlar-trees,  from  jemelina  (the  medlar). 

JASOR  (Sclav.),  a  marsh  ;  e.g.  Jehser-hohen  and  Jeser-nieder  (the 
high  and  lower  marsh),  near  Frankfort ;  Jeserig  and 
Jeserize  (the  marshy  place). 

JASSEN  (Sclav.),  the  ash-tree  ;  e.g.  Jessen,  Jessern,  Jesseu,  Jessnitz 
(the  place  of  ash-trees). 

JAWOR  (Sclav.),  the  maple-tree  ;  e.g.  Great  and  Little  Jawer,  in 
Silesia ;  Jauer,  in  Russia ;  Jauernitz  and  Jauerburg  (the 
place  of  maple-trees),  in  Russia. 

JAZA  (Sclav.),  a  house;  e.g.  Jaschen,  Jaschwitz,  Jaschutz  (the 

JEZIRAH  (Ar.),  an  island  or  peninsula ;  e.g.  Algiers  or  Al-Jezirah, 
named  from  an  island  near  the  town ;  Al-Geziras  (the 
islands),  near  Gibraltar ;  Alghero  (the  peninsula),  in  Sar- 
dinia ;  Jezirah-diraz  (long  island),  in  the  Persian  Gulf;  Al- 
Jezirah  or  Mesopotamia  (between  the  river). 

JOKUL  (Scand.),  a  snow-covered  hill ;  e.g.  Vatna-Jokul  (the  hill 
with  the  lake)  ;  Orefa-Jokul  (the  desert  hill)  ;  Forfa-Jokul 
(the  hill  of  Forfa)  ;  Long-Jokul  (long  hill). 

JONC  (Fr.),  from  juncus,  Lat.  (a  rush)  ;  e.g.  Jonchere,  Joncheres, 
Jonchery,  Le  Jonquer,  La  Joncieres,  etc.,  place-names  in 


KAAI,  KAI,  KADE  (Teut),  a  quay  or  a  bank  by  the  water-side  ; 
e.g.  Oudekaai  (old  quay) ;  Kadzand  (the  quay  or  bank  on 
the  sand)  ;  Moerkade  (marshy  bank)  ;  Kewstoke  (the  place 
on  the  quay)  ;  Kew,  in  Surrey,  on  the  Thames  ;  Torquay 
(the  quay  of  the  hill  called  Tor). 

KAHL  (Ger.),    (  bald,  cognate  with  the  Lat.  calvus ;  e.g.   Kalen- 
CALO  (A.S.),     (  berg  and  Kahlengebirge  (the  bald  mountains). 

,„      ,  /the   emperor    or    Caesar;    e.g.    Kaisersheim, 

.r,  /T-V  \  u\      )  Kaiserstadt    (the  emperor's   town)  ;    Kaiser- 
KEYSER  (Dutch).    <       ,  .   ,  , 

CYZAR  (Sclav)         jstuhl  (the  emperor's  seat)  ;  Kaiserberg  (the 

V^  emperor's  fortress),  in  Alsace,   named  from 

a  castle  erected  by  Frederick  II.  ;  Kaiserslautern  (the  em- 



peror's  place),  on  the  R.  Lauter ;  Kaiserswerth  (the  emperor's 
island),  on  the  Rhine  ;  Keysersdyk  (the  emperor's  dam)  ; 
Keysersloot  (the  emperor's  sluice),  in  Holland  ;  Cysarowes 
(the  emperor's  village),  in  Bohemia ;  Kaisariyeh,  anc. 

KALAT,  or  KALAH  (Ar.),  a  castle  ;  e.g.  Khelat,  in  Belochistan  ; 
Yenikale  (the  new  castle),  in  the  Crimea  ;  Calatablanca 
(white  castle),  in  Sicily  ;  Calahorra,  Ar.  K ' alat-harral  (stone 
castle),  in  Spain ;  Calata-bellota  (the  oak-tree  castle),  in 
Sicily  ;  Calata-girone  (the  surrounded  castle),  Sicily ;  Calata- 
mesetta  (the  castle  of  the  women)  ;  Calatayud  (the  castle  of 
Ayud,  a  Moorish  king) ;  Alcala-real  (the  royal  castle)  ; 
Alcala-de-Henares  (the  castle  on  the  R.  Henares),  in  Spain; 
Sanjiac-Kaleh  (the  castle  of  the  standard),  corrupt,  by  the 
French  into  St.  Jaques,  in  Asia  Minor ;  Calatrava  (the 
castle  of  Rabah). 

KAMEN  (Sclav.),  a  stone ;  e.g.  Camentz,  Kemmen,  Kammena, 
Kamienetz  (the  stony  place) ;  Kamminchen  (the  little 
stony  place),  a  colony  from  Steenkirchen  ;  Chemnitz  (the 
stony  town,  or  the  town  on  the  stony  river) ;  Kersna- 
kaimai  (the  Christian's  stone  house) ;  Schemnitz,  Hung. 
Selmecz  (stony  town),  in  Silesia. 

KARA  (Turc.),  black ;  e.g.  Karamania  (the  district  of  the  blacks)  ; 
Karacoum  (the  black  sand),  in  Tartary  ;  Kara-su  (the  black 
river)  ;  Kara-su-Bazar  (the  market-town  on  the  Kara-su)  ; 
Kara-Tappeh  (the  black  mound),  in  Persia ;  Kartagh  and 
Kartaon  (the  black  mountain  chains),  in  Turkey  and  Tar- 
tary ;  Kara-Dengis,  the  Turkish  name  for  the  Black  Sea, 
called  by  the  Russians  Tchernce-more,  Ger.  Schawarz-meer ; 
Kara-mulin  (black  mill)  ;  Cape  Kara-bournow  (the  black 
nose),  in  Asia  Minor. 

KEHLE  (Ger.),  a  gorge  or  defile  ;  e.g.  Bergkehle  (hill  gorge)  ; 
Hundkehle  (the  dog's  gorge) ;  Langkehl  (long  gorge) ; 
Kehl  (the  gorge),  in  Baden  ;  Schuylkill  (the  hidden  gorge), 
a  river  in  America. 

,„      ,     (  literally  a  kettle,  but  in  topography  ap- 
KESSEL,    KEZIL  (Ger.),    I      ,.     ,  /       ,        .    '          j       „ 

'      £.  .  "  <  plied  to  a  bowl-shaped  valley  surrounded 

|  by  hills  ;  e.g.  Ketel,  in  Holstein  ;  Kessel, 

in  Belgium  ;  Kessel-loo  (the  low-lying  grove  or  swamp),  in 

Belgium ;   Kesselt  (the  low-lying  wood,  holt),  in  Belgium ; 

KIR — KIR  CHE  1 1 5 

Kettle  or  King's-kettle  (the  hollow),  in  the  valley  of  the  R. 
Eden,  in  Fife,  formerly  belonging  to  the  crown  ;  but  such 
names  as  Kesselstadt,  Kesselsham,  Kettlesthorpe,  and 
Kettleshulme  are  probably  connected  with  the  personal 
name  Chetil  or  Kettle,  being  common  names  among  the 
Teutons  and  Scandinavians. 
...  (  a  wall  or  stronghold,  a  city  or  town  ;  e.g.  Kir- 

^  TH  \  M°ab  (the  stron?hold  of  Moab)  5  Kiriathaim  (the 
'  (  two  cities) ;  Kirjath-Arba  (the  city  of  Arba),  now 
Hebron  ;  Kirjath-Baal  (of  Baal)  ;  Kirjath-Huzoth  (the  city 
of  villas)  ;  Kirjath-jearim  (of  forests)  ;  Kirjath-sannah  (of 
palms),  also  called  Kirjath-sepher  (the  city  of  the  book). 
The  Breton  Ker  (a  dwelling)  seems  akin  to  this  word,  as 
in  Kergneu  (the  house  at  the  nut-trees),  in  Brittany. 

,_  ,  c        ,  .     /a  church.     The  usual  derivation  of 

KIRCHE  (Ger.  and  Scand.),    I  . .  ,    .      ,          ,      .  ,      „  , 

/A  e  \  I  this    word    is    from    kurtake,    Grk. 

>_      v.  i  oikos-kuriou    (the    Lord's    house) ; 

KERK  (Dutch),  I  „.  ,  ,  *ur     i  v     T-J      c 

\e.g.    Kirkham,    Kerkom,   Kirchdorf 

(church  town)  ;  Kirchhof  (church  court)  ;  Kirchwerder 
(church  island),  on  an  island  in  the  R.  Elbe  ;  Kirchditmold 
(the  church  at  the  people's  place  of  meeting) — -v.  DIOT. 
Fiinfkirchen  (the  five  churches),  in  Hungary ;  Kirchberg 
(church  hill),  in  Saxony.  Many  parishes  in  Scotland  have 
this  affix  to  their  names,  as  in  Kirkbean  (the  church  of  St 
Bean)  ;  Kirkcaldy  (the  church  of  the  Culdees,  who  formerly 
had  a  cell  there)  ;  Kirkcolm  (of  St.  Columba)  ;  Kirkconnel 
(of  St.  Connal)  ;  Kirkcowan,  anc.  Kirkuen  (of  St.  Keuin)  ; 
Kirkcudbright  (of  St.  Cuthbert) ;  Kirkden  (the  church  in 
the  hollow) ;  Kirkhill  (on  the  hill) ;  Kirkhope  (in  the  valley) ; 
Kirkinner  (the  church  of  St.  Kinneir).  In  England  :  Kirkby- 
Lonsdale  (the  church  town),  in  the  valley  of  the  Lune  ; 
Kirkby-Stephen  (of  St.  Stephen,  to  whom  the  church  was 
dedicated)  ;  Kirkdale,  in  Lancashire  ;  Kirkham,  also  in 
Lancashire  ;  Kirkliston  (the  church  of  the  strong  fort, 
founded  by  the  Knights  Templars),  in  Linlithgow ;  Kirk- 
oswald,  named  after  Oswald,  King  of  Northumberland ; 
Kirkurd,  in  Peeblesshire,  Lat.  Ecclesia  de  Orde  (the  church 
of  Orde  or  Horda,  a  personal  name) ;  Kirkwall,  Norse 
Kirk-ju-vagr  (the  church  on  the  bay)  ;  Hobkirk  (the  church 
in  the  hope  or  valley)  ;  Ladykirk,  in  Berwickshire,  dedicated 

ii6  KIS— KNOLL 

to  the  Virgin  Mary  by  James  IV.  on  his  army  crossing  the 
Tweed  near  the  place  ;  Falkirk,  supposed  to  be  the  church 
on  the  Vallum  or  wall  of  Agricola,  but  more  likely  to  be  the 
A.S.  rendering  of  its  Gaelic  name  Eglais-bhrac  (the  spotted 
church),  fah  in  A.S.  being  of  divers  colours  ;  Stonykirk, 
in  Wigtonshire,  corrupt,  from  Steenie-kirk  (St.  Stephen's 
church)  ;  Kirkmaden  (of  St.  Medan)  ;  Carmichael  for  Kirk- 
Michael  (of  St.  Michael);  Bridekirk  (of  St.  Bridget);  Carluke 
for  Kirkluke  (of  St.  Luke)  ;  Selkirk,  anc.  Sella-chyrche-Regis 
(the  seat  of  the  king's  church,  originally  attached  to  a  royal 
hunting-seat)  ;  Laurencekirk  (the  church  of  St.  Laurence, 
Archbishop'  of  Canterbury,  called  the  Apostle  of  the  Picts)  ; 
Kirby-Kendal  (the  church  in  the  valley  of  the  Ken  or  Kent)  ; 
Channelkirk,  in  Berwickshire,  anc.  Childer-kirk  (the  child- 
ren's church,  having  been  dedicated  to  the  Innocents). 

KIS  (Hung.),  little  ;  e.g.  Kis-sceg  (little  corner),  in  Transylvania ; 
Kishissar  (little  fort). 

KLAUSE,  KLOSTER,  a  place  shut  in,  from  the  Lat.  claudo,  also 
a  cloister ;  e.g.  Klausen  (the  enclosed  place),  in  Tyrol ; 
Klausenburg  (the  enclosed  fortress)  ;  Klausenthal  (the  en- 
closed valley);  Kloster-Neuburg  (the  new  town  of  the 
cloister) ;  Chiusa,  in  Tuscany,  anc.  Clusium,  and  Clusa,  in 
Saxony  (the  enclosed  place),  also  La  Chiusa,  in  Piedmont ; 
but  claus,  as  a  prefix,  may  be  Klaus,  the  German  for 
Nicholas,  and  is  sometimes  attached  to  the  names  of 
churches  dedicated  to  that  saint. 

KLEIN  (Ger.),  little  ;  e.g.  Klein-eigher  (the  little  giant),  a  mountain 
in  Switzerland. 

,  „,       .    (  a  hillock  ;  e.g.  Noopnoss  (the 

KNAB,  KNOP  (Scand.  and  Teut.),  I  *  .   .,    v  v     A    ,. 

rwlpftvn  \  projecting     point);     Knabtoft 

(  (the  farm  of  the  hillock)  ;  The 

Knab,  in  Cumberland  ;   Knapen-Fell  (the  hill  with  the  pro- 
tuberance), in  Norway  ;  Knapdale  (the  valley  of  hillocks), 
Argyleshire  ;  Knapton,  Knapwell  (the  town  and  well  near 
the  hillock)  ;  Snape  (the  hillock),  in  Suffolk  and  Yorkshire  ; 
Nappan  (little  hillock),  and  Knapagh  (hilly  land),  in  Ireland. 
-T       \    (  a  hillock  ;  e.g.  Knowle  and  Knoyle  (the  hillock)  ; 
''  -|  Knowl-end  (hill  end)  ;  Knowsley  (hill,  valley,  or 
(  field).     In  the  form  of  know  or  now  it  is  common 
as  an  affix  in  Scotland. 

KOH—KOPF  117 

KOH  (Pers.),  a  mountain  ;  e.g.  Koh-baba  (the  chief  or  father 
mountain)  ;  Caucasus  (mountain  on  mountain,  or  the  moun- 
tain of  the  gods,  Asses)  ;  Kuh-i-Nuh  (Noah's  mountain),  the 
Persian  name  for  Ararat  ;  Kashgar  (the  mountain  fortress). 

KOI  (Turc.),  a  village  ;  e.g.  Kopri-koi  (bridge  village)  ;  Haji-Veli- 
koi  (the  village  of  the  pilgrim  Veli)  ;  Papaskoi  (the  priest's 
village)  ;  Kadikoi  (the  judge's  village)  ;  Hajikoi  (the  pil- 
grim's village)  ;  Akhmedkoi  (Achmed's  village)  ;  Boghaz-koi 
(God's  house),  near  the  ruins  of  an  ancient  temple  in  Asia 

KONIG  CGer  }  (  a  king  ?  e'g'  Ko'niSshofen  (the  kinf's  court)  5 
ftLG\  \  Konigheim  (the  king's  dwelling)  ;  Konigsbrunn 
'''  (  (the  king's  well)  ;  Konigshain  (the  king's  en- 
closure) ;  Konigshaven  (the  king's  harbour)  ;  Konigsberg, 
in  Prussia,  and  Kongsberg,  in  Norway  (the  king's  moun- 
tain) ;  Konigstein  (the  king's  rock  fortress)  ;  Coningsby, 
Connington,  Coniston,  Kingsbury,  places  in  England  where 
the  Anglo-Saxons  held  their  court  ;  Kingston,  in  Surrey, 
where  their  kings  were  generally  crowned  ;  Kingston  or 
Hull,  upon  the  R.  Hull,  in  Yorkshire,  named  after  Edward 
I.  ;  Kingston,  Co.  Dublin,  so  named  in  commemoration  of 
George  IV.  's  visit  to  Ireland  ;  Kingston,  in  Jamaica,  named 
after  William  III.  ;  Cunningham,  Kingthorpe,  Kingsby  (the 
king's  dwelling  or  farm)  ;  but  Cuningsburg,  in  Shetland,  may 
be  derived  from  Kuningr  (a  rabbit)  ;  Kingsbarns,  in  Fife, 
so  called  from  certain  storehouses  erected  there  by  King 
John  during  his  occupation  of  the  castle  now  demolished. 

KOPF   KOPPE(Ger)       Ta    headland    or   mountain     peak;    e.g. 

'/w  1  M  I  Catzenkopf  (the  cat's  head)  ;  Schneekopf 

KUPA  (Sclav  )  "I  and    Schneek°PPe   (snowy  peak);   Och- 

,V  !''  I  senkopf  (the  oxen's  peak)  ;  Riesenkoppe 

[  (giants'  peak)  ;  Perecop,  in  Russia  (the 

gate   of  the   headland)  ;   Vogelskuppe  (the    birds'   peak)  ; 

Cape  Colonna  (the  headland  of  the  pillars),  so  named  from 

the  ruins  of  a  temple  to  Minerva  ;  Cape  Leuca  (the  white)  ; 

Cape    Negro    (the    black)  ;    Cape    Roxo    (the  red   cape)  ; 

Kuopio  (on  a  headland),  in  Russia  ;  Cabeza-del-buey  (ox 

headland),  in  Spain  ;  Cabeciera  (black  headland),  in  Spain  ; 

Capo-d'Istria  (the  summit  of  I  stria)  ;  Copeland,  a  district 

in  Cumberland  full  of  peaks  or  headlands. 


KOPRI,  KUPRI  (Turc.),  a  bridge ;  e.g.  Vezir-kopri  (the  vizier's 
bridge)  ;  Keupri-bazaar  (the  market-town  at  the  bridge)  ; 
Keupris  (bridge  town),  in  Turkey. 

KOS  (Sclav.),  a  goat ;  e.g.  Koselo  (goat's  river) ;  Koslin  (goat 
town),  in  Pomerania. 

KOSCIOL  (Sclav.),  a  Romish  church ;  e.g.  Kostel,  Kosteletz 
(towns  with  a  Romish  church),  a  Protestant  church  being 
called  Zbor,  and  a  Greek  church  Zerkwa. 

KRAL,  KROL  (Sclav.),  a  king;  e.g.  Kralik,  Kralitz,  Krolow, 
Kraliewa,  Kralowitz  (the  king's  town  or  fortress). 

KRASNA  (Sclav.),  beautiful ;  e.g.  Krasnabrod  (the  beautiful  ford)  ; 
Krasnapol  (the  beautiful  city)  ;  Krasno-Ufimsk  (the  beau- 
tiful town  of  the  R.  Ufa)  ;  Krasna  and  Krasne  (the  beautiful 

KRE  (Sclav.),  a  coppice  ;  e.g.  Sakrau,  Sakrow  (behind  the  coppice). 

KREIS  (Ger.),  a  circle  ;  e.g.  Saalkreis  (the  circle  watered  by  the  R. 
Saal)  ;  Schwardswaldkreis  (the  circle  of  the  Black  Forest). 

KREM,  KRIM  (Sclav.),  a  stone  building ;  e.g.  The  Kremlin  (the 
stone  fort  of  Moscow)  ;  Kremmen,  Kremenetz,  Kremnitz, 
Kremmenaia,  Kremenskaia,  towns  in  Russia,  Poland,  and 

KRONE,  KRON  (Teut.  and  Scand.),  a  crown ;  e.g.  Kronstadt, 
Hung.  Brasso  (crown  city),  in  Hungary ;  Cronstadt,  in 
Russia,  founded  by  Peter  the  Great ;  Konigscrone  (the 
king's  crown)  ;  Carlscrone  (Charles's  crown)  ;  Landscrone 
(the  crown  or  summit  of  the  land),  a  mountain  and  town 
in  Silesia — also  with  the  same  meaning,  Landscrona,  in 
Sweden.  Kron,  however,  as  a  prefix,  comes  occasionally 
from  krahn  (a  crane),  as  in  Kronwinkel  (the  crane's  corner). 

KRUG  (Ger.),  a  small  inn  ;  e.g.  Dornkrug  (the  thorn  inn)  ;  Krug- 
mtille  (the  mill  at  the  inn). 

,,,     >      (a  site,  a  low-lying  field ;  e.g.  Brawenlage 

LAAG.  LAGE  (Ger.),          .,  ,,   ,  ,,       '    .°,          ,  '    .       ,,    .  , 

/T^      iA  \  (brown  field) ;  Wittlage  (white  field  or  wood 

LOOG  (Dutch),  J  \    .,.        r>i        i  c.    u\       Tx/r-ui 

(  field) ;  Blumlage  (flowery  field)  ;  Muhlen- 
loog  (the  mill  field  or  site) ;  Dinkellage  (wheat  field). 
This  word  is  also  used  as  an  adjective,  signifying  low;  e.g. 

LAC  —  LADE  119 

Loogkirk  (low  church)  ;  Loogheyde  (low  heath)  ;  Loogemeer 
(low  lake)  ;  Laaland  (low  island). 
/T-    x  [a  lake,  cognate  with  the  Lat.  lacus 

and  the  Cel.  loch  or  Iwch.     These 
LACHE  (Ger.),  ,    .    ., 

j  r>    *  \     •{  words  in  the  various,  dialects  ongm- 
LAGO  (It.,  Span.,  and  Port),         „       .     .c    ,        7    ,.         ,        &, 
^  I  ally  signified   a  hollow,  from   the 

[  roots  lag,  lug,  and  Grk.  lakos;  e.g. 

Lachen,  Lat.  Adlacum  (at  the  lake),  a  town  on  Lake  Zurich  ; 
Interlachen  (between  the  lakes),  in  Switzerland  ;  Biber- 
lachen  (beaver  lake)  ;  Lago  Maggiore  (the  greater  lake), 
with  reference  to  Lake  Lugano,  which  itself  means  simply 
the  lake  or  hollow  ;  Lago  Nuovo  (new  lake),  in  Tyrol,  —  it 
was  formed  a  few  years  ago  by  a  landslip  ;  Lagoa  (on  a 
lake  or  marsh),  in  Brazil  ;  Lagow  (on  a  lake),  in  Prussia  ; 
Lagos,  in  Portugal  (on  a  large  bay  or  lake)  ;  Laguna-  de- 
Negrillos  (the  lake  of  the  elms)  and  Laguna-Encinillos  (of 
the  evergreen  oaks),  in  Spain  ;  Laach,  in  the  Rhine  Pro- 
vinces (situated  on  a  lake),  the  crater  of  an  extinct  volcano  ; 
Anderlecht  or  Anderlac  (at  the  lake  or  marsh),  in  Belgium  ; 
Chablais,  Lat.  Caput-lacensis  (at  the  head  of  the  lake,  i.e.  of 
Geneva)  ;  Missolonghi,  i.e.  Mezzo-laguno  (in  the  midst  of  a 
marshy  lagoon)  ;  Beverley,  in  Yorkshire,  anc.  Biberlac  (the 
beaver  lake  or  marsh)  ;  Lago-dos-Patos  (the  lake  of  geese), 
in  Brazil  ;  Niederhaslach  and  Oberhaslach  (lower  and  upper 
lake),  in  Bas  Rhin  ;  Lake  Champlain  takes  its  name  from 
a  Norman  adventurer,  Governor-general  of  Canada,  in  the 
seventeenth  century  ;  Alagoas  (abounding  in  lakes),  a 
province  in  Brazil,  with  its  capital  of  the  same  name  ; 
Filey,  in  Yorkshire,  in  Doomsday  Fuielac  (i.e.  bird  lake, 

LAD  (Scand.),  a  pile  or  heap  ;  e.g.  Ladhouse,  Ladhill,  Ladcragg, 
Ladrigg  (the  house,  hill,  crag,  ridge  of  the  mound  or  cairn), 
probably  so  named  from  a  heap  or  cairn  erected  over  the 
grave  of  some  Norse  leader. 

LADE,  or  LODE  (A.S.),  a  way,  passage,  or  canal;  e.g.  Ladbrook 
(the  passage  of  the  brook)  ;  Lechlade,  in  Gloucester  (the 
passage  of  the  R.  Lech  into  the  Thames)  ;  Evenlode  (at 
brink  of  the  passage  or  stream)  ;  Cricklade,  anc.  Crecca- 
gelade  or  Crecca-ford  (the  creek  at  the  opening  or  entrance 
of  the  Churn  and  Key  into  the  Thames). 


.„       .       (  land    leased    out,    a    fief ;    e.g.    Kingsland    or 
'''    J.  Kingslaen,  in  Middlesex,  Hereford,  and  Orkney  ; 
(  Haylene  (the  enclosed  fief),  in  Hereford  ;  Len- 
ham  (the  dwelling  on  the  laen)  ;  Lenton,  ditto. 
LAESE  (A.S.),  pasture,  literally  moist,  wet  land;   e.g.   Lewes,  in 
Sussex ;  Lesowes,  in  Worcester  (the  wet  pasture)  ;  Lewis- 
ham  (the  dwelling  on  the  pasture),  in  Kent ;  Leswalt  (wood 
pasture),  in  Dumfriesshire. 

tf+  'it.  *•  \      (  a  hollow,  cognate  with  the  Lat.  lacus  and 
LAG,  LUG  (Gadhelic),     I  it_    ~_i_  ,  ri  T      •    /  ,     ,    ,,      x 

T  ftrKF  rr>r  ^  \  the  Grk-  lakk°s;  e.g.  Logie  (the  hollow), 

(  in  Stirling  ;  Logiealmond  (the  hollow  of 
the  R.  Almond  in  Perth)  ;  Logie-Buchan,  in  Aberdeenshire  ; 
Logie -Coldstone,  Gael.  Lag-cul-duine  (the  hollow  behind 
the  fort),  Aberdeen  ;  Logie-Easter  and  Logie- Wester,  in 
Cromarty ;  Logie  Loch  and  Laggan  Loch  (the  lake  in  the 
hollow)  ;  Logan  (the  little  hollow)  ;  Logierait,  Gael.  Lag-an- 
rath  (the  hollow  of  the  rath  or  castle,  so  called  from  the 
Earls  of  Atholl  having  formerly  had  their  castle  there  in 
Perthshire)  ;  Mortlach,  Co.  Banff,  probably  meaning  the 
great  hollow.  In  Ireland  :  Legachory,  Lagacurry,  Lega- 
curry  (the  hollow  of  the  pit  or  caldron,  coire)  ;  Lugduff 
(dark  hollow)  ;  Lugnaquillia  (the  highest  of  the  Wicklow 
mountains),  is  from  the  Irish  Lug-na-gcoilleach  (the  hollow 
of  the  cocks,  i.e.  grouse)  ;  Lough  Logan  (the  lake  of  the 
little  hollow)  ;  Lagnieu,  in  France,  anc.  Lagniacum  (the 
place  in  the  hollow  of  the  waters)  ;  Laconia  and  Lace- 
demonia  (in  the  hollow),  in  Greece. 

(C  Hh  V  \     fan   encl°sure>  a   church,  a  house;  but   Mr. 
,  r    )  Skene   considers  that    the  Cel.   llan    comes 
LLAN  (Cym.-Cel.).   <  ,          i_     T    ,    ^/  /    i       11       \    • 

VT       N  J  from  t*16  Lat.  planum  (a  level  place),  just  as 

(^the  Gael.  Ian  (full)  comes  from  the  Lat. 
plenus.  This  word  is  more  common  in  Welsh  names  than 
in  the  topography  of  Ireland  and  Scotland,  and  in  its 
signification  of  a  church  forms  the  groundwork  of  a  vast 
number  of  Welsh  names.  In  Ireland  it  means  a  house  as 
well  as  a  church,  as  in  Landbrock  (the  badger's  house)  ; 
Landmore  (the  great  church),  in  Londonderry;  Landa- 
hussy  (O'Hussy's  church),  in  Tyrone ;  Lanaglug  (the 
church  of  the  bells).  It  is  not  so  frequent  in  Scotland,  but 
the  modern  name  of  Lamlash,  in  the  Island  of  Arran,  for- 

LANN  121 

merly  Ard-na-Molas,  the  height  of  St.  Molios,  who  lived 
in  a  cave  there,  seems  to  be  the  church  or  enclosure  of  this 
saint  ;  Lambride,  in  Forfar,  is  Lannbride  (St.  Bridget's 
church) ;  Lumphanan  is  from  Lann-Finan  (St.  Finan's 
church).  The  derivation  of  Lanark,  anc.  Lanerk,  is  prob- 
ably from  the  Welsh  Llanerck  (a  distinct  spot  or  fertile 
piece  of  ground).  There  are  many  examples  of  this  root 
in  Brittany  ;  e.g.  Lanleff  (the  enclosure  on  the  R.  Leff)  ; 
Lanmeur  (great  church) ;  Lannion  (the  little  enclosure)  ; 
Landerneau  and  Lannoy  (the  enclosure  on  the  water) ;  but 
in  French  topography  the  Teut.  land  generally  signifies 
uncultivated  ground  ;  e.g.  La  Lande,  Landes,  Landelles,  La 
Landelle,  Les  Landais,  Landau,  etc.— v.  Cocheris's  Noms 
de  Lieu.  Launceston,  in  Cornwall,  is  probably  corrupt, 
from  Llan-Stephen.  The  greatest  number  of  our  examples 
must  be  taken  from  Wales.  There  are  Lantony  or  Llan- 
Ddevinant  (the  church  of  St.  David  in  the  valley,  nant,  of 
the  R.  Hodeny)  ;  Llan-Dewi-Aberarth  (St.  David's  church 
at  the  mouth  of  the  Arth)  ;  Lampeter  (of  St.  Peter)  ;  Llan- 
Asaph  (of  St.  Asaph)  ;  Llanbadern-fawr  (the  great  church 
founded  by  Paternus),  also  Llan-Badarn-Odyn  ;  Llandelo- 
vawr  (of  Feilo  the  Great)  ;  Llandewi-Brefi  (St.  David's 
church).  Brevi  here  means  the  bellowing,  from  the  dismal 
moans  of  a  sacred  animal  killed  here  ;  Llandovery,  corrupt, 
from  Llan-ym-dyffrwd  (the  church  among  the  rivers,  at  the 
confluence  of  three  streams)  ;  Llanudno  (of  St.  Tudno)  ; 
Llanelly  (of  St.  Elian)  ;  Llanfair  (of  St.  Mary)  ;  Llanover 
(the  church  of  the  Cover  wells)  ;  Llanon  (the  church  dedi- 
cated to  Nonn,  the  mother  of  St.  David) ;  Llanfair-yn- 
nghornwy  (on  the  horn  or  headland  of  the  water).  There  are 
several  of  this  name, — as  Llan-fair-ar-y-bryn  (St.  Mary's 
church  on  the  hill)  ;  Llanfair-helygen  (St.  Mary's  church 
among  willows)  ;  Llanfair-o'r-llwyn  (on  the  lake)  ;  Llanfi- 
hangel  (of  the  angel)  ;  Llanfihangel-genau'r-glyn  (the  church 
of  the  angels  at  the  opening  of  the  valley)  ;  Llanfihangel-y- 
creuddin,  a  church  erected  probably  on  the  site  of  a  bloody 
battle  ;  Llanfihangel-lledrod  (the  church  at  the  foot  of  a 
declivity)  ;  Llangadogvawr  (of  St.  Cadoc  the  Great)  ;  Llan- 
geler  (of  St.  Celert)  ;  Llangollen  (of  St.  Collen)  ;  Llanidloes 
(of  St.  Idloes);  Llaniestyn  (of  St.  Constantine) ;  Llannethlin, 

122  LAR 

anc.  Mediolanum  (the  church  among  the  pools  or  marshes) ; 
Llantrissant  (of  three  saints) ;  Llanddeusaint  (of  two  saints) ; 
Llanberis  (of  St.  Peres) ;  Llandegla  (of  St.  Theckla)  ; 
Llanrhaiadr  (the  church  of  the  cataract)  ;  Llanfaes  (the 
church  of  the  battle-field)  ;  LandafF,  on  the  R.  Taff;  Llan- 
goedmore  (the  church  of  the  great  wood)  ;  Llanaml-lech 
(the  church  on  the  stony  ground,  etc.)  ;  Llangwyllog  (the 
gloomy  church,  perhaps  in  the  shade  of  the  Druidic  grove)  ; 
Llanfleiddian  (dedicated  to  a  bishop  named  Flaidd)  ;  Llan- 
llawer  (the  church  of  the  multitude,  llawer,  close  to  which 
was  a  sainted  well  famous  for  its  medicinal  properties,  and 
which  was  resorted  to  by  crowds  of  impotent  folk) ;  Llancilcen 
(the  church  in  the  nook,  a/,  at  the  top,  cen,  of  a  hill),  a 
parish  in  Flint ;  Llan-mabon  (of  St.  Mabon)  ;  Llan-Beblig, 
corrupt,  from  Bublicius,  named  for  the  son  of  Helen,  a  Welsh 
princess  ;  Llan-sant-Fagan,  named  in  honour  of  St.  Faganus, 
a  missionary  from  Rome.  Llan  is  sometimes  corrupted  to 
long  in  Scotland,  as  in  Longniddrie ;  Lagny,  a  town  in 
France,  anc.  Laniaciim  (the  church  or  enclosure  on  the 
stream).  From  the  Teut.  land,  i.e.  a  country  or  district, 
some  names  may  come  in  appropriately  under  this  head — 
thus  Scotland  (the  land  of  the  Scots),  from  Ireland  ;  Monk- 
land,  in  Lanarkshire  (belonging  to  the  monks)  ;  Natland, 
in  Norway  (the  land  of  horned  cattle)  ;  Sutherland  (the 
southern  land,  as  compared  with  Caithness),  both  Suther- 
land and  Caithness  having  formed  part  of  the  Orkney 
Jarldom  ;  Cumberland  (the  land  of  the  Cymbri),  being  part 
of  the  British  kingdom  of  Cumbria  ;  Holland  (the  marshy 
land,  ollant)  ;  Gippsland,  named  in  honour  of  Sir  George 
Gipps,  a  governor  of  Port  Philip ;  Friesland  (the  land  of 
the  Frisii)  ;  Beveland  (of  oxen  or  beeves)  ;  Baardland  (of 
the  Lombards) ;  Westmoreland  (the  land  of  the  West- 
mot  ingas  or  people  of  the  Western  moors) ;  Gothland, 
in  Sweden  (the  land  of  the  Goths) ;  Jutland  (the  land 
of  the  Getae  or  Jutes,  the  Cimbric  Chersonesus  of  the 

//-MJ  /-     \          /a  site,  abed;  and  in  Germany. 

LAR,   LAAR,   LEER  (Old  Ger.),  '  .         t    '        4 

'    ,.     '.  1  according  to  Buttmann,  a  field ; 

LAER  (A.  o. )«  -\  .  i 

//-   jt.  v  \  ^  m     topography,     synonymous 

LATHAIR,  or  LAUER  (Gadhelic),  l     ..     *  &    r  *'      f     ,7      . 

"  ^  with  lage;  e.g.  Goslar  (the  site 


or  field  on  the  R.  Gose),  in  Hanover ;  Somplar  (marshy 
field) ;  Wittlar  (woody  field) ;  Dinklar  (wheat  field) ;  Wetzlar, 
in  Prussia,  anc.  Wittlara  (woody  field)  ;  Wassarlar  (watery 
field) ;  Noordlaren  (the  northern  site)  ;  Lahr  (the  site),  a 
town  in  Baden.  In  Ireland  this  word  takes  the  forms  of 
laragh  and  laraj  e.g.  Laraghleas  (the  site  of  the  fort)  ; 
Laraghshankill  (of  the  old  church).  Lara,  however,  is 
sometimes  a  corrupt,  of  Leath-rath  (half  rath),  as  in 
Laragh,  in  West  Meath ;  and  laar  and  lare  often  mean 
middle,  as  in  Rosslare  (the  middle  peninsula)  ;  Ennislare 
(the  middle  island)  ;  Latheron,  in  Caithness,  is  the  site  of 
the  seal. 

,_     .       (a  current,  a  rapid,  from  laufen.  Ger.  ; 

LAUF,  LAUFEND  (Ger.),       I    ,  .       ,          '  j          77      ,  A   o      / 

LOOP  (Dutch}  1  hlauPen>    Scand-  '    hleaPen>    A.S.    (to 

(  run,  to  leap)  ;  e.g.  Laufen  (the  rapids), 
on  the  R.  Salzach  ;  Lauffenberg  (the  town  near  the  rapids 
of  the  Rhine)  ;  Laufnitz  (the  leaping  river)  ;  Lauffen  (on  the 
rapids  of  the  R.  Inn)  ;  Leixlip,  in  Ireland,  Old  Norse  Lax- 
hlaup  (salmon-leap),  on  a  cataract  of  the  R.  Liffey ;  Beck- 
loop  (brook  cataract),  in  Holland ;  Loop-Head,  Co.  Clare, 
Irish  Leim-Chon-Chuillerin  (Cuchullin's  leap) — v.  Joyce's 
Names  of  Places. 

LAWfA.S}   hleaw      (a  hil1'  c°Snate  with  the   Irish   *<&*''  '& 
LOW  \  Houndslow  (the  d°S's  hil1);   Ludlow  (the 

(  people's  hill,  lead)  ;  Greenlaw,  in  Berwick- 
shire (the  green  hill) — the  modern  town  is  situated  on  a 
plain,  but  old  Greenlaw  was  on  a  hill ;  Winslow  (the  hill  of 
victory),  in  Berks  ;  Marlow  (the  chalk  or  marshy  hill)  ; 
Wardlaw  (guard  hill)  ;  Hadlow,  anc.  Haslow  (hazel  hill) ; 
Castlelaw,  in  the  Lammermuir  range,  named  from  Roman 
camps  on  these  hills ;  Sidlaw  Hills  (the  south  hills,  in  re- 
ference to  their  forming  the  southern  boundary  of  Strath- 
more)  ;  Warmlow,  Co.  Worcester,  anc.  Waermundes-hleau 
(the  hill  of  Waermund,  a  personal  name)  ;  Fala,  a  parish 
in  Mid  Lothian,  abbreviated  from  Fallaw  (the  speckled  hill)  ; 
Mintlaw,  in  Aberdeenshire,  corrupt,  from  Moan-alt-law  (the 
hill  at  the  moss  burn). 

LAYA  (Sansc.),  an  abode ;  e.g.  Naglaya  (the  abode  of  snakes)  ; 
the  Himalaya  Mountains  (the  abode  of  snow)  ;  Hurrial,  for 
Arayalaya  (the  abode  of  Hari  or  Vishnu). 


LEAC  (Gadhelic)         f  a  flat  stone— in  topography,  found  in  the 

LLECH  (Cvm  -Ce'l  \     }  f°rmS  °f  U°k  a"d   ^  co£nate   with   the 
'''    (  Lat.  lapis  and  Grk.  lithosj  e.g.   Lackeen, 

Licken  (the  little  stone)  ;  Slieve-league  (the  mountain  of 
the  flagstone)  ;  Lickmollasy  (St.  Molasse's  flagstone)  ;  Bel- 
leek,  Irish  Bel-leice  (the  ford  of  the  flagstone),  near  Bally- 
shannon  ;  Lackagh  (full  of  flagstones)  ;  Lickfinn  (white 
flagstone)  ;  Duleek,  anc.  Doimhliag  (the  stone  house  or 
church) ;  Auchinleck  (the  field  of  the  stone),  in  Ayrshire ; 
Harlech,  in  Merioneth  ;  Ar-llech  (on  the  rock,  the  place 
being  situated  on  a  craggy  eminence)  ;  Llananl-lech — v. 
LLAN  ;  Llech-trufin,  probably  originally  Llech  -treffen  (the 
rock  of  the  look-out,  or  twrfine)  ;  Llanml-lech  (the  church 
among  many  stones)  ;  Tre-llech  (stone  dwelling)  ;  Llech- 
rhyd  (the  ford  of  the  flat  stone)  ;  Leek,  Lech,  Leckbeck 
(the  stony  rivers)  ;  Leckfield  (the  field  on  the  R.  Leek)  ; 
Leckwith,  in  Wales,  for  Lechwedd  (a  slope). 

LEAMHAN  (Gadhelic),  the  elm-tree  ;  e.g.  the  Laune,  a  river  at 
Killarney,  and  the  Leven,  in  Scotland  (the  elm-tree  stream) ; 
Lennox  or  Levenach  (the  district  of  the  R.  Leven),  the 
ancient  name  of  Dumbartonshire  ;  Lislevane  (the  fort  of  the 
elm-tree),  in  Ireland.  According  to  Mr.  Skene,  the  Rivers 
Leven  in  Dumbartonshire  and  in  Fife  have  given  their 
names  to  Loch  Lomond  and  Loch  Leven,  while  in  each 
county  there  is  a  corresponding  mountain  called  Lomond. 

LEARG  (Gadhelic),  the  slope  of  a  hill ;  e.g.  Largy,  in  Ireland  ; 
Lairg,  a  parish  in  Sutherlandshire  ;  Largs,  in  Ayrshire,  and 
Largo,  in  Fife,  from  this  word  ;  Largan  (the  little  hill-slope) ; 
Largynagreana  (the  sunny  hill-slope)  ;  Larganreagh  (gray 
hill-slope),  in  Ireland. 

LEBEN  (Ger.),  a  possession,  an  inheritance.  Forsteman  thinks 
this  word  is  derived  from  the  Old  Ger.  laiban  (to  leave  or 
bequeath),  cognate  with  the  Grk.  leipa,  and  not  from  leben 
(to  live)  ;  e.g.  Leibnitz,  anc.  Dud-leipen  (the  inheritance  of 
Dudo)  ;  Ottersleben  (of  Otho) ;  Ritzleben  (of  Richard)  ; 
Germersleben  (of  Germer)  ;  Osharsleben  (of  Ausgar)  ;  San- 
dersleben  (of  Sander)  ;  Hadersleben  (of  Hada). 

LEGIO  (Lat),  a  Roman  legion;  e.g.  Caerleon,  on  the  Usk,  anc. 
Isca-Legionis ;  Leicester,  Legionis-castra  (the  camp  of  the 
legion)  ;  Leon,  in  Spain,  anc.  Legio,  being  the  station  of 

LEHM—LEY  125 

the  seventh  Roman  legion  ;  Lexdon,  anc.  Legionis-dtmum 
(the  fort  of  the  legion) ;  Megiddo,  in  Palestine,  now  Ledjun, 
anc.  Castra-legionis  (the  camp  of  the  legion). 

LEHM  (Ger  )       ( day>   mud  '  e'g'  the   Leam  (the  muddy  river)  ; 
)  A  *\'\      )  Leamington  (the  town  on  the  R.  Leam)  ;  Lehm- 
an     M     )  hurst  (the   clayey    wood) ;    Lambourn    (muddy 
''    (^  brook)  ;  Leemkothen  (the  mud  huts). 

LEITER  (Gadhelic),  the  slope  of  a  hill ;  e.g.  Ballater,  in  Aberdeen- 
shire  (the  town  on  the  sloping  hill)  ;  Letterfearn  (the  alder- 
tree  slope);  Letterfourie  (the  grassy  hill-side,  feurach);  Find- 
later  (the  cold  hill-slope,  fi onri),  in  Scotland.  In  Ireland  : 
Letterkenny  (the  hill-slope  of  the  O'Cannons)  ;  Letterkeen 
(beautiful  hill-slope)  ;  Lettermullen  (Meallan's  hill-slope)  ; 
Letterbrick  (the  badger's  hill-slope)  ;  Letterlickey  (the  hill- 
slope  of  the  flagstone)  ;  Letherhead,  in  Surrey  (at  the  head 
of  the  slope,  Welsh  llethr),  on  the  declivitous  bank  of  the 
R.  Mole  ;  Machynlleth  for  Mach-yn-Llethr  (the  ridge  on  the 
slope),  a  town  in  Montgomery. 

/  A  e  \        (  the  Pe°ple  >  e'g'  Leutkirch  (the  people's  church)  ; 

/P     \     *\  Liege,   Ger.    Liittich,    anc.  Leodicus-vicus   (the 

^  (  people's  town) — the  hill  on  which  the  citadel 

stands  was  called  Publes-mont  (the  people's  hill) ;  Leeds, 

in  Yorkshire,  anc.  Loidis  (the  people's  town,  according  to 

Bayley)  ;  Whittaker,  however,  makes  it  the  town  of  Loidi,  a 

personal  name)  ;  but  Leeds,  in  Kent,  is  said  to  have  been 

named  after  Ledian,  the  Chancellor  of  Ethelred  II. 

LESSO,  LESSE  (Sclav.),  a  wood  or  thicket ;  e.g.  Lessau,  Leske, 
Leskau,  Lessen,  Lissa  (the  woody  place),  towns  in  Prussia  ; 
Leschnitz,  in  Silesia,  and  Leizig,  in  Saxony,  with  the  same 
meaning  ;  Leschkirch  (the  church  in  the  wood),  in  Tran- 
sylvania ;  Liezegorike  (woody  hill). 

LEUCUS  (Grk.),  white  ;  e.g.  Leuctra,  Leuctron,  Leucadia,  so 'named 
from  the  white  rocks  at  its  extremity ;  Leucasia  (the  white 
river)  ;  Leucate  (the  white  promontory  in  Greece). 

T  FV   T  F A  ( A  q  N      (  a  district — in  English  topography  generally 

L,H,l.    1.1. A    C/\.  O.  ).        '  ,.       ,  ^11  i 

<  applied  to  an   open    field    or  meadow ;  •  e.g. 

[  Leigh  (the  meadow),  in  Lancashire  ;  Berkeley, 

Thornley,  Oakley,  Auchley,  Alderley,  Brachley  (the  meadow 

of  birch,   thorn,    oak,   alder,    ferns)  ;    Hasley  (of  hazels)  ; 

Hagley  (the  enclosed  meadow)  ;  Horsley  (the  meadow  of 

126  LIN— LINN E 

Horsa,  or  of  horses)  ;  Brockley  (of  the  badger)  ;  Hindley 
(of  the  stag)  ;  Everley  (of  the  wild  boar,  aper)  ;  Bradley 
(broad  meadow) ;  Stanley  (stony  meadow) ;  Loxley  (of 
Loki,  a  Scandinavian  deity)  ;  Ashley  (ash-tree  meadow)  ; 
but  Ashley,  S.  Carolina,  was  named  after  Lord  Ashley  in 
the  reign  of  Charles  II.  ;  Morley  (moor-field)  ;  Bisley  (bean- 
field)  ;  Cowley  (cow's  field)  ;  Linley  (flax-field)  ;  Monkley 
(the  monk's  field)  ;  Audley,  Co.  Stafford  (old  field)  ;  but 
Audley,  in  Essex,  took  its  name  from  a  palace  erected 
by  Thomas  Audley,  Lord  Chancellor  of  England ;  Ofley 
(the  field  of  King  Offa)  ;  Tarporley,  in  Cheshire,  corrupt, 
from  Thorpeley  (the  farm-field  or  meadow) ;  Chorley  (the 
meadow  of  the  R.  Chor)  ;  Bosley  (Bodolph's  field)  ;  West 
Leigh,  North  Leigh,  Leighton,  from  the  same  root ;  Satter- 
leigh  (the  field  of  Seator,  an  A.  S.  deity)  ;  Earnley,  Sussex 
(eagle  meadow)  ;  Ripley,  in  Yorkshire,  from  ffryp,  a 
peronal  name  ;  Bentley,  bent,  pasture  (a  coarse  kind  of 
grass)  ;  Tewesley  and  Tisley,  from  Tiw,  a  Saxon  deity — 
as  also  Tewing,  Tuoesmere,  and  Teowes  (thorn)  ;  Henley 
(the  old  meadow  or  field),  supposed  to  be  the  oldest  town 
in  Oxfordshire. 

LIN  (Esthonian),  a  fort  or  town  ;  e.g.  Rialin,  now  Riga  (the  fortress 
of  the  Rugii),  in  Russia ;  Pernau,  anc.  Perna-ltn  (the  lime- 
tree  fort)  ;  Tepelin  (hill  town  ;  tepe,  Turc.  hill). 

,~      ^  (  the    linden-tree  ;    e.g.    Lindhurst 

LINDE  (Ger.),  ,    T       ,,          '    .  &  ..    , 

/AC-        jo       j  \  -\  ano-   Lyndhurst   (the   linden -tree 
LIND,  LYND  (A.S.  and  Scand.),  )         j\     »•  jv  •       T-J     r  T  • 

"  (  wood)  ;  Lmdheim,  Lindorf,  Lim- 

burg,  in  Germany  (the  town  of  linden-trees)  ;  as  also  Lim- 
burg,  in  Holland,  formerly  Lindenbiirgj  Lindau  (the  linden- 
tree  meadow)  ;  Lindesnaes  (the  promontory  of  linden-trees), 
in  Norway ;  La  Linde,  Le  Lindois  (abounding  in  linden-trees) ; 
Limboeuf,  Lindeboeuf  (linden-tree  dwelling),  in  France. 

//-  ji.  i-  \  (a   pool,   a  lake,   sometimes    applied    to   a 

LINNE  (Gadhelic),  i  , '  .    .     "*     . 

//-        ^  i  \  ;  waterfall,  not  as   associated  with  the  cas- 

LLYNN  (Cym.-Cel.),  <  .  ,     ,,  ,  .  ,    .     . 

/  A  o  \  i  cade,  but  with   the   pool  into   which  it   is 

HLYNNA  (A.S.),  /  ,  ~  ., 

^received,  as  in  the  Linn  of  Dee,  in  Aber- 
deenshire,  and  Corra-linn,  on  the  Clyde.  Dublin  (the  black 
pool)  takes  its  name  from  that  part  of  the  R.  LifFey  on 
which  it  is  built ;  and  there  are  several  other  places  in 
Ireland  whose  names  have  the  same  meaning,  although 

LIOS  127 

variously  spelt,  as  Devlin,  in  Mayo  ;  Bowling  and  Doolin, 
in  Kilkenny  and  Clare ;  Ballinadoolin  (the  town  of  the 
black  pool),  in  Kildare.  In  several  such  cases  the  proper 
name  was  Ath-cliath  (hurdle  ford),  literally  Baile-atha-cliath 
(the  town  of  the  hurdle  ford),  the  original  name  of  Dublin. 
The  ancient  name  of  Lincoln,  Lindum,  is  the  hill  fort  on 
the  pool ;  Linlithgow  comes  from  the  same  root,  and  is 
probably  the  gray  lake — how  it  came  by  the  termination 
gow,  gu,  or  cu,  as  it  is  variously  spelt,  cannot  be  deter- 
mined ;  Linton,  in  Roxburghshire,  is  the  town  on  the  pool ; 
Linton,  in  Peebles,  on  the  R.  Lyne — in  Cambridge  (on  the 
brook,  hlynna)  ;  Dupplin,  on  the  R.  Earn,  in  Perthshire 
(the  black  pool)  ;  Crailing,  in  Berwickshire,  anc.  Traverlin 
(the  dwellings,  treabhar,  on  the  pool)  ;  Edarline  (between 
the  pools)  ;  Aber-glas-lyn  (the  estuary  of  the  blue  pool),  in 
Wales  ;  Lynn-Regis  (the  king's  pool),  in  Norfolk  ;  Roslin 
(the  projecting  point  on  the  pool),  in  Mid  Lothian  ;  Lynn- 
yr-Afrange  (the  beaver's  pool),  in  Wales  ;  Mauchline,  in 
Ayrshire  (the  pool  in  the  plain,  magh)  ;  Lincluden,  in 
Kirkcudbright  (the  pool  of  the  R.  Cluden)  ;  Lindores,  in 
Fife,  probably  not  from  this  root,  but  a  corrupt,  of  Lann- 
Tours,  being  the  seat  of  the  abbey  of  Tours,  founded  by 
David,  Earl  of  Huntingdon.  Lyme-Regis  (the  king's  pool), 
in  Dorset ;  Lymington,  anc.  Linton  (the  town  on  the  pool), 
in  Hants  ;  Llyn-hir  (long  pool)  ;  Llyn-y-cun  (the  dog's  pool), 
in  Carnarvon  ;  Llynn-y-Nadroedd  (the  adder's  pool)  ;  Llynn- 
ye-cae  (the  enclosed  pool),  all  in  Wales ;  Llyn-tegid  (the 
fair  or  beautiful  lake)  ;  Lly-gwyn,  with  the  same  meaning  ; 
Llyn-Teivy,  of  the  R.  Teivy,  in  Wales ;  Llyn-Safaddon, 
corrupt,  from  Llyn-saf-baddon  (the  standing  pool  or  fixed 
bathing  place) — v.  BAD. 

//-   ju  T  \       (  an  enclosure,  a  garden,  or  a  fort.      In 
LIOS,  or  LIS  (Gadhelic),      )  T    ,      ,  .  •  •     „ 

;„  j  <•*       •  v.\  •{  Ireland  it  generally  meant  originally  a 

LES  (Breton  and  Cornish),  )     .  i       j     •  /      •      i  ». 

'  (  place  enclosed  with  a  circular  entrench- 
ment, for  the  purpose  of  shelter  and  safety,  and  is  often 
translated  by  the  Lat.  atrium  (the  entrance-room  to  a 
dwelling  or  temple).  There  are  eleven  places  in  Ireland 
called  Lismore  (the  great  enclosure) ;  Lismore  also  in 
Argyleshire ;  Listowel  (Tuathal's  fort)  ;  Liscarrol  (Carrol's 
fort)  ;  Liscahane  (Cathan's  fort)  ;  Lissan,  Lissane,  Lessany 

128  LI  PA— LOCH 

(the  little  fort)  ;  Ballylesson  (the  town  of  the  little  fort)  ; 
Lisclogher  (stone  fort)  ;  Lislevane  (the  fort  of  the  elm)  ; 
Lismullin  (of  the  mill)  ;  Lisnadarragh  (of  the  oaks) ; 
Lisnaskea,  i.e.  Lios-na-sceithe  (of  the  bush)  ;  Lissard  (high 
fort) ;  Gortnalissa  (the  field  of  the  fort) ;  Lisbellaw,  i.e. 
Lios-bel-atha  (the  fort  at  the  ford  mouth)  ;  Dunluce  (strong 
fort)  ;  Thurles,  Co.  Tipperary,  from  Durlas  (strong  fort)  ; 
Rathurles  (the  rath  of  the  strong  fort) — all  in  Ireland  ; 
Liskard  or  Liskeard  (the  enclosure  on  the  height),  in  Corn- 
wall and  Cheshire  ;  Lostwithel,  in  Cornwall,  i.e.  Les-vthiel 
(the  lofty  palace),  one  of  the  ancient  seats  of  the  Duke  of 
Cornwall  ;  Lesmahago,  in  Lanarkshire,  Lat.  Ecclesia- 
Machute  (the  enclosure  or  church  of  St.  Machute)  ;  Les- 
neven,  in  Brittany,  i.e.  Les-an-Evan  (the  enclosure  or  palace 
of  Evan,  Count  of  Leon)  ;  Leslie,  in  Fife  (the  enclosure  on 
the  R.  Leven)  ;  Lessudden  or  St.  Boswell's,  in  Roxburgh- 
shire, bears  the  first  name  from  Aidan,  the  Bishop  of 
Lindesfarne,  who  is  said  to  have  lived  there  ;  and  its  second 
name  from  Boisel,  a  disciple  of  St.  Cuthbert.  The  Spanish 
llosa  is  akin  to  the  Celtic  lios,  as  in  Lliosa-del-Obispo  (the 
bishop's  enclosure). 

LIPA  (Sclav.),  the  linden-tree  ;  e.g.  Leipzig,  Lipten,  Laubsdorf  or 
Libanoise,  Lauban  or  Luban,  Luben,  Laubst,  Labolz,  etc. 
(the  places  abounding  in  linden-trees)  ;  Lubeck  and  Lublin 
may  come  from  the  same  root,  or  from  a  Sclavonic  word 
signifying  beloved. 

LLWYD  (Welsh),  gray-brown ;  e.g.  Rhipyn  Llwyd  (the  gray  upland) ; 
Llwyd-goed  (gray  wood). 

//-   ji.  i-  \      (  a  lake  ;    e.p.  Loch  Broom  (the  lake 

LOCH,  LOUGH  (Gadhelic),         r  ,  * .        \     T      i,  /-  /  r 

/}    <  of  showers,  braori) ;  Loch  Carron  (of 

LLWCH  (Cym.-Cel.),  J  .,  '  \       T      ,      ~   .v 

(  the    winding    water) ;     Loch    Dome 

(deep  loch)  ;  Loch  Duich,  in  Ross-shire  (the  lake  of  St. 
Duthic,  the  same  person  from  whom  the  town  of  Tain  took 
its  Gaelic  name,  Baile- Duich,  St.  Dulhaick's  town)  ;  Loch 
Fyne  (the  fair  lake)  ;  Loch  Lomond  (the  lake  of  the  elm- 
tree  river)  ;  Loch  Nell  (of  the  swan,  eala)  ;  Loch  Ness  (of 
the  waterfall,  i.e.  of  Foyers) — v.  EAS  ;  Loch  Long  (ship 
lake,  Scand.  Skipafiord)  ;  Gareloch  (short  lake,  gearr),  in 
Ross-shire,  and  also  a  branch  of  the  Firth  of  Clyde  ;  Loch 
Etive  (dreary  loch,  eittdh)  ;  Lochlubnaig  (the  lake  of  the 

LOCH  129 

little  bend,  lubnaig)  ;  Lochbuie  and  Lochbuy  (the  yellow 
loch) ;  Lochmuic  (of  the  wild  boar)  ;  Lochgorm  (blue 
loch)  ;  Lochlaggan  (of  the  hollow)  ;  Loch  Tay  (of  the  R. 
Tay  or  Tamha,  quiet  river)  ;  Lochgelly  (of  the  fair  water)  ; 
Loch  Maree  (the  lake  of  St.  Malrube) ;  Lochard  (high 
loch)  ;  Loch  Awe  and  Loch  Linnhe  (here  duplicate  names, 
aw  signifying  water  and  linne  a  pool)  ;  Loch-na-keal  (the 
loch  of  the  cemetery,  till) ;  Loch  Earn  (the  west  loch,  i.e. 
west  of  Loch  Tay)  ;  Lochgelly  (white  lake,  gealicK)  ;  Loch 
Katrine,  probably  the  lake  of  the  Caterans  or  freebooters  ; 
Benderloch,  in  Argyleshire,  i.e.  Bendaraloch  (the  hill 
between  the  lakes)  ;  Lochnagar,  i.e.  Lochan-na-gabhar  (the 
little  lake  of  the  goats,  at  the  base  of  the  mountain  to  which 
it  gives  its  name)  ;  Lochmaben,  probably  the  loch  of  the 
bald  headland,  as  in  an  old  charter  the  castle  at  the  head 
of  the  loch  is  called  Lochmalban;  Lochfad  (long  loch),  in 
the  Island  of  Bute,  five  miles  long  and  scarce  half  a  mile 
broad  ;  Loch  Achray,  in  Perthshire  (the  loch  of  the  level 
plain,  reidh)  ;  Leuchars,  in  Fife,  formerly  Lough-yards,  the 
low  grounds  of  the  village  used  to  lie  under  water  for  the 
greater  part  of  the  year.  In  Ireland  there  are  Lough  Derg 
(red  lake),  originally  Loch  Dergderc  (the  lake  of  the  red 
eye,  connected  with  a  legend)  ;  Lough  Conn  (from  a  per- 
sonal name  Conn)  ;  Loch  Rea  (gray  or  smooth  lake,  reidh, 
smooth) ;  as  also  Loch  Ryan,  in  Kirkcudbright  (of  the 
smooth  water,  reidhan)  •  Loch  Foyle  (the  lake  of  Febhal, 
the  son  of  Lodan)  ;  Loughan,  Loughane  (little  lake)  ; 
Lochanaskin  (the  little  lake  of  the  eels)  ;  Lough  Corrib, 
corrupt,  from  Lough  Orbsen  (the  lake  of  Orbsen  or 
Mannanan,  over  whose  grave  it  is  said  to  have  burst  forth) ; 
Lough  Erne,  in  Ireland,  named  from  the  Ernai,  a  tribe  ; 
Lough  Finn,  named  after  a  lady  called  Finn,  who  was 
drowned  in  its  waters  ;  Lough,  i.e.  Loch-n'-Echach  (the  lake 
of  Eochy,  a  Munster  chief,  who,  with  his  family,  was  over- 
whelmed in  the  eruption  which  gave  their  origin  to  its 
waters)  ;  Loch  Swilly,  probably  a  Scand.  name,  meaning 
the  lake  of  the  surges  or  whirlpool,  sivelchie.  The  town  of 
Carlow  was  originally  Cetherloch  (the  quadruple  lake,  cether, 
four),  from  a  tradition  that  formerly  the  R.  Barrow  formed 
four  lakes  at  this  spot. 


130  LOCUS— LUG 

LOCUS  CLat  )  f  a  place  ;  e'g'  Netley>  Lat  Laeto-loco  (at 

T    r     /A  c  \  |  the  pleasant,  cheerful  place),  so  called 

, T  ^  /r-         r  i  \    \  from    a    monastery    founded     there    by 

LOK,  LLE  (Cym.-Cel.),   ]  ,„  j     •,?•         f    ,» 

LIEU(Fr)  Mereward,    King    of    Mercia,    in    658; 

[  Madley  (the  good  place)  ;  Matlock  (the 

meat   enclosure  or    storehouse) ;    Leominster,   Lat.  Loaes- 

fanum  (temple  place)  ;   Porlock  or   Portlock,  in  Somerset 

(the  place  of  the  port)  ;  Lok-Maria-Ker  (the  town  of  Maria 

Ker),   in   Brittany.      In    France :    Richelieu    (rich   place) ; 

Chaalis,  anc.  Carolis-locus  (the  place  of  Charles  the  Good, 

Count  of  Flanders)  ;  Beaulieu  (beautiful  place)  ;  Loctudey, 

at  Finisterre,  corrupt,  from  Loc-Sancti-Tudene  (the  place  of 

St.  Tudy)  ;   Locdieu  and  Dilo,  i.e.  Dei-locus  (God's  place)  ; 

Lieusaint  (holy  place)  ;  Baslieu  (low  place). 

//-          j  T->  ^  i.\    (  a  meadow  or  thicket,  and  sometimes 
LOH,  LOO  (Ger.  and  Dutch), 

'  "  <  a    marsh  ;     e.g.    Waterloo    (watery 

( meadow) ;     Venloo     (the     marshy 

meadow),  and  perhaps  Lotivain  may  have  the  same  mean- 
ing; Groenloo  (green  thicket) ;  Hohenlohe  (the  high  marshy 
meadow)  ;  Tongerloo  (the  marshy  meadow  of  the  Tungri)  ; 
Schwarzenloh  (the  black  thicket)  ;  Anderlues  (on  the  marsh). 
//-  \  (a  path  ;  e.g.  Iser-lohn  (the  path  by  the  R.  Iser)  ; 

/V,  »v\    \  Forstlohn  (the  path  in  the  wood)  ;  Neerloon  and 
LOON  (Dutch),    )  _,     . 

/J    (  Oberloon  (the  lower  and  upper  path)  ;  Loon-op- 

Zand  (the  path  on  the  sand). 

LUCUS  (Lat  )  f  a  Sa°red  gr°ve  ;   e'g'  Lug°'  in   Italy' 

.„  V^TT'I  t. x  <  anc.  Lucus-Diatuz  (the   sacred  grove 

LLWYN  (Welsh),  a  grove,  )     ,„.       ,     T          •   V,     •  r 

(  of  Diana);  Lugo,  in  Spam,  anc.  Lucus- 

Augusti  (the  sacred  grove  of  Augustus)  ;  Les  luches,  in 
France,  near  the  remains  of  an  ancient  temple ;  Luc,  anc. 
Lucus,  in  Dauphiny. 

LUC    LUKA  fS  1      ^      (a  mars^'   c°gnate   with    the   Lat. 

'     /y-«jt_  v  \  )  lutum;  e.g.  Lusatia  or  Lausatz  (the 

LEOIG  (Gadhehc),  ,  '     &  ,.    T         ,       „       rv  , . 

,V    v      •  »  marshy  land) ;  Lassahn,  Ger.  Lakt- 

LAUK  (Esthoman),  j  , 

V  burgum  (the  town  on  the  marsh)  ; 

Lugos  or  Lugosch,  Luko  and  Leignitz,  with  the  same  mean- 
ing, in  Poland  and  Silesia ;  Podlachia  (near  the  marshes), 
a  district  in  Poland.  The  towns  of  Lyons,  Laon,  and  Leyden 
were  formerly  named  Ltigdimum  (the  fortress  in  the  marshy 
land) ;  Paris  was  formerly  Lutetia-Parisiorum  (the  marshy 

LUND — MAES  131 

land  of  the  Parisii).  In  France  :  Loches,  formerly  Lttcca; 
and  Lochice  (the  marshy  land)  ;  and  Loche,  formerly  Loch- 
eium  (the  marshy  dwelling),  in  the  departments  of  Indre  et 

LUND  (Scand.),  a  sacred  grove ;  e.g.  Lund,  towns  in  Sweden  and 
in  the  Shetlands  ;  Lundgarth  (the  enclosed  grove),  in  York- 
shire ;  Lundsthing  (the  place  of  meeting  at  the  grove),  in 
Shetland ;  Charlottenlund,  Christianslund,  and  Fredericks- 
lund  (the  grove  of  Charlotte,  Christian,  and  Frederick),  vill- 
ages in  Denmark ;  and  perhaps  the  island  Lundy,  in  the 
Bristol  Channel. 

LUST,  LYST  (Teut.),  pleasure — applied,  in  topography,  to  a  palace 
or  lordly  mansion  ;  e.g.  Ludwigslust,  Charlottenlust,  Raven- 
lust  (the  palaces  of  Ludovick,  of  Charlotte,  and  of  Hrafen)  ; 
Lostwithel,  in  Cornwall  (the  manor  of  Withel),  in  the  old 
Brit,  language,  Pen  Uchel  coet  (the  lofty  hill  in  the  wood, 
and  the  Uzella  of  Ptolemy) ;  Lustleigh  (the  valley  of  plea- 
sure), in  Devon. 

LUTTER,  LAUTER  (Teut.),  bright,  clear;  e.g.  Lutri,  on  Lake  Geneva; 
Luttar,  in  Brunswick  (the  bright  place) ;  Latterbach  and 
Lauterburn  (clear  stream) ;  Lauterburg,  in  Alsace,  on  the 
R.  Lauter  ;  Lutterworth  (the  bright  farm)  ;  Lauterecken,  in 
Bavaria,  at  the  corner,  eck,  of  the  R.  Lauter. 

LUTZEL  LYTEL  (Teut  )       (  SmaU  '   6'g'  LutSenrode  (the  little  clear- 

LILLE  (Scand )  }  ing^  ;  Luxembur&  corrupt,  from  Lutzel- 

{  burg  (small  fortress),  Latinised  Lucis- 
Burgum  (the  city  of  light),  and  hence  passing  into  Lux- 
emburg ;  Lucelle  or  Lutzel,  in  Alsace  ;  Lutzelsten  (the  small 
rock),  in  Alsace. 


MAEN  (Welsh),  a  stone  ;  e.g.  Maentwrog  (the  tower-like  pillar),  a 
parish  in  Merioneth ;  Maen  or  Dewi  (St.  David's  possession). 

•,„//-        /-  i  \      ( a  meadow  or  field,  cognate  with  the 
MAES,orFAES(Cym.-Cel.),     l~     .  7  '      '          ,, 

/  A  o  \          }  Gael,  magn:  e.g.  Maescar  (the  pool 

MOED,  Or  MEAD  (A.S.),  <  .       ,       -   .*.  J.' &.  ,     v        -*??! 

MATTE  (Ger  )  )  !n  '  '  Maisemore  (SF**-  field)> 

^  in   Brecknock  and   Gloucestershire ; 

Marden,  in  Hereford,  anc.  Maes-y-durdin  (the  field  of  the 


water  camp) ;  Basaleg,  a  parish  in  Wales.  The  name  has 
been  corrupted  Maes-aleg,  signifying  elect  land,  from  an 
event  famous  in  Welsh  history,  which  took  place  there. 
Maes-teg  (the  fair  field)  ;  Maes-yr-onnen  (the  field  of  ash- 
trees)  ;  Cemmaes  (the  plain  of  the  ridge,  cefri)  ;  Maes-y- 
Mynach  (monk  field) ;  Cemmaes,  i.e.  Cefn-maes  (the  ridge 
of  the  plain),  in  Wales ;  Runnymede,  Co.  Surrey  (the 
meadow  of  the  council),  Latinised  Pratum-concilii ;  Ander- 
matt  (on  the  meadow) ;  Zermatt  (at  the  meadow),  in 
•  Switzerland ;  Matterhorn  (the  peak  of  the  meadow)  ; 
Aeschenmatt  (ash-tree  meadow)  ;  Maes-Garmon  (the  field 
of  St.  Germanus),  in  Wales  ;  Soultzmatt  (the  meadow  of 
mineral  waters,  salz),  in  Alsace. 

MAGEN,  MEKEN,  or  MAIN  (Teut.),  great ;  e.g.  the  R.  Main,  anc. 
Magen-aha  (great  water)  ;  Mainland,  anc.  Meginland  (great 
island),  in  the  Orkneys ;  Mainhardt  (great  wood)  ;  Mein- 
ingen  (the  great  field) — v.  GEN — in  Germany. 

,„,,,.,  C  a  field  or  plain,  corrupt,  into  Maw 

MAGH  (Gadhelic),  i»/r      T     •  •     !i  ™     i. 

//-        <~  i\         -j       \  or  Moy, Latinised  magus;  e.g.  Magh- 
MACH  (Cym.-CelA  a  ridge,  j  ,  *  , 

'  ( breagh    (the    beautiful    plain),    in 

Ireland,  extending  from  the  R.  Liffey  to  the  borders  of  Co. 
Louth ;  Moy  and  May  (the  plain),  both  in  Ireland  and  in 
Scotland;  Moidart (the  high  plain), in  Inverness-shire;  Mayo 
(the  plain  of  yew-trees)  ;  Moynalty,  Irish  Magh-nealta  (the 
plain  of  the  flocks) ;  Macosquin,  in  Londonderry,  corrupt, 
from  Magh-Cosgrain  (the  field  of  Cosgrain)  ;  Mallow,  in 
Cork,  Magh-Ealla  (the  plain  of  the  R.  Allo  or  Ealla,  now 
the  Blackwater)  ;  Moville  and  Movilla  (the  plain  of  the  old 
tree,  bile)  ;  Moycoba,  for  Magh-Coba  (the  plain  of  Coba)  ; 
Machaire,  a  derivative  from  Magh,  is  found  under  the  forms 
of  Maghera  and  Maghery,  thus — Magheracloone  (the  plain 
of  the  meadow)  ;  Magheraculmony  (the  plain  at  the  back  of 
the  shrubbery)  ;  Maynooth  (the  plain  of  Nuadhat)  ;  Moira, 
corrupt,  from  Magh-rath  (the  plain  of  the  forts),  Co.  Down  ; 
Moyarta  (the  plain  of  the  grave,  ferta).  In  Scotland  we  find 
Rothiemay,  in  Banff,  corrupt,  from  Rath-na-magh  (the  castle 
of  the  plain)  ;  Monievaird,  i.e.  M agh-na-bhaird  (the  plain 
of  the  bards),  in  Perthshire  ;  Machynlleth  (the  ridge  on  the 
slope),  a  town  in  Montgomeryshire,  Wales.  In  its  Latin- 
ised form  this  word  is  found  in  Marcomagus,  now  Margagen 

MA  HA  — MAN  1 33 

(the  plain  of  the  Marcomanni)  ;  Juliomagus  and 
magus  (of  Julius  and  Caesar)  ;  Noviomagus  (the  new  plain)  ; 
and  again  the  same  word  became  magen  or  megen  among 
the  Teutonic  races,  thus  Noviomagus  became  Nimeguen  ; 
Nozon  was  anc.  Noviomagus  or  Noviodunum;  Riom,  in 
France,  anc.  Ricomagus  (rich  plain) ;  Maing  or  Meung,  on 
the  Loire,  formerly  Magus ;  Argenton,  Argentomagus  (silver 
field)  ;  Rouen,  anc.  Rothomagus  (the  fort  on  the  plain). 
The  ancient  name  of  Worms  was  Bartomagus,  which  Butt- 
man  says  means  high  field  ;  its  present  name  was  corrupted 
from  Vormatia;  Mouzon,  in  France,  was  Mosomagus  (the 
plain  of  the  R.  Meuse). 

MAHA  (Sansc.),  great ;  e.g.  Mahabalipoor  (the  city  of  the  great  god 
Bali) ;  Mahanuddy  (the  great  river)  ;  Mahadea  Mountains 
(the  mountains  of  the  great  goddess)  ;  Maha-vila-ganga  (the 
great  sandy  river)  ;  Mantote,  in  Ceylon,  corrupt,  from  Maha- 
Totta  (the  great  ferry). 

MAHAL,  MAL,  or  MOLD  (Teut.),  the  place  of  meeting ;  e.g.  Mahl- 
burg  or  Mailburg,  in  Lower  Austria  (the  town  of  the  place 
of  meeting)  ;  Detmold,  anc.  Theotmalli  (the  people's  meet- 
ing-place ;  Wittmold  (the  meeting-place  in  the  wood) ; 
Moldfelde  (in  the  field)  ;  Malton  (the  town  of  the  meeting), 
in  Yorkshire  ;  Maulden  (the  valley  of  the  meeting),  in  Bed- 
fordshire ;  Kirch-ditmold  (the  church  at  the  meeting-place). 

MALY,  or  MALKI  (Sclav.),  little  ;  e.g.  Malinek,  Malinkowo,  Malenz, 
Malchow,  Malkow,  Malkowitz  (little  town) ;  Maliverck  (the 
little  height). 

MAN,  or  MAEN  (Cym.-Cel.),  a  place  or  district ;  Maenolat  Mainor, 
Welsh  (a  possession),  akin  to  the  Lat.  mansio  and  the  Fr. 
maison.  From  this  word  may  be  derived  Maine,  a  province 
of  France  ;  Mans  and  Mantes,  although  more  directly  they 
may  probably  come  from  the  Cenomanni,  a  people  who  for- 
merly inhabited  that  district  in  France ;  Mantua,  in  Italy, 
and  La  Mancha,  in  Spain,  may  be  placed  under  this 
head ;  also  Manchester,  anc.  Mancuntum,  and  Mancester, 
anc.  Manduessedum;  Menteith,  in  Perthshire,  the  district 
of  the  R.  Teith.  In  the  Welsh  language  the  letter  m  is 
changed  into  f,  and  pronounced  v,  and  fan  abridged  to  fa, 
thus — Brawdfa  (the  place  of  judgment) ;  Eisteddfa  (the 
sitting  place) ;  Gorphwzsfa  (resting  place) ;  Morfa  (the  shore 


or  sea  place) ;  Manaera  (the  place  of  slaughter),  probably 
the  site  of  a  battle  ;  Manclochog  (the  ringing-stone).1 

MANSUS  (Lat.),  a  farm  or  rural  dwelling,  to  which  was  attached  a 
certain  portion  of  land.  It  was  often  contracted  into  mas, 
miex,  or  mex;  e.g.  La  Manse,  Mansac,  Manselle,  Le  Mas, 
Beaumets,  Beaumais,  in  France.  The  Manse,  i.e.  the  dwell- 
ing and  glebe  attached  to  a  parish  in  Scotland ;  Mains,  a 
parish  in  Forfar. 

MANTIL  (Old  Ger.),  the  fir-tree ;  e.g.  Mantilholz  (the  fir-wood)  ; 
Mantilberg  (fir-tree  hill) ;  Zimmermantil  (the  room  or 
dwelling  at  the  fir-trees). 

MAR,  a  Ger.  word,  used  both  as  an  affix  and  a  prefix,  with 
various  meanings.  As  a  prefix,  it  occasionally  stands  for 
mark  (a  boundary),  as  in  Marbrook  (the  boundary  brook), 
and  March wiail  (the  boundary  of  poles),  in  Wales ;  some- 
times for  a  marsh,  as  in  Marbach,  on  the  Danube,  and 
Marburg,  on  the  Neckar  ;  sometimes  also  for  mark,  an  Old 
Ger.  word  for  a  horse,  as  in  Marburg,  on  the  R.  Lahn,  and 
Marburg  and  Mardorf  (horse  town),  in  Hesse.  As  an  affix, 
it  is  an  adjective,  and  signifies,  in  the  names  of  places  and 
persons,  clear,  bright,  distinguished,  or  abounding  in  ;  e.g. 
Eschmar  (abounding  in  ash-trees) ;  Geismar  (in  goats) ; 
Horstmar  (in  wood)  ;  Weimar  (in  the  vine). 
RIC  fC  \  (the  boundary;  e.g.  Styria  or  Stiermark,  the 

M  (f^^\     J  Boundary    of  the    R.    Steyer ;     Markstein    (the 

,'  ''!  j  boundary  stone)  ;  Markhaus  (the  dwelling  on  the 
^  '''  (^ border)  ;  March,  a  town  in  Cambridge;  La 
Marche  (the  frontier),  a  domain  in  France,  having  been  the 
boundary  between  the  Franks  and  Euskarians ;  Mercia, 
one  of  the  kingdoms  of  the  Heptarchy,  bordering  on  Wales  ; 
and  Murcia,  in  Spain,  the  boundary  district  between  the 
Moorish  kingdom  of  Granada  and  the  other  parts  of  Spain  ; 
Newmark,  Altmark,  Mittelmark  (the  new,  old,  and  middle 
boundary),  in  Germany ;  Mark,  in  the  Scandinavian  lan- 
guage, meant  a  plain  or  district,  thus  Denmark  means  the 
plain  of  the  Danes  ;  Finnmark  (of  the  Finns)  ;  Markbury, 
in  Cheshire ;  Markley,  in  Hereford  (the  boundary  town  and 
field).  The  Marcomanni  were  the  March  or  boundary  men 

1  It  obtained  the  name  from  two  large  stones  that  lay  on  the  roadside  near 
the  church,  and  possessed  that  property. 


of  the  Sclavonic  frontier  of  Germany  ;  the  R.  March  or 
Morava,  the  boundary  between  Lower  Austria  and  Hungary ; 
Marbecq  and  Marbeque,  rivers  in  France  ;  Mardick  (the 
boundary  dike). 

MAKJCT  (T  t\  (  a  mar^et>  sometimes  found  as  mart ;  e.g.  Markt- 
"  1  miihle  (the  market  mill)  ;  Marktham,  Markt- 
(  flecken  (market-town),  in  Germany  ;  Martham, 
also  in  Norfolk  ;  Neumarkt  in  Germany,  and  Newmarket 
in  England  (new  market-town)  ;  Martock,  in  Somerset  (the 
oak-tree  under  which  the  market  of  the  district  used  to  be 
held)  ;  Market-Raisin,  in  Lincoln,  on  the  R.  Raisin  ;  Bibert- 
Markt,  in  Bavaria,  on  the  R.  Bibert ;  Kasmarkt,  in  Hun- 
gary, corrupt,  from  Kaiser-Markt  (the  emperor's  market- 
town)  ;  Donnersmarkt,  the  German  translation  or  corrup- 
tion of  Csotartokhely  (the  Thursday  market-place),  in  Hun- 
gary. The  cattle-market  at  Stratford-on-Avon  is  still  called 
the  Rother-market,  from  an  old  word  rather,  for  horned 

MARSA  (Ar.),  a  port ;  e.g.  Marsala,  in  Sicily,  i.e.  Marsa-Allah 
(the  port  of  God)  ;  Marsalquivir,  i.e.  Marsal-el-kebir  (the 
great  port).  In  Malta  :  Marsa-scala,  Marsa-scirocco,  Marsa- 
muscetto,  Marsa  Torno. 

MAS  (Irish),  the  thigh  —  applied  in  topography  to  a  long  low 
hill  ;  e.g.  Massreagh  (gray  hill)  ;  Mausrower  (thick  hill)  ; 
Massareene,  i.e.  Mas-a-rioghna  (the  queen's  hill) ;  but 
Massbrook,  Co.  Mayo,  is  not  from  this  root ;  it  is  a  trans- 
lation of  Sruthan-an-aiffrinn  (the  brook  where  the  mass 
used  to  be  celebrated). 

MAUM,  MOYM,  or  MAM,  Irish  madhm  (a  mountain  pass  or  chasm)  ; 
e.g.  Maum-Turk  (the  boar's  pass)  ;  Maumakeogh  (the  pass 
of  the  mist);  Maumnaman  (of  the  women)  ;  Maumnahaltora 
(of  the  altar). 

MAVRO  (Modern  Grk.),  black ;  e.g.  Mavrovouno  (the  black 
mountain) ;  Mavro  Potamo  (the  black  river),  in  Greece  ; 
Mavrovo  and  Mavroya  (the  black  town),  in  Turkey. 

MAWR,  by  mutation  fawr,  Welsh  (great) — v.  MOR,  p.  143. 

MEDINA  (Ar.),  a  city  or  the  metropolis  ;  e.g.  Medina,  in  Arabia, 
called  by  the  Arabs  Medinat-al-Nabi  (the  city  of  the 
prophet).  In  Spain  :  Medina-de-las-torres  (the  city  of  the 
towers);  Medina- del -campo  (of  the  plain);  Medina-del- 


pomar  (of  the  apple-orchard)  ;  Medina-del-rio-seco  (of  the 
dry  river-bed) ;  Medina-Sidonia  (of  the  Sidonians).  This 
city  was  so  named  by  the  Moors,  because  they  believed  it 
to  have  been  built  on  the  site  of  the  Phoenician  city  Asidur. 

MEER,  MERE  (Teut.),  a  lake,  sea,  or  marsh  ;  e.g.  Blakemere  (the 
black  lake,  blaec),  in  Hereford  ;  Great  Marlow  or  Merelow 
(the  hill  by  the  marsh);  Cranmere  (the  crane's  lake  or 
marsh)  ;  Winandermere,  so  called,  according  to  Camden, 
from  the  winding  of  its  shores  ;  Wittleseamere,  Buttermere, 
and  Ellsmere,  probably  from  personal  names  ;  Meerfeld, 
Meerhof,  Meerholz,  and  Meerhout  (the  field,  court,  and 
wood  near  the  lake  or  marsh),  in  Holland.  But  mere,  in 
place-names,  is  said  sometimes  to  mean  a  boundary — thus 
Merse,  the  other  name  for  Berwickshire,  may  mean  either 
the  marshy  land  or  the  boundary  county  between  England 
and  Scotland.  Closely  connected  with  meer  (a  lake)  are 
the  words  in  the  Celtic  as  well  as  in  the  Teutonic  languages, 
denoting  marshy  lands,  z>.  lands  that  have  lain  under  water, 
and  are  still  partially  submerged — such  as  merse,  A.S.  ; 
morast,  Ger. ;  morfa,  Welsh ;  marts/t,  Gadhelic ;  marsk, 
Scand.  ;  and  marais,  Fr.  Many  places  in  Great  Britain 
and  the  Continent  derive  their  names  from  these  words,  thus 
— the  Maros  or  Marosh  ;  and  the  Morava  (marshy  rivers); 
Moravia  (the  district  of  the  marshy  river) ;  Morast,  in 
Sweden  (the  town  on  the  marsh)  ;  Merton,  in  Berwickshire 
(the  town  on  the  marsh) ;  Morebattle,  in  Roxburghshire,  anc. 
Mereboda  (the  dwelling  on  the  marsh)  ;  Ostermarsh  (east 
marsh),  in  Holland;  Marengo  (the  marshy  field),  in  Italy; 
Les  Moeres  (the  marshes),  in  Flanders ;  Marchienne, 
Marchienes,  Maresche,  Maresches,  Marest,  etc.,  in  France  ; 
Marcienisi,  in  Italy  (marshy  localities).  The  River  Mersey 
may  come  from  this  word,  or  it  may  mean  the  border  river 
between  England  and  Wales. 

MENIL,  MESNIL  (Fr.),  from  Mansionile,  the  dim.  of  mansusj  e.g. 
Grandmenil  (the  great  dwelling  or  hamlet)  ;  Le  Menil-la- 
comtesse  (the  manor  of  the  countess) ;  Mesnil-eglise  (the 
church  hamlet)  ;  Mesnil-Guillaume,  Mesnil-Gilbert,  Mesnil- 
Jourdan,  named  from  the  proprietors  ;  Mesnil-sur-PEstree 
(the  hamlet  on  the  Roman  road  called  Strata  Estree)  •  Les 
Menils,  Menillot,  etc.,  in  France. 


MENZIL  (Ar.),  a  village  ;  e.g.  Miselmeri,  corrupt,  from  Menzil-el- 
Emir  (the   emir's  village)  ;    Mezojuso,  from  Menzil-  Yusuf 
(the  village  of  Joseph). 
,,,  , ,        (  little,  cognate  with  the  Lat.  minor;  e.g.  the  Rivers 

J\      <  Minnow  and  Mynwy,  in  Wales  :  the  Mincio,  in 
MIO  (Scand.),     )  .    ,         .      ,,.   '      :     «  ,      ,,•  /', 

(  Italy ;  the   Mmho,  in   Portugal ;    Minorca  (the 

less),  in  opposition  to  Majorca  (the  greater  island)  ;  Miosen 
(the  little  sea  or  lake),  in  Norway. 

MICKLA,  MYCEL  (Teut.  and  Scand.),  great,  Scotch  muckle;  e.g. 
Mickledorf,  Michelstadt,  Michelham,  Mickleton  (great 
dwelling) ;  Micklebeck  (great  brook) ;  Michelau  (great 
meadow)  ;  Mitchelmerse  (the  great  marsh)  ;  Mecklenburg, 
anc.  Mikilinberg  (the  great  town  or  hill  fort)  ;  Muchelney 
(the  great  island),  in  Somersetshire,  formed  by  the  conf. 
of  the  Rivers  Ivel  and  Parret ;  Meikle  Ferry  (the  great 
ferry),  on  Dornoch  Firth  ;  Micklegarth  (the  great  enclosure), 
the  Scandinavian  name  for  Constantinople,  Grk.  Megalo- 
polis; but  mikil  or  miklos,  especially  in  Russia  and  Hun- 
gary, is  often  an  abbreviation  of  St.  Nicholas,  and  denotes 
that  the  churches  in  these  places  were  dedicated  to  that 
saint" — thus  Mikailov,  Mikhailovskaia,  Mikhalpol  (St. 
Nicholas's  towns),  in  Russia;  Miklos-Szent  and  Miklos- 
Nagy-Szent,  in  Hungary  ;  Mikolajow,  in  Poland  ;  Mitcham, 
in  Surrey,  in  Doomsday  is  Michelham. 

MIN,  MEN,  or  MAEN  (Cym.-Cel.),  a  high  rock  or  the  brow  of  a 
hill ;  e.g.  Maen-du  (black  rock),  in  Monmouth  ;  Minto,  a 
parish  in  Roxburghshire,  on  the  brow  of  a  steep  hill  ;  Meon- 
stoke  (hill  station)  ;  East  and  West  Meon,  in  Gloucester- 
shire ;  Mendabia  (at  the  foot  of  the  hill),  in  Spain  ;  Alt- 
maen,  corrupt,  to  "  Old  Man  of  Coniston,"  in  the  Lake 
country,  and  to  the  "  Old  Man  of  Hoy,"  in  the  Orkneys  ; 
the  "  Dodmaen,"  in  Cornwall — v.  DODD — has  been  cor- 
rupted to  Deadman. 

MINSTER,  MYNSTER  (A.S.),   j  ?    m°nk'S    ^"^    °rm°nasteT, 
MUENSTER  (Ger.),  *ence    a     Cathedral -Lat.    monas- 

[  tertum  ;  e.g.  Illmmster,  Axminster, 

Stourminster,  Kremmunster,  Charminster  (the  monasteries 
on  the  Rivers  111,  Ax,  Stour,  Krem,  and  Char) ;  Beam- 
minster,  Co.  Dorset,  named  after  St.  Bega ;  Kidderminster 


(the  monastery  of  Earl  Cynebert) ;  Westminster  (the  min- 
ster west  of  St.  Paul's)  ;  Warminster  (near  the  weir  or  dam 
of  the  R.  Willey)  ;  Monasteranenagh  (the  monastery  of  the 
fair) ;  Monasterboice  (of  St.  Bcethus) ;  Monasterevin  (of 
St.  Evin),  in  Ireland  ;  Monasteria  de  la  Vega  (of  the  plain), 
in  Spain.  In  France  :  Moutier,  Moustier,  Moustoir,  Mun- 
ster,  Monestier  (the  monastery) ;  Montereau,  Montreuil, 
Marmoutier  (the  monastery  of  St.  Martin) ;  Masmoutier 
(of  Maso)  ;  Noirmoutier  and  Rougemoutier  (the  black  and 
red  monastery) ;  Toli-Monaster  or  Bitolia  (the  monastery 
of  the  beech-trees),  in  Turkey ;  Munster  (the  monastery), 
in  Alsace ;  but  Munster,  a  province  in  Ireland,  is  com- 
pounded from  the  Scand.  ster — qu.  v. — and  the  Irish 
Mumha,  a  king's  name ;  Munster-eifel  (the  monastery  at 
the  foot  of  the  Eifel-berg). 

MIR    (Sclav.),    peace ;    e.g.    Mirgorod    (the    fortress    of  peace) ; 
Miropol,  Mirowitz,  Mirow  (the  town  of  peace). 

MITTEL,  MIDDEL  (Teut.  and  Scand.),  j  *e  mTid?le'  COfate  ™* 

dav.),  ithe  Lat-  r^'  5^. 

(  mesas,       and       Gadhehc 

meadhon;  e.g.  Middleby,  Middleton,  Middleham,  Mitton, 
Middleburg  (the  middle  town)  ;  Middlesex  (the  territory  of 
the  middle  Saxons) ;  Middlewich  (the  middle  salt  manufac- 
tory), in  Cheshire — v.  WICH  ;  Midhurst  (the  middle  wood), 
in  Sussex ;  Midmar  (the  middle  district  of  Mar),  in  Aber- 
deenshire  ;  Ardmeanadh,  Gael.  Ardmeadhonadh  (the  middle 
height),  being  the  Gaelic  name  for  Cromarty  ;  Mitford  (the 
middle  ford)  ;  Melton-Mowbray,  sometimes  written  Medel- 
tune  (the  middle  town),  formerly  belonging  to  the  Mowbray 
family  ;  Mittelgebirge  (the  middle  mountain  range)  ;  Mittel- 
walde,  Sclav.  Medzibor  (the  middle  of  the  wood),  in  Silesia  ; 
Methwold,  in  Norfolk,  with  the  same  meaning ;  Mittweyda 
(in  the  midst  of  pasture  ground),  in  Saxony  ;  Methley  and 
Metfield  (middle  field) ;  Meseritz  and  Meseritsch,  i.e.  mied- 
zyvreka  (in  the  midst  of  streams),  in  Moravia  and  Pomer- 
ania ;  Mediasch  (in  the  midst  of  waters),  in  Hungary ; 
Misdroi  (in  the  midst  of  woods),  in  Pomerania ;  Mediter- 
ranean Sea  (in  the  middle  of  the  land)  ;  Media  (the  middle 
country,  as  then  known)  ;  Mesopotamia,  Grk.  (the  country 
between  the  rivers)  ;  Mediolanum  (in  the  midst  of  the  plain 

ML  AD  Y—MOIN  1 39 

or  land) — v.  LANN — the  ancient  name  of  Milan,  Saintes,  and 
some  other  towns. 

MLADY,  MLODY  (Sclav.),  new ;  e.g.  Mladiza,  Mladowitz,  Mladzo- 
witz  (new  town),  in  Bohemia  ;  Bladen  and  Bladow,  corrupt, 
from  Mladen,  with  the  same  meaning,  in  Silesia. 

/a  round  hill  or  a  bald  promontory, 

MOEL  (Lym.-LeL)  I       &n  adjective  signifying  bald   and 

MAOL,  MEALL  (Gadhelic),     <     ,  \.    ,  ^    ?.,/    &, 

'  ,  . v  .  J  °ften  applied  to  hills  and  promon- 

( tories,  thus— the  Mull  or  promon- 
tory of  Cantyre  and  Galloway  ;  Meldrum,  in  Aberdeenshire, 
and  Meeldrum,  in  Ireland  (the  bald  ridge)  ;  Melrose,  i.e. 
Maol-ros  (the  bald  headland),  Old  Melrose  having  been 
situated  on  a  peninsula  formed  by  the  Tweed ;  the  Eildon 
Hills,  near  Melrose,  corrupt,  from  Moeldun  (bald  hill)  ;  the 
Island  of  Mull,  one  of  the  Hebrides  ;  Mealfourvounie  (the 
hill  of  the  cold  moor),  in  Inverness-shire  ;  Glassmeal  (gray 
hill),  in  Perth ;  Malvern  (the  bald  hill  of  the  alders,  gwer- 
neri)  ;  Moel-y-don  (the  hill  of  the  waves),  in  Anglesea ; 
Moel-Aelir  (the  frosty  hill)  ;  Muldonach  (the  hill  of  Donald), 
one  of  the  Hebrides  ;  Moel-Try-garn  (the  ridge  of  the  three 
cairns) ;  Moel-Eilio  (the  mount  of  construction) ;  Moel-y-crio 
(the  hill  of  shouting)  ;  Moel-ben-twrch  (boar's  head  hill),  in 
Wales  ;  Moel-cwm-Cerwyn  (the  bald  dingle  of  the  cauldron) ; 
Moelfre,  corrupt,  from  Moelbre  (bald  hill),  in  Wales.  In 
Ireland  this  word  often  takes  the  form  of  moyle,  as  in  Kil- 
moyle  (bald  church) ;  Rathmoyle,  Lismoyle,  Dunmoyle 
(the  bald  or  dilapidated  fort)  ;  Mweelbane  (the  white  hill)  ; 
Meelgarrow  (rough  hill)  ;  Meelshane  (John's  bald  hill)  ; 
Mweel-na-horna  (the  bald  hill  of  the  barley)  ;  Maulagh 
(abounding  in  hillocks)  ;  Mullaghmeen  (smooth  hillock)  ; 
Mulboy  (yellow  hillock),  etc.  ;  Mullanagore  and  Mullana- 
gower  (the  little  summit  of  the  goats).  In  Wales  :  Moel- 
hebog  (hawk  hill)  ;  Moel-eryn  (eagle  hill),  in  Wales.  The 
Mool  of  Aswich  and  the  Mool  of  Land,  in  Shetland. 

tr-  ju  r  \      (  a  moss  or  bog.      In  Ireland :  Mona- 
MOIN,  MOINE  (Gadhelic),  &,,  .  ,     .,        ,., 

'  /J    <  braher,    i.e.    Moin-nam-bratnar   (the 

{  bog  of  the  friars)  ;   Monalour  (of  the 

lepers)  ;   Moneen  (the  little  bog)  ;   Ballynamona  (the  town 
of  the  bog)  ;  Monard  (high  bog)  ;  Montiagh,  for  Mointeach 


(the  boggy  place) ;  Monabrock  (the  badger's  moss)  ;  Mon- 
roe (the  red  moss) ;  Mon  is,  however,  sometimes  used 
instead  of  monadh  (a  rising  ground  in  a  moor),  as  in  Co. 
Monaghan,  Muineachan  (abounding  in  little  hills)  ;  which 
country,  however,  according  to  the  Annals  of  the  Four 
Masters,  was  named  from  its  chief  town  (the  town  of  monks). 
In  Scotland  :  Moin,  a  moorland  district  in  Sutherlandshire ; 
Monzie  and  Moonzie  (the  mossy  land),  in  Fife  and  Perth- 
shire ;  Montrose  (the  boggy  promontory)  ;  Mon,  again  for 
monadh,  in  Monimail  (bald  hill),  in  Fife  ;  Moncrieffe  (the 
woody  hill,  craobach)  ;  Moness  (the  hill  of  the  cascade, 
,_  ,  a  monk,  from  the  Greek  monos  (alone)  ; 

MONCH  (Ger.),  n/r       i  4.  TV/T       i     ^  A 

>.  „  ''  e.g.   Monkton,    Monkstown,    Monkswood, 

^  ,'   ''!,    ..  .         Monkland,  named  from  lands  belonging 
MONACH  (Gadhehc).  ',        T     ,,..     ,   ft, 

.V,  ('        to  the  monks  ;  Le  Monch  (the  monk),  one 

MYNACH (Cym.-Cel.),          *^    v  x.          r  ^     T,  AI 

of  the  highest  of  the  Bernese  Alps  ;  Mon- 

achty  (the  monks'  dwelling),  in  Wales  ;  Llan-y-mynach  (the 
monks'  church  or  enclosure),  Co.  Salop ;  Monksilver,  in 
Somerset,  corrupt,  from  Monk-sylva  (the  monks'  wood)  ; 
Monkleagh  (the  monks'  meadow)  ;  Munsley,  with  the  same 
meaning,  in  Hereford ;  Monach-log-ddu  (the  place  of  the 
black  monks),  in  Wales ;  Munchberg  (monk's  hill),  in 
Bavaria  ;  Munchengratz  (the  monks'  fortress),  in  Bohemia  ; 
Munich  and  Munchingen  (belonging  to  the  monks),  in 

,„     .          (  a  river  mouth j  e.g.  Dortmund,  Fisch- 

MONDE,  MUND  (Ger.), 

/c       j  \  \  mund,      Dendermund,       Roermonde, 
MUNNI,  MINDE  (Scand.),  )  „  ..    ,  j       ™ 

"  ( Travemunde,       Saarmund,      Tanger- 

miinde,  Ysselmonde,  Rupelmonde,  Orlamunda,  Stolpe- 
miinde,  Swinmund  or  Sweinemund,  Ukermiinde,  Warne- 
munde,  at  the  mouth  of  the  rivers  forming  the  first  part 
of  these  names  ;  Miinden,  in  Hanover  (at  the  mouths  of  the 
Rivers  Werra  and  Fulda) ;  Monmouth  (at  the  conf.  of  the 
Mynwy  and  Wye) ;  Plymouth,  Falmouth,  Sidmouth,  Yar- 
mouth, Grangemouth,  Teignmouth,  Wearmouth,  Cocker- 
mouth,  at  the  mouths  of  these  rivers  ;  Bishop's  Wearmouth, 
founded  by  Biscop  in  the  middle  of  the  seventh  century  ; 
Deulemont,  in  France,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Deule  ;  Glad- 
mouth,  in  Wales,  formerly  Cledemuth,  at  the  mouth  of  the 

MONE  Y—MONT  1 4 1 

Clede  or  Cleddy ;  Minde,  in  Iceland,  at  the  mouth  of  Lake 

MONEY,  a  frequent  prefix  in  Irish  names  from  muine  (a  brake  or 
shrubbery)  ;  eg.  Moneymore,  Moneybeg  (the  great  and  little 
shrubbery)  ;  Moneygorm  (the  blue  shrubbery)  ;  Moneyduff 
(the  black  or  dark  shrubbery)  ;  Moneygall  (the  shrubbery 
of  the  strangers). 

.„         j  T    \  (  a  mountain,  from  the 

MONT,  MONTE  (Fr.  and  It),  I  T    .  , 

,„    '  ,  T,     .  x  <  Lat.    mans,   and    cog- 

MONTANA  and  MONTE  (Span,  and  Port.),  )  .  ,     '  ? 

'  (  nate  with  the  Gadhelic 

monadh,  and  the  Cym.-Cel.  mynydd;  e.g.  Montalto  (high 
mount)  ;  Montauban  (the  mount  of  Albanus)  ;  Montechiaro 
(clear  mount) ;  Monte-fosoli  (brown  mount) ;  Montehermosa 
(beautiful  mount),  in  Spain  ;  Montenegro,  Turc.  Karadagh, 
Sclav.  Zerna-gora  (black  mount),  in  Turkey  ;  Beaumont, 
Chaumont,  Haumont  (the  beautiful,  bald,  and  high  mount) ; 
Montereale  and  Montreal  (the  royal  hill) ;  Montreal,  in 
Canada,  so  named  by  Cartier  in  1555;  Monte-Rosa,  anc. 
Mons-sylva  (woody  hill) ;  Monte-Video  (the  prospect  mount) ; 
Montmartre,  anc.  Mons-Martyrum  (the  hill  of  the  martyrdom 
of  St.  Denis),  but  its  earlier  name  was  Mons-Martis  (the 
hill  of  Mars)  ;  Montmirail,  Lat.  Mons-mirabilis  (the  wonder- 
ful mountain) ;  Remiremont,  Lat.  Romaries-mons,  founded 
by  St.  Romarie  in  620;  Monte-Cavallo,  corrupt,  from  Monte- 
Calvaria  (the  Mount  of  Calvary),  so  called  from  a  number 
of  chapels,  in  which  were  represented  the  successive  scenes 
of  our  Lord's  passion.  From  monticellus,  the  diminutive 
of  mont,  have  arisen  such  place-names  as  Moncel,  Le 
Monchel,  Monchelet,  etc.  ;  Mont  d'Or  (golden  mount),  in 
Auvergne;  Montefrio  (cold  mount),  in  Spain;  Montpellier,  Lat. 
Mons-puellarum  (the  hill  of  the  young  girls),  so  called  from 
two  villages  belonging  to  the  sisters  of  St.  Fulcrum ;  Mont- 
serrat  (the  serrated  hill) ;  Clermont  (bright  hill) ;  Mondragon 
and  Montdragone  (the  dragon's  hill)  ;  Monfalcone  (hawk 
hill) ;  Mons,  Ger.  BergJten  (hill  town),  in  Belgium ;  Piedmont 
(at  the  foot  of  the  Alps)  ;  Floremont  or  Blumenberg  (flowery 
hill),  in  Alsace  ;  Montaign  and  Monthen,  anc.  Mons-acutus 
(sharp  or  peaked  hill) ;  Montigny,  Montignac  (mountainous) ; 
Jeumont,  anc.  Jovismons  (the  hill  of  Jove),  in  France  ; 
Mount  Pilatus  (the  mount  with  the  cap  of  clouds,  hompileus, 


Lat.  a  felt  cap)  ;  Richmond,  in  Yorkshire,  named  from  a 
castle  in  Brittany,  from  which  the  Earl  of  Richmond  took 
his  title,  meaning  the  rich  or  fertile  hill  ;  Richmond,  in 
Surrey,  named  by  the  Earl  after  his  Yorkshire  estate,  for- 
merly called  Shene  from  the  splendour  of  the  royal  residence 
there,  sane,  A.S.  (splendid);  Righimont,  in  Switzerland,  cor- 
rupt. from  Mons-regius  (royal  hill)  ;  Montacute  (sharp  hill), 
in  Somerset  ;  Tras-os-Montes  (beyond  the  hills),  in  Portugal  ; 
Apremont,  in  France,  for  Aspromonte  (rough  hill)  ;  Pyrmont, 
corrupt,  from  Mons-Petrus  (St.  Peter's  mount)  ;  Montferrato 
(the  fortified  hill).  Mont  also  signified  a  hill  fort,  like  berg 
and  dttn,  as  in  Montalcino  (the  fort  of  Alcinous),  in  Italy  ; 
Montgomery,  in  Wales,  (the  fortress  of  Roger  de  Mont- 
gomerie,  who  erected  a  castle  there  in  1093)  —  its  earlier 
name  was  Tre-Faldwyn  (the  dwelling  of  Baldwin,  a  Nor- 
man knight)  ;  Charlemont,  in  France,  named  after  Charles 
V.;  Henri  chemont,  after  Henri  -Quatre.  In  Wales:  the 
town  of  Mold,  abbreviated  from  Mons-altus  (high  fort)  — 
the  Normans  built  a  castle  there  ;  Mynydd-du  (black  hill)  ; 
Mynydd-mawr  (great  hill)  ;  Mynydd-moel  (bald  hill).  In 
Scotland  :  Monadh-ruadh  (the  red  mount  or  the  mountli), 
the  Gaelic  name  for  the  Grampians  ;  Mount  Battock,  Gael. 
Monadh-beatach  (the  raven's  hill)  ;  Mountbenjerlaw,  in 
Selkirkshire,  originally  Ben-Yair  (the  hill  of  the  R.  Yair), 
to  which  the  A.S.  law  and  the  Norman  mount  were  added. 
But  monadh  in  Gael,  signifies  a  mountain  range,  and  some- 
times a  moor,  as  Monadh-leath  (the  gray  mountain  range). 
Probably  Mendip,  in  Somerset,  is  the  deep  hill,  Welsh  d-wfn 
and  mynyddj  Monimail  (bald  hill)  ;  Monifieth  (the  hill  or 
moor  of  the  deer,  feidK).  The  Mourne  Mountains,  in 
Ireland,  means  the  mountains  of  the  tribe  ;  Mughhorna. 
Mon,  in  the  Basque  language,  also  signifies  a  hill,  and  is 
found  in  Monzon,  an  ancient  town  of  Spain,  with  a  hill  fort  ; 
Monda  and  Mondonedo,  in  Spain  ;  and  Mondego,  in 
Portugal  ;  and  in  Carmona  (hill  summit),  in  Spain. 

/o       j  \    (  mossy    ground  ;     e.%.    Donaumoss 

MOOS  (Ger.),  MOS  (Scand.),  I          moif       eadow  of  the  Danube); 

MECH,  MOCK  (Sclav.),  |  ^osston  >  the  town    on  the  mos£ 

ground)  ;  Moseley  (moss-field  or  valley)  ;  Moscow,  on  the 
R.    Moskwa    (mossy   water)  ;    Mossow,    Mehzo,    Mochow, 

MOR — MOR  143 

Mochlitz  (the  mossy  ground) ;  Mohacs,  Ger.  Margetta  (the 
marshy  or  mossy  island),  in  the  Danube  ;  Miesbach  (the 
district  of  the  mossy  brook),  in  Bavaria.  The  Irish  word 
meet  hail  (soft  mossy  land)  is  almost  synonymous  with  these 
roots.  It  is  found  in  Mohill,  Co.  Leitrim ;  Mothel  in 
Waterford,  and  Mothell  in  Kilkenny ;  Cahermoyle  (the 
stone  fort  of  the  mossy  land)  in  Ireland,  and  in  Muthil  in 

MOR,  MOER  (Teut.  and  Scand.),  waste  land,  heath  ;  Scot,  muir ; 
e.g.  Moorby,  Morton,  and  Moreton  (the  dwelling  on  the 
moor) ;  Morpeth  (the  moor  path) ;  Oudemoor  (the  old 
moor),  and  Oostmoer  (east  moor),  in  Holland  ;  Moorlinch 
(the  moor  ridge,  htinc)  ;  Lichtenmoer  (the  cleared  moor)  ; 
Muirkirk  (the  church  in  the  moor),  in  Argyleshire  ;  Murroes, 
corrupt,  from  Muirhouse,  a  parish  in  Co.  Forfar  ;  Tweeds- 
muir  (the  moor  at  the  source  of  the  R.  Tweed),  a  parish  in 
Peeblesshire  ;  Muiravonside  (the  mossy  land  on  the  banks 
of  the  R.  Avon),  in  Stirlingshire. 

,„    ,,    ,.  x  great ;  e.g.  Morven  (the  great 

MOR  (Gadhelic),  vm       u-n  •    V  •  u 

//-        /-  i  \       u            *•  ben  or  hill),  a  hill  in  Caithness 

MAWR(Cym.-CeL),  or  by  mutation  ,      ,     ".       .,      ,        .. 

,.     ^   '       AT    i  •    r      nf  and    also    in    Aberdeenshire ; 

fawr;  e.g.  Morlais  for  Mawr-  ,,                  ,T 

J ,   .     ,  ,  *                        ,  N     .,  Morven  or  Morvern,  i.e.  Mor- 
clais  (the   great   trench),    the 

name  of  a  ruined  castle  near 


Earrain    (the   great    district), 

/-     j-cc    u  -I*,      u  m  Argyleshire,  called   by  the 

Cardiff,  built    above  a   deep  „     ,  6T>       iu                      * 

„      ',         ,      ,  .  ,  ,       ,  Gaels  Kenalban,  corrupt,  from 

gully,  through  which  a  brook 

Cenealbaltyn,  i.e.  the  tribe  of 
Baldan,  a  personal  name ;  Ken- 
more  (the  great  headland),  on  Loch  Tay ;  Penmaen-mawr 
(the  great  stone-hill),  in  Wales. 

,~        ^  ,       j  c  T      \  ( the  sea,  cognate  with  the  Lat.  mare. 

MOR  (Cym.-Cel.  and  Sclav.),  I       ,  .    '  ,    . 

//-  ju  T  \  l  an"  its  derivatives  in  the  Romance 
MUIR  (Gadhelic),  ,   ,     „ 

/inr  i  u\  u  1  languages,  and  the  Teut.  meerj  e.g. 

MORFA  (Welsh),  sea-marsh,  I  .    ' 

^Armonca  or  Brittany,  and  Pomer- 

ania  (the  districts  on  the  sea-shore)  ;  Morbihan  (the  little 
sea),  in  Brittany;  Morlachia  or  Moro- Vlassi (the  Wallachs' 
or  strangers'  land  by  the  sea) — v.  WALSCH  ;  Morlaix  (a 
place  on  the  sea-shore),  in  Brittany  ;  Glamorgan,  Welsh 
gwlad-morgant  (the  district  of  Morgan  Mawr,  an  ancient 
king  of  Wales) ;  Morgan,  in  Cornwall,  i.e.  by  the  sea-shore  ; 
Maracaybo(the  headland  by  the  sea-shore),  in  South  America ; 

144  MOST—MllHLE 

Parimaribo  (the  dwelling  near  the  sea),  in  South  America  ; 
Connemara,  in  Ireland,  Irish  Conmac-ne-Mara,  the  de- 
scendants of  Conmac  (by  the  sea-side). 

MOST  (Sclav.),  a  bridge  ;  e.g.  Dolgemost  (long  bridge)  ;  Maust, 
Most,  Mostje  (the  place  at  the  bridge),  in  Bohemia ; 
Babimost  (the  old  woman's  bridge,  i.e.  the  fragile  bridge), 
abbreviated  to  Bomst ;  Priedemost  (the  first  bridge),  in 
Silesia  ;  Mostar  (old  bridge),  a  town  in  Turkey. 

MOT,  or  MOOT  (A.S.),  the  place  of  assembly,  where  the  Anglo- 
Saxons  held  their  courts  of  justice  ;  e.g.  Mote-hill,  at  Scone  ; 
the  Moat  Hill,  near  Hawick  ;  the  Mote  of  Galloway ;  the 
Moat  of  Dull,  in  Perthshire,  and  of  Hamilton,  on  Strath- 
clyde  ;  Moot-hill,  at  Naseby ;  and  in  the  Lake  District, 
Montay  and  Caermote  ;  Moothill  also  appears  in  Aberdeen- 
shire  ;  Almoot,  near  Peterhead,  meaning  the  meeting-place 
on  the  height,  has  been  corrupted  into  Old  Maud,  and  the 
railway  company  have  called  their  station  New  Maud.  It 
is  found  in  the  Gaelic  name  for  the  Island  of  Bute,  Baile- 
mhoide  (the  dwelling  of  the  courts  of  justice),  but  in  this 
case,  as  in  Ireland,  the  word  was  probably  borrowed  from 
the  Saxons.  The  word  is  found  in  Ireland,  signifying  a 
large  mound,  as  well  as  in  connection  with  the  courts  of 
justice — as  in  Tom-an-mhoid  (the  hill  of  the  court  of  justice); 
La  Motte,  Fr.  (a  hillock),  common  in  France. 

MilHLE  (Ger.),  MYLEN  (AS.),    fa    mil1'   ^C°?nat/?    With    the    Lf 

MUILENN  (Gadhelic),  ™ola>  and, lts  derivatlves   >n  the 

Romance  languages  ;  e.g.  Mulen- 

MELIN  (Cym.-Cel.), 
MLYN  (Sclav.), 

MOLEN  (Dutch), 

bach  and  Molinbech  (mill  brook) ; 
Miihlan,  Miihldorf,   Miihlhausen, 

Muhlheim  (mill  dwelling) ;  Mo- 
leneynde  (mill  corner),  in  Germany  and  Holland.  In  Eng- 
land and  Scotland  :  Melbourne,  Milton,  Millwick,  Milford, 
Milden,  Milnathorpe  (the  stream,  town,  ford,  hollow,  farm, 
of  the  mill)  ;  but  Milton,  in  Kent  and  in  Dorsetshire,  are 
corrupt,  from  middle  town  ;  Moulin,  a  parish  in  Perthshire. 
In  France  :  Moulins  (the  mills),  so  called  from  the  great 
number  of  water  mills  formerly  on  the  R.  Allier;  Miilhausen 
or  Mulhouse,  in  Alsace,  celebrated  for  its  manufactures  ; 
Molina,  a  manufacturing  town  in  Murcia ;  also  in  Spain, 
Molinos-del-Rey  (the  king's  mills).  In  Ireland  :  Mullina- 


hone  (the  mill  of  the  cave) ;  Mullinavat  (of  the  stick) ; 
Mullintra  (of  the  strand)  ;  Mullinakil  (of  the  church).  In 
Sclavonic  districts :  Mlineh,  Mlinki,  Mlinsk,  Mlinow,  etc. 
MULLAGH  (Gadhelic),  the  top  or  summit,  and  sometimes  applied 
to  hills  of  a  considerable  height;  e.g.  Mullaghmeen  (the 
smooth  summit) ;  Mulkeergh  (the  summit  of  the  sheep, 
caotrich)  ;  Mullan  (the  little  summit),  in  Ireland  ;  probably 
the  Island  of  Mull,  in  the  Hebrides. 

.,      .       /a  wall ;  e.g.  Maurs  (the  walled  town),  in  France ; 
^r    *''    J  also  Villa -de-Muro-cincto   (the    dwelling   sur- 

,     v     )  rounded   by   walls) ;    Morsain,    in    879   Muro- 

MURA  (Sclav.),     I    .  e   '          , ', ,  11  \      n/r       •  i    /  u 

"     \  anctus   (surrounded   by  walls) ;    Murviel    (old 

walls),  in  Herault, — a  place  where  the  ruins  of  an  ancient 
Gaulish  city  are  found  ;  Mauerhof  (the  enclosed  court),  in 
Germany  ;  Trasmauer  (the  walled  town  on  the  R.  Trasen), 
.  in  Austria  ;  Murany-var  (the  walled  fortress),  in  Hungary  ; 
Muriel-de-la-fuente  (the  walled  town  of  the  fountain) ; 
Muriel-viejo  (the  old  walled  town)  ;  Murillo  (the  little  walled 
town),  in  Spain  ;  Murviedro  (the  old  fortifications),  called 
by  the  Romans  Muriveteres,  because  they  believed  it  to  be 
on  the  site  of  the  ancient  Saguntum  ;  Semur,  in  France, 
corrupt,  from  Sinemurum  (without  walls). 


e  /A  c  \        ( a  nose>   cognate   with   the   Lat.  nasus,  and  in 

NOES  (Scand  )  J  toP°SraPhy  applied  to  a  promontory ;    e.g.  the 

,J;   .        "  j  Naze,  in  Norway,  and    Nash,   in   Monmouth  ; 

^Nash-scaur    (the    promontory   of  the    cliff),    in 

Wales  ;  Katznase  (the  cat's  headland)  ;  Blankenese  (white 

cape),  in  Holstein  ;  Foreness,  Sheerness,  Fifeness,  Buchan- 

ness,  Blackness,  in  England  and  Scotland  ;   Roeness  (red 

cape),   Shetland ;  Vatternish  (water  cape),   in  Skye  ;   Bor- 

rowstounness  or  Bo'ness,  in  West  Lothian  (the  cape  near 

Burward's  dwelling)  ;  Holderness  (the  woody  promontory)  ; 

Langness    and    Littleness,   in    Man ;    Dungeness    (danger 

cape) ;  Furness  (the  cape  of  the  beacon-fire),  the  site  of  an 

ancient  lighthouse  in  Lancashire  ;  Saturnness  (the  southern 

cape),    in     Kirkcudbright ;     Shoeburyness,     corrupt,     from 

Sceobirig  (the  cape  of  the  sea-fortress)  ;  Skegness  (the  cape 


near  the  wood,  skogr)  ;  Skipness  (ship  headland)  ;  Sviata- 
nos,  Sclav,  (holy  cape),  in  Russia ;  Caithness  (the  promon- 
tory of  the  Catti,  a  tribe). 

NAGORE  (Hindu  nagar,  Sansc.  nagura),  a  city ;  e.g.  Barnagore 
for  Varaha-nagur  (the  city  of  the  boar)  ;  Chandernagore  (of 
the  moon) ;  Serenagur  (of  the  sun). 

NAGY  (Hung.),  great ;  e.g.  Nagy-Karoly  (Charles's  great  town) ; 
Nagy-Malton  (St.  Matthew's  great  town) ;  Nagy-Szent- 
Miklos  (of  St.  Nicholas) ;  Nagy-varad  (great  fortress) ; 
Nagy-Koros  (the  great  town  on  the  R.  Koros). 

NAHR  (Semitic),  a  river ;  e.g.  Nahr-el-keber  (the  great  river)  ; 
Nahr-el-kelb  or  Lycus  (the  river  of  the  dog  or  wolf),  so 
named  from  a  fancied  resemblance  of  a  rock  near  its  mouth 
to  the  head  of  these  animals  ;  Nahr-Mukatta  (the  river  of 
slaughter);  Aram-Naharaim  (the  high  lands  of  the  two 
rivers,  i.e.  Mesopotamia);  Nahar-Misraim  (the  river  of 
Egypt,  i£.  the  Nile). 

NANT  (Cym.-Cel.),  a  brook  or  a  valley  through  which  a  stream 
flows ;  e.g.  Nantmel  (the  honey  brook)  ;  Sych-nant  (dried- 
up  brook)  ;  Nancemillin  (the  valley  of  the  mill),  in  Wales ; 
Dewffneynt  (the  deep  valley)  was  the  ancient  British  name 
of  Devonshire  ;  Levenant  (smooth  stream)  ;  Nant-frangon, 
i.e.  Nant-yr-a-franc  (the  beavers'  valley)  ;  Nantglyn  (the  glen 
of  the  brook)  ;  Nant-y-Gwrtheyren  (Vortigern's  valley),  in 
Wales  ;  Nans,  in  Cornwall ;  also  in  Cornwall — Penant  (the 
head  of  the  valley),  and  Cornant  (a  brook) ;  Nantwich,  in 
Cheshire  (the  salt-works,  wick,  on  the  brook  or  stream,  i.e. 
the  Weaver)  ;  Nantua  (in  a  valley  of  the  Alps)  ;  Nantes 
named  from  the  Namnetes  (dwellers  in  the  valley)  ;  Moch- 
nant  (the  swift  brook)  ;  Nannau  (the  brooks),  in  Wales  ; 
N  angle,  a  bay  on  the  coast  of  Wales,  perhaps  N  ant-gel  or 
eel  (a  secret  corner) — the  Rev.  J.  James.  Nevern,  a 
parish  in  Wales,  for  Nant-ynfer  (the  brook  of  the  conflu- 
ence) ;  Nancy  (the  valley  dwellings)  ;  Nans,  Nant,  with  the 
same  meaning,  in  France ;  Nanteuil  (the  valley  of  the 
fountain) — v.  CEUIL  ;  Nantberis  (St.  Peris's  brook). 

NASS  (Ger.),  moist ;  e.g.  Nassau  (the  moist  meadow)  ;  Nassenfeld 
(moist  field) ;  Nassenhuben  (the  huts  in  moist  land) ; 
Nassenbeuren  (the  dwelling  in  moist  land). 

NAVA  (Basque),  a  plain  ;  e.g.  Nava-de-los-Oteros  (the  plain  of  the 


heights) ;  Nava-hermosa  (beautiful  plain) ;  Navarre  and  Nav- 
arreux  (the  plain  among  hills)  ;  Navarette  (the  plain  at  the 
foot  of  the  hill)  ;  Paredes-de-nava  (the  houses  of  the  plain). 

NEDER,  NIEDER,  NEER  (Teut.  and  Scand.),  lower ;  e.g.  Nether- 
lands (the  lower  lands)  ;  Netherby  (lower  town)  ;  Nieder- 
lahnstein  (the  fortress  on  the  lower  R.  Lahn)  ;  Nederheim, 
Nederwyk  (lower  dwellings). 

NEMET  (Celtic),  a  sacred  grove,  cognate  with  the  Lat.  nemus  and 
the  Grk.  nemos ;  e.g.  Nemours,  anc.  Nemoracum  (the  place 
of  the  sacred  wood  or  grove)  ;  Nanterre,  also  in  France, 
anc.  Nemetodurum  (the  sacred  grove  on  the  waters) ; 
Nismes,  anc.  Nemausus  (the  place  in  the  grove)  ;  Augusto- 
nemetum  (the  splendid  place  of  the  grove),  being  the  ancient 
name  of  Clermont ;  Nemetacum,  the  ancient  name  of  Arras  ; 
Nemea  (the  place  of  the  grove),  in  Greece. 

f  new,  cognate  with  the  Lat.  novus  and 
NEU  (Ger.),  '     i  ,  ^,    .      ,    .      . 

/'         „  ..  the  Grk.  neos  and  their  derivatives  : 

NEWYDD  (Cym.-Cel.),  VT      i.  XT       j      r  TVT         t    j.    TVT 

NUADH  rGadhelic1)  ^  'f '  NeuburS>  Neudorf>  Neustadt,  Neu- 

'',      .      I  ville,  Newbury,  Newburgh  (new  town); 
NOWY  and  NAU  (Sclav.),       ,T  , .   / 

"    [  Neumarkt    (new    market) ;    Newbold, 

Newbottle,  Newbattle  (new  building),  in  Germany,  Eng- 
land, and  Scotland ;  Newburgh,  in  Fife,  is  a  town  of  con- 
siderable antiquity.  It  owes  its  origin  to  the  Abbey  of 
Lindores,  in  its  neighbourhood.  It  was  erected  into  a 
burgh  or  barony  by  Alexander  III.,  in  1266,  and  in  the 
charter  it  was  called  "Novus  burgus,  juxta  monasterium  de 
Lindores."  It  seems,  therefore,  that  there  was  a  more 
ancient  burgh  belonging  to  the  abbey  in  the  neighbourhood 
— Newburn  (new  stream),  in  Fife.  Newhaven  (the  new 
harbour),  in  relation  to  the  older  harbour  of  Leith.  In  the 
sixteenth  century  Newhaven  had  a  chapel  dedicated  to  the 
Virgin  Mary,  and  was  then  called  our  Lady's  port  of  grace  ; 
but  in  the  year  1511  the  city  of  Edinburgh  bought  up  the 
village  and  harbour.  In  France  :  Nevers  and  Noyon,  anc. 
Noviodunum  (the  new  fortress) ;  Neuvy,  with  the  same 
meaning ;  Neuve'glise  (new  church) ;  Villeneuve  (new 
villa)  ;  Nievre  and  Nivernais,  a  department  and  ancient 
province  of  France  ;  Nienburg,  corrupt,  from  Neuenburg 
(new  town),  in  Hanover ;  Newport  (new  harbour),  in 
Belgium  ;  Newport,  in  the  Isle  of  Wight,  so  named  because 


it  superseded  the  older  harbour  at  Carisbrook  ;  Newport,  in 
Wales,  which  superseded  Caerleon  ;  Neusatz  or  Neoplanta 
(new  station),  founded  in  1 700,  on  the  Danube ;  Neusohl 
(new  seat),  in  Hungary — its  native  name  is  Bestereze-banya 
(the  mine  on  the  R.  Bistritz);  Neustadl  (new  stall);  Neuwied 
(new  pasture)  ;  Nimeguen,  anc.  Noviomagus  (new  field),  in 
Holland ;  Novgorod  and  Novigrad  (new  fortress) ;  Novidwar 
(new  court),  in  Russia ;  Nowe-mjasto  (new  bridge),  in  Poland ; 
Novobeilaiaskaia  (the  new  town  on  the  white  stream),  in 
Russia  ;  Nova-Zembla,  i.e.  Novaia-Zemlia  (the  new  land)  ; 
Nowazamka  (new  castle)  ;  Novi- Bazaar  (new  market),  in 
Turkey  ;  Nowosedl  (new  seat)  ;  Nienburg,  Nyborg,  Nyby, 
Nystead  (new  town),  in  Denmark  and  Holland  ;  Neocastro 
(new  camp),  in  Greece  ;  Nola  or  Novla  (new  place),  in  the 
Sardinian  states  ;  Naumburg  and  Nienburg,  corrupt,  from 
Neuenburg  (new  town)  ;  Nykioping  (new  market-town),  in 
Sweden,  and  Nykjobing,  in  Denmark,  with  the  same 
meaning ;  Newington,  in  Surrey,  corrupt,  from  Neweton; 
Newfoundland,  so  called  when  rediscovered  by  John 
Cabot  in  1427,  but  known  previously  by  Icelandic 
colonists  as  Litla-Helluland ;  Nova  Scotia  (New  Scotland), 
called  by  the  Norseman  Markland;  New  River,  a  large 
aqueduct  from  Hertfordshire  to  Islington,  by  which  a 
great  part  of  London  is  supplied  with  water ;  New  Ross, 
Co.  Wexford,  corrupt,  from  its  Irish  name  Ros-mic-Treoin 
(the  wood  of  Treun's  son)  ;  Newtown-Hamilton,  in  Ireland, 
founded  by  the  Hamilton  family  in  1770;  Newtown- 
Limavady,  Co.  Londonderry,  named  from  a  castle  in  the 
neighbourhood  called  Limavady  (the  dog's  leap)  ;  Newtown- 
Stewart,  Co.  Tyrone,  so  called  from  Sir  William  Stewart, 
to  whom  it  was  granted  by  Charles  I.  ;  New  York,  named 
in  honour  of  the  Duke  of  York,  afterwards  James  II. ;  New 
Zealand,  called  by  Tasman,  its  Dutch  discoverer,  in  honour, 
it  is  supposed,  of  his  native  province. 

NIJNY  (Sclav.),  lower ;  e.g.  Nijny-Novgorod  (the  lower  new  for- 
tress) ;  Nijny-Neviansk  (the  lower  town  on  the  Neva),  as 
distinguished  from  Verkii-Neviansk,  the  upper;  Nijnaia- 
ozernaia-krepost  (the  lower  fort  of  the  lakes)  ;  Nijny-Devitzk 
(the  lower  town  on  the  Devitza) ;  Nijni-Tagelsk  (the  lower 
town  on  the  R.  Tagel),  in  Russia. 

NIMZ — NOYER  149 

NIMZ  (Sclav.),  foreign,  from  nemy  or  nemec,  dumb  —  a  word 
applied  by  the  Sclavonic  races  to  the  Germans,  because 
their  language  was  unintelligible  to  them  :  e.g.  Niemitsch, 
Niemez,  Niemtschitz,  German  towns  in  Bohemia  ;  Nemet- 
uj-var  (the  new  German  fortress),  in  Hungary  ;  but  there  is 
a  Sclavonic  deity  called  Njam,  to  whom  the  names  of  some 
of  these  places  may  be  traced. 

NO,  NOE,  NOUE  (Old  Fr.),  a  low  meadow  habitually  overflowed 
with  water.  It  has  evidently  arisen  out  of  noyer,  to  sub- 
merge ;  e.g.  Noaillac,  Noallau,  La  Noalle,  Noalles,  Noyelle, 
Noyellette,  in  which  the  word  is  probably  joined  to  ceuil, 
a  water-source;  Nogent  (pleasant  meadow);  No-aux-Bois 
(in  the  woods)  ;  Les  Noues,  Neuillay,  Neuilly,  Noisy,  Lat. 

NORDEN,  N60RD  (Teut.), 

NOR  (Scand),  NORD  (Fr. 

^      h     (under  Rollo  in    912);    Noordbroek 

(the  north  marshy  land)  ;  Noordwolde  (north  wood),  in 
Holland  ;  Norbury,  Nordenburg,  Norton,  Nordhausen  (north 
dwelling  or  town);  Norham,  on  the  R.  Tweed;  Northampton 
(the  town  on  the  north  side  of  the  Aufona,  now  the  R. 
Nen)  ;  Northumberland  (the  land  north  of  the  Humber)  ; 
Nordkyn  (north  cape)  ;  Normanton  and  Normandby  (dwell- 
ings of  the  Norsemen  or  Danes),  in  England  ;  Norrkoping 
(northern  market-town),  in  Sweden  ;  Norrland  (a  large 
division  of  Sweden)  ;  Northallerton,  in  Yorkshire,  so  called 
to  distinguish  it  from  Allerton-Mauleverer  ;  North  Cape 
(the  most  northerly  point  of  Norwegian  Lapland)  ;  North 
Berwick,  Co.  Haddington,  so  called  to  distinguish  it  from 
Berwick-upon-Tweed  ;  Norway  (the  northern  kingdom)  —  v. 
REICH,  REIKE  ;  Norfolk  (the  abode  of  the  north  people,  as 
distinguished  from  Suffolk  to  the  south)  ;  Northleach,  north 
of  the  R.  Leach  ;  Northwich,  in  Cheshire  (the  north  salt 
manufactory)  —  v.  WICH  ;  Norwich,  the  town  which  super- 
seded Venta-Icenorum,  whose  inhabitants  fled  at  the  approach 
of  the  Danes,  and  erected  a  castle  of  defence  farther  north. 
NOYER  (Fr.),  the  walnut-tree,  Lat.  nucarius,  from  which  are 
derived  nucetum,  nucelletum,  and  nugaretum  (a  place 
planted  with  walnut-trees)  ;  e.g.  Noyers,  Nozay,  Noroy,  La 
Nozaye,  Les  Noze"es,  Nozieres,  Nozeroy,  etc.,  in  France. 


NUDDY  (Pali),  a  river  ;  e.g.  Maha-nuddy  (great  river)  ;  Nuddea 

(the  district  of  the  rivers). 
NUWERA  (Tamil),  a  city ;  e.g.  Alut-nuwera  (new  city) ;  Kalawa  (the 

city  on  the  Kala-Oya,  i.e.  the  rocky  river) ;  Nuwera-Panduas 

(the  city  of  Panduas),  in  Ceylon. 


,„     .      (  upper ;  e.g.  Oberhofen  (upper  court)  ;  Ober- 

OB,  OBER  (Ger.),       ,V       '•    £,  f    i 

,~    v  ,  x   "   <  lahnstem  (the  upper  fortress  on  the  R.  Lahn) ; 

OVER  (Dutch),        )  „,         ,    >  „     V .      _.      , 

(  Oberndorf,  Overbie,  Overham,  Overton,  Over- 
burg  (upper  town)  ;  Oberdrauburg  (the  upper  town  on  the 
R.  Drave) ;  Overyssel  (beyond  the  R.  Yssel) ;  Orton 
(upper  town),  in  Westmoreland ;  St.  Mary's-Overy,  South- 
wark  (i.e.  over  the  water  from  London). 

OE — "v.  EA,  p.  7 1. 

CEUIL  (Fr.),  the  eye — in  topography  applied  to  the  source  of  a 
stream  or  a  fountain  ;  e.g.  Arcueil  (the  arched  fountain  or 
aqueduct)  ;  Berneuil  (the  source  of  the  water,  bior)  ;  Ver- 
neuil  and  Vernel  (alder-tree  fountain,  Lat.  -uernus)  ;  Argen- 
teuil  (silver  fountain)  ;  Bonneuil  (good  fountain)  ;  Nanteuil 
(the  source  of  the  stream)  ;  Auneuil  (alder-tree  fountain, 
Fr.  aune)  ;  Auteuil  (high  fountain)  ;  Boisseuil  (the  woody 
fountain)  ;  Chantilly,  anc.  Cantilliacum  (the  head  of  the 

f  a  border,  boundary,  or  shore — 
OFER,  or  ORE  (A.S.),  '  .  ,      ,      \ ' 

'„      ,.v  f~     x          cognate  with   the   Lat.    ora  and 

OVER  (Dutch),  UFER  (Ger.), 

/^  ju  i-  \  \  the  Grk.  horos;  e.g.  Oare  and  Ore 

OIR  (Gadhelic),  !  , ,       ,       ,    .     T  *       c 

/'        , .          .  :       (the  shore),  in  Kent,  Sussex,  and 
EYRE,  or  ORE  (Scand.),  a  point,      ;,  •««•   j         •      nr-  ji 

'  [_  Somerset ;  Windsor,  i.e.  Windle- 

sora  (the  winding  shore,  A.S.  windle)  ;  Southover  and 
Westover  (the  south  and  west  shore)  ;  Ventnor  (the  shore 
of  Gwent,  the  ancient  name  of  the  Isle  of  Wight)  ;  Pershore 
(the  willow  shore,  pttrsh),  or,  according  to  Camden,  corrupt, 
from  Periscorum — in  allusion  to  the  abundance  of  pear-trees 
in  its  vicinity ;  Andover,  anc.  Andeafaran  (the  shore  or 
ferry  of  the  R.  Anton) ;  Ravensore  (the  point  or  promontory 
of  Hrafen,a  Scand.  personal  name) ;  Hanover, an c.Hohenufer 
(high  shore)  ;  Elsinore  (the  point  near  the  town  of  Helsing), 
in  Denmark  ;  Argyle,  Gael.  Oirirgaedheal  (the  coast  lands 


of  the  Gaels) ;  Dover,  in  Kent,  and  Douvres,  in  Normandy, 
perhaps  from  ofer. 

OICHE  (obs.  Gael.),  water  ;  e.g.  Oich  River  and  Oichel  (the  Rivers 
Ock,  Ocker,  Ocke,  Eck) ;  Loch  Oich,  Duich  (the  black 

ORE  (Hindostanee),  a  city  ;  e.g.  Ellore,  Vellore,  Nellore  ;  Tanjore, 
anc.  Tanja-nagaram  (the  city  of  refuge)  ;  Bednore  (bamboo 
city)  ;  Mangalore  (the  city  of  Mangala-Devi). 

ORMR  (Scand.),  a  serpent,  also  a  personal  name  ;  e.g.  Ormeshead, 
in  Cumberland,  named  either  from  the  serpent-like  shape  of 
the  rock,  or  from  the  common  Norse  name  Ormrj  Orma- 
thwaite,  Ormsby,  Ormiston,  Ormskirk  (the  clearing,  the 
dwelling,  and  the  church  of  Ormr).  The  same  prefix  in 
French  topography  signifies  the  elm-tree,  as  in  Les  Ormes 
(the  elms) ;  Ormoy,  Lat.  Ulmetiiim  (the  elm -grove), 
synonymous  with  Olmedo  and  Olmeto,  in  Spain.  The  Orne 
or  Olna  (elm-tree  river),  in  Normandy ;  Ulm  or  Ulma  (the 
place  of  elm-trees),  in  Wurtemburg ;  Olmeta,  in  Corsica. 
.„  .  /a  point,  a  corner,  and  sometimes  a  place  ;  e.g. 

DORT  C Dutch1)   J  Angerort  (the  corner  of  the  R.  Anger);  Ruhrort 

ORD  (Scand  \     I  (of  the  Rohr  °r  Ruhr) ;  Griinort  fereen  point)  ; 
'''     vSchonort  (beautiful  point)  ;  Akkerort  (the  corner 
of  the  field)  ;  Tiegenort  (of  the  R.  Tiege)  ;  Storort  (of  the 
R.  Stor) ;  the  Ord  or  headland  of  Caithness. 

OFcT/rvrN    fthe  east;  e-g-  Ostend  (at  the  east  end  or 

\Jj  1  .     OH.0 1     I  VJCl.   I,       I  .  r       i  i     •  i  \  s-\     . 

COST  (Dutch)        )  °Penmg  of  the  canal  mto  the  ocean)  ;  Oster- 

OSTER  (ScancM       )  burg'   Osterfeld'   Osterhofen  (the   east  town, 

'''      Afield,  and  court)  ;  Osterholtz  (the  east  wood)  ; 

Osterdalen  (the  east  basin  of  the  R.  Duhl),  in  Sweden  ; 

Ostheim,  Osthausen,  Oesthammer  (the  eastern  dwelling  or 

village) ;     Ostwald    (east   wood),    in    Alsace ;    Essex    (the 

country   of  the  East  Saxons,    in  opposition    to   Wessex)  ; 

Austerlitz  (the  east  town  of  the  R.  Littawa) ;  Alost  (to  the 

east),  in  Belgium. 

OSTROW,  or  OZERO  (Sclav.),  an  island  or  lake ;  e.g.  Ostrov,  in 
Russia  (on  a  river-island)  ;  Kolkoe-Ostrog  (the  island  in  the 
R.  Kola)  ;  Ostrova  (an  island  in  the  Danube)  ;  Bielo-Ozero 
(the  white  lake) ;  Tschudskoe  -  Ozero  (the  lake  of  the 
Tschudes,  a  tribe)  ;  Ostrownoye  (the  new  island).  But 
Ostrow  and  Wustrow  are  sometimes  Germanised  forms  of 


Wotschow,  Sclav,  (a  marshy  place),  as  in  Wustrow,  Ostropol, 
Ostrasatz,  Ostrawiec  (the  place  on  the  marshy  ground). 

OTERO  (Span.),  a  hill  or  rising  ground ;  e.g.  El-Otero  (the  rising 
ground)  ;  Otero-de-las-duenas  (the  hill  of  the  old  ladies)  ; 
Otero-del-Rey  (the  king's  hill). 

ow   ITZ       (  Sclavonic  affixes>  used  as  patronymics,  like  the  Ger. 

r>WT7  no  i  ingen ;  e.g.  Nowakwitz  (the  possession  of  the  de- 
'  (  scendants  of  Nouak)  ;  Jvanow,  Janow,  Janowitz  (be- 
longing to  John  and  his  descendants) ;  Karlowitz  (to  Charles) ; 
Petrowitz  (to  Peter)  ;  Kazimiritz  (to  Casimir)  ;  Mitrowitz 
(to  Demetrius)  ;  Stanislowow  (to  Stanislaus)  ;  Tomazow  (to 
Thomas)  ;  Cracow  or  Kracow  (the  town  of  Duke  Craus  or 
Krak  of  Poland,  by  whom  it  was  founded  in  1700). 

PALATIUM  fLat  \         f  a  palace  ;  e'g'  the  Upper  and  L°wer  Pala" 
,T    x  tinate,  so  called  from  the  palaces  erected 

PALAZZO  (It.), 

v  ,'       .  by  the  Roman  emperors  in  different  parts 

PALACHIO  (Span.),  \     '    ,             .                        .     „ 

r,  //-        /-  i  \  °f  tne  empire  ;  Palazzo,  in  Dalmatia  and 

PALAS  (Cym.-Cel.),  ,,     .          £.  .        ,           •,     -  , 

„  \J  ,,    ,.  /'  Naples  ;     Palazzolo    and    Palazzuolo    (the 

PAILIS  (Gadhelic),  '        v  .     TJ.    , 

great  palace),  in  Piedmont  ;  Los  Palachios 

(the  palaces),  in  Spain  ;  Pfalsbourg,  anc.  Palatiolum  (the 
town  of  the  palace,  founded  in  1570),  in  France;  Semi- 
palatinsk,  in  Siberia  (the  town  of  the  seven  palaces),  so  called 
from  the  extensive  ruins  in  its  neighbourhood  ;  Spalatro,  in 
Dalmatia,  named  from  the  palace  of  Diocletian,  originally 
SalotKZ-Palatiiim  (the  palace  near  Salona),  at  first  corrupted 
to  As-palthium  (at  the  palace),  and  then  to  Spalatro.  In 
Wales  :  Plas-gwyn  (the  white  palace)  ;  Plas-newydd  (the 
new  palace). 

PALLI  (Tamil),  a  small  town  or  village,  sometimes  corrupted  to 
Poly,  Pilly,  or  Pally  ;  e.g.  Trichinopoly,  i.e.  Trisira-palli 
(the  town  of  the  giant). 

/T    t\      (  a  marsh  ;  e.g.  Padula  and  Paduli,  towns  in  Italy; 
^ee^»  ^at-  Pa^us'>  an  extensive  marsh  in  Belgium  ; 

La  Pala,  La  Palud,  and  Paluz,  in  France  ;  Per- 
ugia (the  town  on  the  marsh),  in  a  province  of  the  same 
name  in  Italy  ;  Pelusium,  Coptic  Permoun  (the  muddy  or 
marshy  place),  on  the  Delta  of  the  Nile. 

PANT— PEEL  153 

PANT  (Welsh),  a  hollow ;  e.g.  Pant-y-crwys  (the  hollow  of  the 
cross),  in  Wales;  Pant-yr-Ysgraff  for  Pont-yr-Ysgraff — 

V.   PONT. 

PAPA,orPABBA(Scand.),(a1PTt;     ^'    ^    ^    ^^ 
PFAFFEfGer1)  J  island),  several  of  this  name   in  the 

POP  (Sclav  }  I  Hebrides ;  Papa-Stour  (the  great  island 

V  of  the  priest),  in  Shetland  ;  Papa- 
Stronsay  (the  priest's  island  near  Stronsay),  Orkney ;  Pap- 
penheim,  Pfaffenhausen,  Pfaffenberg,  Pfafifenhofen  (the 
priest's  dwelling),  in  Germany  ;  Papendrecht  (the  priest's 
pasture) ;  Pfarrkirchen  (the  priest's  or  parish  church) ; 
Poppowitz,  Poppow,  Sclav,  (places  belonging  to  the  priests). 

PARA  (Brazilian),  a  river,  water,  or  the  sea  ;  e.g.  Para,  Parahiba, 
Parana,  Paranymbuna,  rivers  in  Brazil ;  Paraguay  (the  place 
of  waters)  ;  Parana-Assu  (the  great  river)  ;  Parana-Mirim 
(the  small  river)  ;  Parahyba  (bad  water). 

PARA  (Sclav.),  a  swamp  or  marsh,  cognate  with  the  Lat.  palus; 
e.g.  Parchen,  Parchau,  Parchim  (places  in  a  marshy  locality) ; 
Partwitz  or  Parzow,  Paaren  (the  town  on  the  marsh),  in 
several  localities.  The  letter/  is  sometimes  changed  into 
b,  as  in  Barduz,  Barzig,  Baruth,  in  Prussia,  and  Bars  or 
Barsch,  in  Hungary. 

PATAM,  or  PATTANA  (Sansc.),  a  city ;  e.g.  Nagapatam  (the  city 
of  the  snake)  ;  Masulipatam  (of  fishes) ;  Periapatam  (the 
chosen  city)  ;  Viziapatam  (the  city  of  victory)  ;  Seringa- 
patam,  i.e.  Sri-ranja-Pattana  (the  city  of  Vishnu)  ;  Pata  or 
Pattana  (the  city)  ;  Madras  or  Madras-pat  an  (the  city  of 
the  college  or  school ;  madrasa,  Ar.,  a  university).  Madras 
is  called  by  the  natives  Chenna-patana  (the  city  of  Chenappa, 
an  Indian  prince). 

PEEL  (Cel.  pile),  a  small  fortress  ;  e.g.  Peel,  in  the  Isle  of  Man, 
and  numerous  Peel  towers  on  the  border  between  England 
and  Scotland.  The  Pile  of  Foudrig  (the  peel  or  tower  of 
the  fire  island),  called  Furness,  the  site  of  an  ancient  light- 
house ;  Les  Pilles,  in  Dauphiny ;  He  du  Pilier,  in  La 
Vendde,  with  a  lighthouse  ;  Pittas,  in  the  Lithuanian  lan- 
guage also,  is  a  castle,  thus — Pillkallan  (the  castle  on  the 
hill),  in  E.  Prussia,  as  well  as  the  towns  of  Pillau,  in  E. 
Prussia,  Pilsen,  in  Bohemia,  and  Pillnitz  (the  towns  with 


PEN  (Cym.-Cel.),  a  head,  or  a  promontory,  or  hill  summit  ;  e.g. 
Pen-carrig  (rocky  hill  or  cape)  ;  Pen-brynn  (hill  summit)  ; 
Pencoid  (of  the  wood) ;  Penmon  (the  promontory  of  Mona 
or  Anglesea)  ;  Pentir  (the  headland)  ;  Pentyrch  (the  boar's 
head)  ;  Pen-y-cwm-gwig  (the  top  of  the  woody  vale),  in 
Wales  ;  Pen-y-groes  (the  headland  of  the  cross)  ;  Penby- 
diog  (land's  end),  in  Wales ;  Pencelly  (the  chief  grove)  ; 
Pen-y-gelly  (the  head  of  the  grove,  cell,  a  grove)  ; 
Penllech  (of  the  stone  or  rock);  Penhill,  Somerset,  and 
Penlaw,  Dumfries  (the  hill  summit) ;  Pendarves  (the  head 
of  the  oak-field)  ;  Penpont  (the  head  of  the  bridge),  in 
Dumfriesshire ;  Penn  (a  hill),  in  Stafford ;  Pencombe 
(the  head  of  the  hollow) ;  Penforfa  (of  the  moor)  ;  Pen- 
nant (of  the  valley);  Pen-mynnydd  (of  the  mountain); 
Penrith,  anc.  Pen-rhyd  (of  the  ford) ;  Penicuik  (the  cuckoo's 
hill)  ;  Cockpen  (red  hill)  ;  Pen-maen-maur  (the  great  stone 
head  or  hill)  ;  Pennigant  (windy  hill)  ;  Penryn  and  Penrhyn 
(the  head  of  the  promontory)  ;  Pentraeth  (of  the  strand) ; 
Pen-y-craig  or  Old  Radnor  (the  head  of  the  rock)  ;  Penzance, 
formerly  Pensans  —  it  is  called  the  saint's  headland, 
from  a  head  of  John  the  Baptist  (the  town's  arms),  but 
Camden  thinks  it  might  mean  the  head  of  the  sands  ; 
Pain-bceuf  or  Penn-Ochen  (the  ox's  headland) ;  Pendennis 
(the  fort  on  the  headland) — v.  DINAS.  Mount  Pindus 
and  the  Grampians,  Van  in  Brecknock,  and  the  Vans 
in  Wales,  embody  this  root ;  also  the  Apennines  and  the 
Pennine  Alps,  Pena  and  Penha,  in  Spain  and  Portugal, 
are  applied  to  rocks,  thus — Penafiel  (the  loyal  rock),  in 
Spain,  and  also  Cape  Penas ;  Penha-verde  (green  rock), 
in  Brazil. 

_„-,_„  (r     v        f  In  Germany  this  word  signifies  an  enclosure 

Jrr  H,Kl_.rl   I  Ijer.  ),  ..  ,  .        _,        ,         ,  IT- 

PWAppnr  /A  $\        for  cattle— in  England  and  France,  an  en- 

.rh/AKKUU  (ri.  o.  ),  ,  <•          .1  r  r 

.      ^        "    -J  closure    for   the    protection   of  game  or  for 

ft  '•  t_\  I  pleasure  ;  e.g.  Parkhurst  (the  enclosure  in  the 

PAIRC  (Irish).  ,.      ^?r    ^/^T.)         r  t.          i\/~ 

[  wood) ;  Parkfoot  (at  the  foot  of  the  park),  Co. 

Stirling ;  Parkham  (park  dwelling)  ;  Parkmore  (great  park 
or  field),  in  Ireland  ;  Parkatotaun  (the  field  of  the  burning), 
Co.  Limerick. 

PFERD  (Ger.),  a  horse  ;  e.g.  Pferdsfeld  (the  horse's  field)  ;  Pfers- 
dorf  (the  horse's  village). 

P FORTE  155 

PFORTE  (Ger  )  \  a  haven'  landing-place,  or  passage— cognate 

POORT  mntcM  !  with  the   Lat  P°rtU5>    *•£•  Seligenpforten 

™RTHrcvm  cen  ^(the  blessed  port);   SassenP°orte   (the 

POUT  (r^l\\r\  I  Saxons'  haven)  ;  Himmelpforte  (the  port 
IC''  [of  heaven);  Pforzheim  (the  dwelling  at 
the  passage  or  entrance  to  the  Hyrcenian  forest),  in  Baden ; 
Zandpoort  (sandy  haven)  ;  Porlock  (the  enclosed  haven), 
in  Somersetshire ;  Portsmouth  (the  mouth  of  the  haven)  ; 
Porthkerry  (rocky  haven),  in  Wales ;  Porthaethroy  (the 
landing-place  of  the  terrible  water),  a  dangerous  ferry  in 
Wales ;  Portholgoch,  corrupt,  from  Porth-y-wal-goch  (i.e. 
the  harbour  of  the  red  wall)  ;  Porthstinian  (the  port  of 
Justinian),  in  Wales  ;  Porth-y-cawl,  corrupt,  from  Porth-y- 
Gaul  (the  harbour  where  the  Gallic  invaders  used  to  land), 
in  Wales.  In  Ireland  :  Portraine,  now  Rathlin  (the  land- 
ing-place of  Rachra)  ;  Portadown  (at  the  fortress)  ;  Port- 
law,  Irish  Port-lagha  (at  the  hill) ;  Portmarnock  (the 
haven  of  St.  Marnock) ;  Port-na-Spania  (the  port  of  the 
Spaniard),  where  one  of  the  vessels  of  the  Invincible 
Armada  was  wrecked,  off  the  coast  of  Ireland  ;  Port- Arling- 
ton, named  after  the  Earl  of  Arlington  in  the  reign  of 
Charles  II. ;  Port-Glasgow,  anc.  Kil-ma-Colm  (St.  Columba's 
church).  It  received  its  modern  name  in  1668,  when  pur- 
chased by  the  merchants  of  Glasgow ;  Portmoak,  in  Kin- 
ross (the  landing-place  of  St.  Moak)  ;  Port-Patrick  (the 
place  from  which  it  is  said  St.  Patrick  sailed  for  Ireland)  ; 
Portree,  in  Skye,  and  Port-an-righ,  in  Ross  (the  king's 
haven)  ;  Portnellan  (the  landing-place  of  the  island),  in 
Loch  Tummel ;  Portmore  (the  great  port),  in  Wigton ; 
Port-na-craig  (of  the  rock)  ;  Port-na-churaich  (of  the  boat), 
in  lona,  where  St.  Columba  landed  from  Ireland  ;  Port- 
skerrie  (the  rocky  landing-place),  in  Sutherland  ;  Snizort, 
in  Skye,  corrupt,  from  Snisport,  probably  named  after  a 
Norse  leader  or  pirate  ;  Port-ny-hinsey  (the  haven  of  the 
island),  the  Celtic  name  of  Peel,  in  the  Isle  of  Man ; 
Portinscale,  in  Westmoreland  (the  passage  where  the 
skaala  or  booths  for  the  Scandinavian  thing,  i.e.  meeting, 
were  erected)  ;  Portobello  (the  beautiful  harbour),  in  South 
America,  so  named  by  its  founder ;  Portobello,  in  Mid 
Lothian,  named  in  commemoration  of  the  capture  of  the 

i  $6  PIC  —  PITT 

South  American  town  in  1739  ;  Portskewitt  or  Porth-is-coed 
(the  port  below  the  wood),  in  Monmouth  ;  Porth-yn-lyn  (the 
port  of  the  pool),  in  Wales  ;  Portsoy,  in  Banffshire,  i.e. 
Port-saith  (the  safe  port)  ;  Port-dyn-Norwig  (the  port  of  the 
Northman),  in  Wales  ;  Maryport,  in  Cumberland,  named 
after  the  wife  of  its  first  proprietor  ;  Portlethan,  Gael.  Port- 
leath-an  (the  port  of  the  gray  river),  Kincardine  ;  Port- 
Logan,  in  Wigton,  i.e.  Gael.  Port-na-lagan  (the  port  of  the 
hollow).  Port  became  an  established  Saxon  word  for  a 
market-town  —  hence  we  have  such  names  as  Newport, 
Longport,  applied  to  inland  towns  ;  Bridport,  on  the  R. 
Brit.  The  Cinque-ports,  Fr.  cinq  (five),  were  the  towns  of 
Dover,  Hastings,  Hythe,  Romney,  Sandwich.  In  Portugal  : 
Oporto  (the  port)  ;  Portugal,  anc.  Portus-cale,  both  mean- 
ing the  harbour  ;  Porto-rico  (rich  port),  an  island  of  the 
Antilles  group  ;  Porto-Santo  (the  holy  port),  in  the  Madeira 
Isles  ;  Porto-seguro  (safe  port)  ;  Porto-  Vecchio  (old  port), 
in  Corsica  ;  Porto-Alegre  (the  cheerful  port),  in  Brazil  ; 
Porto-farina  (the  port  of  wheat),  in  North  Africa  ;  Porto- 
ferrajo  (fortified  port),  in  Tuscany,  on  the  coast  of  the  Island 
of  Elba  ;  Port-Vendres,  Lat.  Portus-  Veneris  (the  port  of 
Venus),  in  France  ;  Le  Treport,  corrupt,  from  the  Lat. 
Ulterior-Portus,  in  Normandy,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Bresle. 
(a  Peak  or  Promontory;  e.g.  the  Pike  o' 

PT^P/A  q\  .. 

PIC  and  Stidde  (the  peak  °f  the  high  r°ck>  ;   the 

r  . 

SPITZE  (Ger.)  |  £6ak'  inMDerbyshire  ;  Pike's  Peak  in  the 

\  Rocky  Mountains,  named  after  General 
Pike  ;  Spitz,  in  Austria,  built  around  a  hill  ;  Spitzbergen 
(the  peaked  mountains)  ;  Spithead  (the  head  of  the  promon- 
tory) ;  Le  Puy  (the  peak),  a  town  situated  on  a  high  hill  ; 
Puy-de-dome  (the  dome-shaped  peak). 

PISCH  (Sclav.),  sand  ;  e.g.  Pesth,  in  Hungary  (on  a  dry,  sandy 
soil)  ;  but  Buttman  suggests  that  the  name  may  be  derived 
from  paz,  Sclav,  (a  baking  place),  as  the  German  name  for 
Buda,  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  Danube,  is  Ofen  (the 
oven)  ;  Peschkowitz,  Peshen,  Pisck,  Pskov,  Peckska,  in 
Russia  and  Bohemia.  Pies,  Sclav,  (the  dog),  may,  however, 
be  the  root-word  of  some  of  these  names. 

PITT,  PITTEN  (Gadhelic),  a  hole,  a  small  hollow.  This  word,  as 
a  prefix,  occurs  very  frequently  in  Scotland,  especially  in 


Fife,  in  which  county  the  most  important  place  is  Pitten- 
weem  (the  hollow  of  the  cave,  tiaimh),  the  seat  of  an  ancient 
monastery,  near  which  is  the  cave  from  which  it  was 
named  ;  Pitcairn  (the  hollow  of  the  cairn),  near  Perth,  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  which  there  are  two  large  cairns  of 
stones  ;  Pitgarvie  (the  rough  hollow)  ;  Pitglas  (the  gray 
hollow)  ;  Pettinain  (the  hollow  of  the  river),  a  parish  on  the 
Clyde  ;  Pittencrieff(the  hollow  of  the  tree,  craobJi) ;  Pitgober 
(of  the  goat)  ;  Pitnamoon  (of  the  moss)  ;  Pittendriech  (the 
Druid's  hollow) ;  Pitcaithly,  probably  the  hollow  of  the 
narrow  valley,  in  Perthshire ;  Pittentaggart  (the  priest's 
portion) — as  in  ancient  times,  the  word  pitte  is  understood 
to  have  also  meant  a  part  or  portion  of  land  ;  and  it  has 
probably  this  meaning  in  Pitlochrie,  in  Perthshire,  anc. 
Pittan-cleireach  (the  portion  of  the  clergy  or  church-land), 
as  well  as  in  Pittan-clerach,  in  Fife  ;  Pitmeddin,  in  Aber- 
deenshire,  named  after  St.  Meddane.  Pittenbrae  (the 
hollow  of  the  hill)  ;  Petty  or  Pettie,  anc.  Petyn  (the  hollow 
of  the  island),  on  Beauly  Loch,  Inverness ;  Pettycur  (the 
hollow  of  the  dell,  coire),  in  Fife. 

xp  v    (  meaning  successively   a  hedge,  an  enclosed  and 

FiruM  \  cu^ivate^  place  surrounded  by  trees,  an  enclosed 

'  (  garden,  a  park,  a  mansion,  or  country  residence  ; 

e.g.    Plessis,    Le    Plessin,    Plessier,    Le   Plessial,   etc. — v. 

Cocheris's  Noms  de  Lieu. 

PLEU,  or  PLOE  (Cym.-Cel.),  a  village,  found  only  in  Brittany ;  e.g. 
Pleu-meur  (great  village) ;  Pleu-nevey  (new  village)  ;  Ploer- 
mel  (the  mill  village) ;  Pleu-Jian  (John's  village) ;  Pleu, 
Ploven,  Pleven,  etc. 

PLON,  POLSKI  (Sclav.),  a  plain  ;  e.g.  Ploen,  a  town  in  Holstein  ; 
Plonersee  (the  lake  of  the  plain) ;  Juriev-Polskoi  (St.  George's 
town  on  the  plain)  ;  Poland,  i.e.  Polskoi  (the  plain  or  level 
land)  ;  Volkynia  (the  level  country). 

POD  (Sclav.),  near  or  under ;  e.g.  Podgoriza  (under  the  hill)  ; 
Podmokla  (near  the  moss)  ;  Potsdam,  from  Pozdu-pemi 
(under  the  oaks). 

POLDER  (Dutch),  land  reclaimed  from  the  sea ;  e.g.  Polder  and 
Polders,  in  Belgium  ;  Beemsterpolder  (the  meadow  of  the 
reclaimed  land);  Charlotten- Polder  (Charlotte's  reclaimed 
land)  ;  Pwlpolder  (land  reclaimed  from  a  pool  or  marsh). 


POLIS  (Grk.),  a  city  ;  pol  (Sclav.),  probably  borrowed  from  the 
Greek ;  Constantinople,  Adrianople,  founded  by  the  emperors 
Constantine  and  Adrian  ;  Nicopolis  and  Nicopoli  (the  city 
of  victory) — the  first  founded  by  Augustus  to  commemorate 
the  battle  of  Actium,  and  the  second  by  Trajan  to  com- 
memorate his  victory  over  the  Dacians  ;  Persepolis  (the  city 
of  the  Persians) ;  Pampeluna,  corrupt,  from  Pompeiopolis, 
so  called  because  rebuilt  by  the  sons  of  Pompey  the  Great ; 
Decapolis  (the  district  of  the  ten  cities),  colonised  by  the 
Romans,  in  Palestine  ;  Sebastopol  (the  august  city)  ;  Stav- 
ropol (the  city  of  the  cross),  in  Russia ;  Bielopol  (the  white 
city)  ;  Bogopol  (the  city  of  God,  Sclav.  Bog)  ;  Gallipoli, 
anc.  Calipolis  (the  beautiful  city) ;  Naples,  Nauplia,  Nablous, 
and  Neapolis  (the  new  city)  ;  Grenoble,  corrupt,  from 
Gratianopolis  (the  city  of  Gratian)  ;  Heliopolis  (the  city  of 
the  sun),  being  the  Greek  name  for  On,  in  Egypt,  and  also 
for  Baalbec,  in  Syria ;  Krasnapol  (the  fair  city) ;  Theriasipol, 
in  Hungary  (named  after  the  Empress  Theresa) — its  Hun- 
garian name  Szabadka  (the  privileged)  ;  Yelisabetpol  (after 
the  Empress  Elizabeth) ;  Tripoli,  in  Syria  (the  three  cities), 
being  a  joint  colony  from  Tyre,  Sidon,  and  Aradus  ;  Tripoli, 
in  Barbary,  named  from  its  three  principal  cities,  Lepta, 
Oca,  and  Sabrata  ;  Tripolitza,  in  the  Morea,  built  from  the 
remains  of  the  three  cities  Tegea,  Mantinea,  and  Palantium  ; 
Amphipolis,  now  Emboli  (the  surrounded  city),  so  called 
because  almost  encircled  by  the  R.  Strymon  ;  Anapli,  in 
the  Morea,  corrupt,  from  Neapolis  (new  town)  ;  Annapolis, 
in  Nova  Scotia,  named  after  Queen  Anne  ;  Antibes,  in 
Provence,  a  colony  from  Marseilles,  anc.  Antinopolis,  named 
after  its  founder  ;  Stamboul,  the  Turkish  name  for  Con- 
stantinople, means  eis  ten  polin  (to  the  city). 

/a  pool  or  marsh,  cognate  with  the  Lat.  palus; 
OLL  (Gadhelic),    I  ^  pool^  m  Dorset)  situated  on  a  lagune  . 

PWL  (Lym.-Lel.),  <^  Pontypool  (the  pool  at  the  bridge) ;  Welsh- 
''  (  pool,  so  called  to  distinguish  it  from  Poole  in 
Dorset — its  Welsh  name  is  Trellyn  (the  dwelling  on  the 
pool)  ;  Hartlepool,  Danish  Hartness  (the  pool  hard  by  the 
headland) — the  Normans  added  le  pol,  from  a  pool  called  the 
Slake,  by  which  it  is  almost  insulated  ;  Liverpool,  probably 
Llyr-pvul,  Welsh  (the  sea  pool)  ;  Blackpool,  in  Lancashire, 


named  from  a  marsh  now  drained  ;  Polton  and  Pulborough 
(pool  town) ;  Polbaith  and  Polbeath,  Gael,  (the  pool  of  the 
birches) ;  Poltarf  (of  the  bull)  ;  Pollnaranny  and  Polrane 
(of  the  ferns),  in  Ireland ;  Wampool  in  Cumberland  (i.e. 
Woden's  pool)  ;  Pwl-helli  (the  salt  pool)  ;  Pwll-du  (black 
pool)  ;  Pwll-broch-mael  (the  pool  of  the  warlike  weapons), 
the  site  of  a  battle  between  the  Welsh  and  Saxons  ;  Pwll- 
tin-byd  (the  very  deep  pool,  literally  the  pool  at  the  bottom 
of  the  world)  ;  Pwll-y-wrach  (the  hag's  pool),  in  Wales. 
Pill,  in  Gloucester,  means  the  mouth  of  a  brook,  e.g.  Cow- 
pill,  Horse-pill,  etc. ;  Polmont,  Co.  Stirling,  corrupt,  from 
poll-monaidh  (the  pool  near  the  hill). 

POMMIER  (Fr.),  the  apple-tree  ;  pomeratum  (a  place  planted  with 
apple-trees)  ;  e.g.  La  Pommeree,  Pommeray,  Pomiers, 
Pommera,  Pommeraie,  Pommereau,  Pommereuil,  in  France. 
/T  t  \  (  the  bridge,  with  its  derivatives  in  the  Romance 

PONT  (Welsh)    1  and  in  the  Welsh   lanSuaSes  '   e-g-  Pontefract, 
''    (  Lat.  Ad-pontem-fractum  (at  the  broken  bridge)  ; 

Pontoise  (the  bridge  across  the  R.  Oise) ;  Pont-Audemer 
(the  bridge  built  by  Aldemar  across  the  R.  Rille)  ;  Pont-de- 
briques  (the  bridge  of  bricks)  ;  Pont-d'Espagne,  corrupt, 
from  Pont-de-sapins  (the  fir-tree  bridge) ;  Ponteland,  in 
Northumberland,  corrupt,  from  Ad-pontem-^Elianum  (at  the 
bridge  of  ^lius)  ;  Pontigny  (bridge  town) ;  Les -Fonts - 
de-Ce  (the  bridges  of  Caesar),  a  town  in  France,  with  four 
bridges  across  the  Loire  ;  Negropont,  probably  a  corrupt, 
of  Egripo,  which  the  Italian  sailors  translated  into  Negripo 
or  Negropont  (black  bridge),  in  allusion  to  the  narrow  strait 
called  in  Greek  Euripos  (i.e.  the  strait  with  the  violent 
current),  on  which  the  town  was  built — the  name  of  the 
town  was  gradually  extended  to  the  whole  island,  till  then 
called  Eubcea;  Ponte-vedra  (the  old  bridge),  and  Puenta- 
de-la-Reyna  (the  queen's  bridge),  in  Spain  ;  Grampound,  in 
Cornwall,  Welsh  Pout-maur  (the  great  bridge),  corrupt, 
from  the  Fr.  Grand-pont;  Paunton,  in  Lincoln,  anc.  Ad- 
pontem  (at  the  bridge)  ;  Pontesbury  (bridge  town),  in 
Cheshire  ;  Ponte-corvo  (the  crooked  bridge),  in  Campania  ; 
Deux-ponts  (the  two  bridges),  in  Bavaria.  In  Wales:  Pont- 
faen  (stone  bridge)  ;  Pont-newydd  (new  bridge) ;  Pont-glas- 
llyn  (the  bridge  at  the  blue  pool)  ;  Pont-y-glyn  (the  bridge 


of  the  glen)  ;  Pont-y-pair  (the  bridge  of  the  cauldron)  ; 
Pont-ar-ddulas  (the  bridge  on  the  dark  water)  ;  Pont-ar- 
Fynach  (the  devil's  bridge)  ;  Pontypool  (the  bridge  of  the 
pool)  ;  Pant-yr-ysgrafif,  probably  corrupt,  from  Pont-yr- 
ysgraff"(\he.  bridge  of  boats).  In  France:  Poncelle,  Ponchel, 
Poncelet,  Ponceaux,  etc. ;  Pont-a-couleuvre,  in  the  depart,  of 
Oise,  probably  from  an  Old  Lat.  text,  in  which  this  place  is 
called  Pont-d-qui-l'ouvre  (i.e.  the  bridge  to  whomsoever  may 
open),  it  being  a  bridge  closed  by  barriers — Cocheris's  Noms 
de  Lieu. 

POOR,  PORE,  PURA  (Sansc.),  a  city  ;  e.g.  Nagpoor  (snake  city)  ; 
Chuta  Nagpore  (the  little  snake  city)  ;  Amarapoora  (divine 
city)  ;  Bejapore  or  Visiapoor  (the  city  of  victory)  ;  Beram- 
pore  (of  the  Mahometan  sect  called  Bohra) ;  Bhagulpore 
(tiger  city)  ;  Ahmedpore  (the  city  of  Ahmed)  ;  Ahmedpore 
Chuta  (the  little  city  of  Ahmed) ;  Callianpoor  (flourishing 
city)  ;  Bhurtpore  (the  city  of  Bhurat,  the  brother  of  the  god 
Ram)  ;  Rampoor  (Ram's  city)  ;  Bissenpoor  (of  Vishnu)  ; 
Ferozepore  (of  Feroze-Togluk) ;  Huripoor  (of  Hari  or 
Vishnu)  ;  Shahjehanpoor  (of  Shah  Jehan)  ;  Mahabalipoor 
(of  Bali  the  Great) ;  Caujapoor  (of  the  Virgin) ;  Rajapore 
(of  the  rajah)  ;  Cawnpoor  or  Khanpur  (of  the  Beloved 
One,  a  title  of  Krishna)  ;  Hajipoor  (of  the  pilgrim)  ;  Ghazi- 
pore  (of  Ghazi,  a  martyr)  ;  Mirzapoor  (the  city  of  the 
emir) ;  Secunderpoor  (of  Secunder  Lodi) ;  Sidhpoor  (of 
the  saint) ;  Singapore  (of  the  lions) ;  Russoulpoor  (of  the 
prophet)  ;  Chandpoor  (of  the  moon)  ;  Joudpoor  (war  city) ; 
Ratnapoor  (of  rubies) ;  Munnipora  (of  jewels)  ;  Darma- 
pooram  (of  justice)  ;  Dinajpore  (of  beggars)  ;  Futtepoor  (of 
victory) ;  Sudhapura  (bright  city) ;  Conjeveram,  corrupt, 
from  Canchipura  (the  golden  city)  ;  Trivandrum,  corrupt, 
from  Tiruvanan-thapuram  (the  town  of  the  holy  Eternal 
One),  in  Travancore. 

PRAAG,  PRAYAGA  (Sansc.),  a  holy  place  ;  e.g.  Vissenpraag  (the  holy 
place  of  Vishnu)  ;  Devaprayaga  (God's  holy  place). 

j  ™    ^  \     (  a  meadow,  derived  from  the  Lat.  fira- 
PRADO  (Span,  and  Port),    I,  ~    .  .  , 

,-,    ^  J  turn;  e.g.  the  Prairies  or  meadow  lands ; 

\  Prato-Vecchio   (the  old  meadow),  in 

PTJATRTT?    I  Kr    I  \  /' 

^ Tuscany;    Ouro-preto,    corrupt,    from 
Ouro-prado  (the  gold  meadow),  near  a  gold  mine  in  Brazil. 


In  France,  Premol,  i.e.pratum  molle  (the  smooth  meadow); 
Prabert,  i.e.  Pratum  Alberti  (Albert's  meadow) ;  Pradelles, 
Les  Presek,  Premontie',  Lat.  Pratum-mons  (the  mount  in  the 
meadow),  the  site  of  an  abbey,  chief  of  the  order  of  the 

PUEBLA  (Span.),  a  collection  of  people,  hence  a  village  ;  e.g.  La 
Puebla,  in  Mexico  ;  La  Puebla-de-los-Angelos  (the  village  of 
the  angels),  in  Mexico. 

PULO  (Malay),  an  island  ;  e.g.  Pulo-Penang  (betel-nut  island). 

PUSTY  (Sclav.),  a  waste  place  ;  e.g.  Pustina  (on  the  waste  ground)  ; 
Pusta-kaminica  (the  stony  waste). 

/.  q  x          fa  well  or  pool  of  standing  water,  cognate  with 
/P     s     J  the    Lat.   puteus    and    its    derivatives    in    the 

FYDEN  (Welsh)  j  Romance  languages;  e.g.  Puozzuoli  in  Italy, 
"  \^  and  Puteaux  in  France,  anc.  Puteoli  (the  place 
of  wells)  ;  Le  Puiset,  anc.  Ptiteolis  castrum  (the  camp  of 
the  well) ;  Pfutzenburg  and  Pfutzenthal  (the  town  and  valley 
of  the  wells  or  pools),  in  Germany ;  Poza-de-la-sal  (the  salt 
well),  near  a  salt  mine  in  Spain ;  also  in  Spain  :  Pozanca 
and  Pozancos  (the  stagnant  pools) ;  Pozo-blanco  and  Pozo- 
hondo  (the  white  and  deep  pool) ;  Putney,  anc.  Puttenheath 
(the  pool  on  the  heath),  in  Surrey ;  Puttenheim,  in  Belgium 
(a  dwelling  near  a  well  or  pool). 


QUELLE  (Ger.),  WEDEL  (Old  Ger.),    f  a  place  from  which  water  flows 
, .  c  \  — from  quellen,  to  spring,  and 

/c-       j  \  •{  ivvllan.  to  flow;  e.g.  Miihl- 

KILDE  (Scand.),  .        ° 

/n      M  quelle  (the    mill   fountain); 

[  Hoogkill  (corner  well),  and 

Bassekill  (low  well),  in  Holland  ;  Quilleboeuf  (well  town),  in 
Normandy  ;  Roeskilde  (the  fountain  of  King  Roe),  in  Den- 
mark ;  Salzwedel  (salt  well) ;  Hohenwedel  (high  well) ; 
Tideswell,  in  Derbyshire — probably  from  a  personal  name,  as 
there  is  a  Tideslow  in  the  neighbourhood  ;  Wells,  in  Nor- 
folk (a  place  into  which  the  tide  flows)  ;  Wells,  in  Somerset, 
named  from  a  holy  fountain  dedicated  to  St.  Andrew ; 
Motherwell,  in  Lanarkshire,  named  from  a  well  dedicated  to 
the  Virgin  Mary ;  Amwell,  in  Hants,  corrupt,  from  Emma's 


1 62  RADE — RAIN 

well  j  Holywell,  in  Wales,  named  from  St.  Winifred's  well — 
in  Welsh  it  is  called  Trejfynnon  (the  town  of  the  well)  ; 
Shadwell,  in  London  (St.  Chad's  well) ;  Bakewell,  anc. 
Badican-wylla  (the  bath  wells),  in  Derbyshire  ;  Walston,  a 
parish  in  Lanarkshire,  named  from  a  sacred  well  near  the 
site  of  the  church  ;  Ashwell  (the  well  among  ash-trees),  in 
Hertford ;  Ewell,  in  Surrey,  found  written  Etwell  and 
Awell  (at  the  well). 


RADE,  RODE  (Teut),  a  place  where  wood  has  been  cut  down,  and 
which  has  been  cleared  for  tillage,  from  reuten,  to  root  out, 
to  plough  or  turn  up.  The  word  in  its  various  forms,  reud, 
reut,  and  rath,  is  common  in  German  topography ;  e.g. 
Wittarode  (the  cleared  wood)  ;  Herzegerode  (the  clearing 
on  the  Hartz  Mountains)  ;  Quadrath  (the  clearing  of  the 
Quadi) ;  Lippenrode  (the  clearing  on  the  R.  Lippe)  ;  Rade- 
vor-dem-walde  (the  clearing  in  front  of  the  wood)  ;  Randa- 
rath  and  Wernigerode  (the  clearing  of  Randa  and  Werner)  ; 
Zeulenroda  (the  clearing  on  the  boundary,  ziel)  ;  Schabert, 
corrupt,  from  Suabroid  (the  Swabian  clearing)  ;  Pfaffrath 
(the  priest's  clearing)  ;  Baireuth  (the  cleared  ground  of  the 
Boii  or  Bavarians) ;  Schussenried  (the  clearing  on  the  R. 
Schussen).  Royd,  in  England,  means  a  path  cut  through  a 
wood,  as  in  Huntroyd,  Boothroyd,  Holroyd.  Terra-rodata 
(rode  land)  was  so  called  in  opposition  to  Terra-Bovata,  i.e. 
an  ancient  enclosure  which  had  been  from  time  immemorial 
under  the  plough,  i.e.  Ormeroyd  (Ormer's  rode  land). 

,    f  a  promontory  or  peninsula  ; 

RAIN,  RAND,  RA  (Teut.  and  Scand.), 

if*        fS\+  \  e-£-  Ram,  a  town  name  in 

RHYNN  (Cym.-Cel.),  *       .      ',  c.     .     ~ 

/T\  *  •{  Bavaria  and  Styna;  Randers, 

RINN  (Irish), 

v         ','  on    a  promontory   in    Den- 

ROINN  (Gael.),  ,     %,  .         •/!•!. 

[mark;  Hohenram  (high  pro- 
montory) ;  Steenrain  (rock  headland)  ;  Renfrew  (the  pro- 
montory of  the  stream,  frew\  anc.  Strathgriff,  on  the  R. 
Griff;  the  Rhinns  (i.e.  the  points),  in  Galloway;  Rhynie, 
a  parish  in  Aberdeenshire  ;  Rhind,  a  parish  in  Perthshire, 
with  the  parish  church  situated  on  a  headland  jutting  into 
the  R.  Tay ;  Rinmore  (the  great  point),  in  Devon,  Argyle, 

RAJA — RATH  163 

and  Aberdeenshire  ;  Rindon,  in  Wigton  ;  Tynron,  Gael. 
Tigh-an-roinne  (the  house  on  the  point),  a  parish  in  Dum- 
friesshire ;  Reay,  in  Sutherlandshire,  and  Reay,  a  station 
on  the  Lancaster  and  Carlisle  Railway,  from  Ra,  Norse  (a 
point)  ;  Penryn  (the  head  of  the  point),  in  Cornwall.  This 
word,  in  various  forms,  such  as  rin,  reen,  rine,  ring,  is  of 
frequent  occurrence  in  Ireland ;  e.g.  Ringrone  (the  seal's 
promontory)  ;  Rineanna  (the  promontory  of  the  marsh, 
eanaigJi)  ;  Ringville  and  Ringabella,  Irish  Rinn-bhile  (the 
point  of  the  old  tree)  ;  Ringfad  (long  point)  ;  Ringbane 
(white  point)  ;  Rineen  (little  point)  ;  Ringagonagh  (the 
point  of  the  O'Cooneys)  ;  Rinville,  in  Galway  (the  point  of 
Mhil,  a  Firbolg  chieftain)  ;  Ringsend,  near  Dublin  (the  end 
of  the  point). 

RAJA,  RAJ  (Sansc.),  royal  ;  e.g.  Rajamahal  (the  royal  palace)  ; 
Rajapoor  (royal  city) ;  Rajpootana  (the  country  of  the  Raj- 
poots, i.e.  the  king's  sons — putra,  a  son). 

RAS  fA    ^  (a   caPe »    e-S'    Ras-el-abyad   (the   white   cape); 

^  /TT  i  '^       \  Ras'&elbi}    corrupt,    from   Rasicalbo  (the    dog's 

**      (  cape)  ;  Rasicarami  (the  cape  of  the  vineyards)  ; 

Ras-el-tafal  (chalk  cape) ;   Rasicanzar  (the  swine's  cape) ; 

Ras-el-shakah  (the  split  cape) ;   Ras-el-hamra  (red  cape) ; 

Rascorno  (Cape  Horn). 

RATH,  RAED  (Teut.),  council ;  e.g.  Rachstadt  or  Rastadt  (the  town 
of  the  council  or  court  of  justice) ;  Rathenau  (the  meadow  of 
the  council)  ;  Raithby  (the  dwelling  of  the  court  of  justice). 
RATH  (Gadhelic),  a  round  earthen  fort  or  stronghold,  cognate  with 
the  Welsh  rhath,  a  mound  or  hill ;  e.g.  Rathmore  (the  great 
fort)  ;  Ratass  or  Rathteas  (the  south  fort)  ;  Rattoo  or  Rath- 
tuaith  (northern  fort)  ;  Rathbeg  (little  fort)  ;  Rathduff  (black 
fort)  ;  Rathglass  (green  fort)  ;  Rathcoole  (the  fort  of  Cum- 
hal,  the  father  of  Finn)  ;  Rathcormac  (of  Cormack)  ;  Rath- 
drum  (of  the  ridge)  ;  Rathdowney,  Irish  Rath-tamhnaigh 
(of  the  green  field)  ;  Rathbane  (white  fort) ;  Rathfryland 
(Freelan's  fort) — all  in  Ireland.  Rattray,  in  Perthshire, 
where  there  are  the  remains  of  an  old  fortress  on  a  hill,  and 
near  what  is  called  the  Standing  Stones,  supposed  to  have 
been  a  Druidical  temple  ;  Rathven  (hill-fort),  in  Banffshire  ; 
Rathmorail  (the  magnificent  fort),  in  Aberdeenshire  ;  Ra- 
phoe,  Co.  Donegal,  abbrev.  from  Rathboth  (the  fort  of  huts). 


/r  ^  \    (&  kingdom  ;  e.g.  France,  t.e.  Frank-retch 
REICH,  REIKE  (Goth.),   I  /,       7-       j  r   ^        i-        z.          T. 

'    0  .  '    »  (the  kingdom   of  the  Franks,  who   are 

RICE  (A.S.),  <  v  t  j    •      ,   J.    • 

V~       j  x.  j  supposed    to    have    derived  their  name 

RICH  (Scand.),  I  r  i  •    j       r    •         i-  11    j     r  \ 

V.  from  a  kind  of  javelin  called  franca)  ; 
Austria,  CEstreich  (the  eastern  kingdom),  as  opposed  to 
Neustria  (the  western) ;  Surrey  or  Sud-rice  (the  southern 
kingdom)  ;  Goodrich,  in  Hereford  (Coda's  rule  or  kingdom)  ; 
Rastrick  (Rasta's  rule),  in  Yorkshire ;  Norway  or  Nordrike 
(the  northern  kingdom)  ;  Ringerige,  in  Norway  (the  king- 
dom of  King  Ringe) ;  Gothland,  anc.  Gotarike  (the  kingdom 
of  the  Goths)  ;  Sweden,  anc.  Sviarike  (the  kingdom  of  the 

REIDH  (Gadhelic),  smooth,  used  also  as  a  noun  to  signify  a  level 
field,  and  Anglicised  re,  rea,  or  rey  ;  e.g.  Remeen  (the 
smooth  plain)  ;  Muilrea  (smooth  hill,  mullagh,  p.  145)  ; 
Rehill  for  Redh-choill  (smooth  wood). 

REKA  (Sclav.),  a  river ;  e.g.  Riga,  Rega,  Regan,  Regnitz  (river 
names) ;  also  the  R.  Spree,  Sclav.  Serbenreka  (the  river  of 
the  Serbs  or  Wends)  ;  Meseritz  and  Meseritsch  (in  the 
midst  of  rivers),  in  Moravia  and  Wallachia ;  Rakonitz  (the 
town  on  the  river),  in  Russia  ;  Reka,  the  Sclavonic  name  for 
Fiume,  It.  (the  river),  a  town  on  the  Adriatic,  at  the  mouth 
of  a  stream  of  the  same  name. 

.  .  .      C  to  fl°w>  from  whence   are   derived  rivus 

>J  (r  rM? 'r  \        I  and  rivula,  Lat.  ;  Ho,  Span,  and  Port. ; 

5^  i   x  ''          r*v°ta>   raes>  and  rith,   A.S.   (a   stream). 

REO  (Grk.),  }-„,        '  .  \     .1        TT 

ff   .\  j  The   Eng.   river  comes  through  the    Fr. 

.L  /o          \  riviere,  and  that  from  tiparia,  in   Mediae- 

Rl,  SRI  (Sansc.),  IT!         •         v_*  v*      n  u     i 

[_  val  Lat.  a  river,  but  literally  a  river-bank. 

From  these  root-words  many  river  names  are  derived,  or 
from  rhe,  rea  (swift),  joined  to  root-words  signifying  water  ; 
e.g.  the  Rhone,  anc.  Rhodamis,  the  Rhine,  Rye,  Rea,  Rhee, 
Rhea,  Rey,  Rheus,  Roe,  Ruhr,  etc. ;  Rio-doce  and  Rio- 
dulce  (sweet  or  fresh  river),  in  opposition  to  Rio-salada 
(salt  river)  ;  Rio-branco  (white  river)  ;  Rio-bravo-del-norte 
(the  great  north  river)  ;  Rio-grande-do-sul  (the  great  south 
river)  ;  Rio -negro  (black  river)  ;  Rio-tinto  (coloured  river)  ; 
Rio -Colorado,  with  the  same  meaning;  Rio -de -Janeiro, 
generally  called  Rio — so  named  by  the  Portuguese  dis- 
coverer because  the  bay  was  discovered  on  the  feast  of 


St.  Januarius  :  the  city  founded  at  the  place,  and  now  called 
Rio,  was  originally  named  St.  Sebastian ;  Rio -de -Cobra 
(the  snake  river),  in  Jamaica ;  Rio-dos-Reis  (the  river  of 
the  kings),  in  Africa,  so  named  by  Vasco  de  Gama,  because 
discovered  on  the  feast  of  the  Epiphany;  Rio-de-Ouro 
(the  river  of  gold),  on  the  coast  of  Guinea ;  Rio-azul  (the 
blue  river) ;  Rio-Marahao  (the  tangled  river) ;  Rio-de-la- 
Plata  (the  river  of  plata,  i.e.  silver),  so  called  from  the 
booty  taken  on  its  banks. 

RHIADUR  (Cym.-Cel.),  a  cataract ;  e.g.  Rhayadar  (the  cataract),  a 
town  in  Radnor,  near  a  fall  of  the  R.  Wye,  removed  in 
1780.  Radnor  itself  is  supposed  to  have  taken  its  name 
from  Rhiadur-Gwy  (the  cataract  of  the  R.  Wye)  ;  Rhiadur- 
mawr  (the  great  cataract),  in  Caernarvonshire ;  Rhaidr-y- 
wennol  (the  cataract  of  the  swallow),  so  named  from  the 
rapidity  of  its  motion,  like  that  of  the  bird. 

RHIW  (Welsh),  an  ascent ;  e.g.  Ruabon,  corrupt,  from  Rhiw- 
Fabon  (the  ascent  of  St.  Mabon). 

RHOS,  ROS  (Cym.-Cel.),  in  Wales  signifying  a  moor,  in  Cornwall 
a  valley ;  e.g.  Ross,  a  town  in  Hereford ;  Rhoscollen  (the 
moor  of  hazels),  in  Anglesea ;  Rhos-du  (black  moor) ; 
Penrhos  (the  head  of  the  moor),  in  Wales.  In  Cornwall : 
Roskilly  (the  valley  of  hazels)  ;  Rosecrewe  (the  valley  of 
the  cross);  Rosvean  (little  valley);  Rosmean  (stony  valley). 

RHUDD  (Cym.-Cel.),  f  ^  •  e&  Rufnd  <red  land>>  or  Per' 

RUADH    Gadhelic),  p^.l         .1     ^T  ^l     T^ ' 

ROTH  and  RUD  (Teut  )      1  Rhuddlan     (the     red     bank>    f /(**)  '• 

fc       .3  \  I  Rhuthin,  corrupt,  from  Rhudd-din  (the 

[_  red  land) ;  Llanrhudd  (the  red  church), 

in  Wales  ;  Romhilde,  anc.  Rotemulte  (red  land)  ;  Rother, 

Rotha,     Rothback     (red     stream) ;     Rotherthurm,     Hung. 

Vorostoroney  (red  tower) ;   Rothen-haus,  Sclav.   Czerweny- 

hradek  (red  house  or  castle),  in  Bohemia ;  Rotenburg,  in 

Switzerland  (the  town  on  the  red  brook)  ;  Rothenburg,  in 

Hanover  and  Bavaria  (the  red  fortress) ;   Rothenburg,  in 

Prussia  proper,  is  called  by  the  Sclaves  Rostarezewo  (the  town 

of  the    Sclavonic    deity    Ratzi) ;    Rothenfels    (red    rock) ; 

Rotherham  (the  dwelling  on  the  red  river)  ;  Roughan  and 

Rooghaun  (reddish  land),  in   Ireland.     But  the  prefix  rud 

is  sometimes  the  abbreviation  of  a  proper  name,  thus — 

1 66  RHYD—RIPA 

Rudesheim,  in  Germany,  is  from  Hruodinesheim  (the  dwell- 
ing of  Hruodine)  ;  Rudby,  in  Yorkshire  (of  Routh)  ;  Rud- 
kioping,  in  Denmark  (the  market-town  of  Routh). 

RHYD  (Welsh),  a  ford ;  e.g.  Rhyderin,  corrupt,  from  Rhyd-gerwin 
(the  rough  ford) ;  Rhyd-y-Boithan,  corrupt,  from  Byddin 
(the  ford  of  the  army)  ;  Rhydonen,  corrupt,  from  Rhyd-hen 
(the  old  ford)  ;  Rhyd-dol-cynfar  (the  ford  of  the  valley  of 
the  ancient  fight). 

RIDING,  or  THRITHING,  the  three  things,  q.v.,  i.e.  the  three  places 
or  districts  where  the  Scandinavians  held  their  judicial 
assemblies  ;  e.g.  the  Ridings,  in  Yorkshire,  so  named  under 
the  Danish  rule  ;  Lincoln  was  divided  by  the  Danes  in  the 
same  manner. 

RIED  (A.S.),  a  reed;  e.g.  Retford  and  Radford  (the  reedy  ford); 
Radbourne  (reedy  brook) ;  Redbridge,  in  Hants,  anc. 
Reideford  (reedy  ford).  Bede  calls  it  Arundinis-vadum, 
Lat.  (the  ford  of  the  reeds). 

RIGGE  CA  S  }  (  a    ridge ;    e'g'    HansrUcke    (J°hn's    "dge)  5 

PTTPRP-M  /rw  N      \  Hengistriicke  (the  horses'  ridge)  ;  Hundsricke 

^e   ''      (  (the  dog's  ridge)  ;  Rudgeley  (the  field  at  the 

ridge)  ;  Brownrigg,  Grayrigg  (the  brown  and  gray  ridge)  ; 

Reigate  (the  passage  through  the  ridge),  contracted  from 

ridgegate ;    Lindridge    (lime-tree    ridge) ;    Rucksteig    (the 

steep  path  on  the  ridge) ;   Langrike  (long  ridge)  ;   Steen- 

riicke  (stony  ridge). 

/T      .  fa  bank  or  the  border  of  a  stream  ;  e.g. 

RIPA  (Lat.),  „.  ,  111          r     T     i         /*  \ 

,,   .  '  Riva    (on    the    bank    of   Lake   Como) ; 

RIVA    (It.),  „.  TT      C     /  T        1  /-          J      \  »• 

,  T,       .  -c  Riva  or   Rief  (on   Lake  Garda)  ;   Rive- 

RIBA  (Span,  and  Port.),  1   ,     ~.  ,   .  \       •      /        ,      (/•          c 

V_r  v  de-Gier  and  Aube-nve  (on  the  banks  of 

E  V r'''  [  the  R.   Gier  and  Aube)  ;  Aute-rive  and 

Rives-altes  (the  high  river-banks)  ;  Rieux,  anc.  Rivi-Castra 
(the  camp  of  the  river-bank)  ;  Riberac  (on  the  bank  of  the 
water),  in  France  ;  Rivalta  (the  high  bank),  in  Piedmont ; 
Rivoli,  anc.  Ripula  (the  little  bank),  in  Piedmont ;  Romor- 
antin,  anc.  Rivus-Morentini  (the  bank  of  the  R.  Morantin), 
in  France ;  Riveria  or  Riberia,  in  Low  Lat.  signified  a 
plain  on  the  bank  of  a  river — hence  Riviere,  Rivieres, 
Hautes- Rivieres,  La  Rivoire,  etc.,  in  France ;  Rivar- 
rennas,  i.e.  Ripa-arentz  (the  sandy  bank),  on  the  R.  Cher  ; 
the  Rialto  at  Venice  is  corrupt,  from  Riva-alto  (the  high 


bank)  ;  Rye,  in  Sussex,  in  Lat.  records  Ripa;  Ryde,  in  the 

Isle  of  Wight,  formerly  Rye  (on  the  bank  of  the  water)  ; 

Altrupp,  on  the  R.  Rhone,  anc.  Alta-tipa  (the  high  bank) ; 

Ribaute  and  Autrepe,for  Haute-rive  (high  bank),  in  Belgium ; 

Ribadavia  and  Riba-de-Sella  (the  bank  of  the  Rivers  Avia 

and  Sella),  in  Spain ;  Ripon,  in  Yorkshire,  anc.  Ripztm  (on 

the  bank  of  the  R.  Ure). 

/r     ^  /the  rush  ;  e.g.  Ruscomb  (the  rushy  hollow)  ; 

f  A  9  \  J  Rushbrook  (the  rushy  stream)  ;  Rushford, 

OGOSCHA  /Sclav  \    1  Rushmere»  Rushholme,  Ryston  (the  rushy 

'''    l^ford,  marsh,  island,   and  town);  Rogatzn, 

in    Poland,    and    Rogatchev,    in    Russia    (the    place    of 


ROC  ROCHE  (Fr)    (a  rock~ derivatives  from  the  Lat.  rupesj  e.g. 
/T.  x  ^     "'*  1  Rocca-bianca  (white  rock) ;  Rocca-casale  (rock 
ROCCA  (It.),  <     .„  ,    v,..      .       „  "  ,.    v      r 

pnr  / A  c  \  j  village  or  dwelling);  Rocca-secura  (the  safe 

V^rock  fortress),  in  Italy;  Rocca-Valoscuro  (the 
rock  in  the  dark  valley),  in  Naples  ;  Rochefort-sur-mer  (the 
strong  fortress  on  the  sea),  at  the  mouth  of  the  R.  Charente  ; 
La  Rochelle  (the  little  rock  fortress)  ;  Rochefort  (rock  for- 
tress), in  Belgium ;  Rochester,  Co.  Kent  (the  fortress  on 
the  rock),  or,  according  to  Bede,  the  fort  of  Hrop,  a  Saxon 
chief ;  Rochester,  in  New  York,  named  after  Colonel 
Rochester,  one  of  the  early  settlers  ;  Roche-Guyon,  Lat. 
Rupes-Gmdonis(\.\\.e  rock  fortress  of  Guido) ;  Roche-Foucault, 
anc.  Rupes-Fucaldi  (the  fortress  of  Foucalt) ;  Rocroi,  Lat. 
Rupes-Regia  (the  royal  fortress),  in  France  ;  Roxburgh  (the 
rock  fortress) — the  ancient  town,  as  well  as  the  county, 
taking  their  name  from  the  strong  castle,  situated  on  a  rock 
near  the  junction  of  the  Tweed  and  Teviot — the  ancient 
name  of  the  castle  was  Marchidun  (the  hill -fort  on  the 
marshy  land). 

ROS,  ROSS  (Gadhelic),  a  promontory  or  isthmus,  and  also,  in  the 
south  of  Ireland,  a  wood  ;  thus  New  Ross,  Co.  Wexford, 
anc.  Ros-mic-Treoin  (the  wood  of  Treuon's  son) ;  Ros- 
common  (of  St.  Coman) ;  Roscrea  (Cree's  wood)  ;  Ross- 
castle  (on  a  promontory  on  Lake  Killarney) ;  Muckross 
(the  peninsula  of  the  pigs),  in  several  places  in  Ireland  ; 
Muckros  (with  the  same  meaning — the  pig's  headland) 
was  the  ancient  name  of  the  town  of  St.  Andrews  ;  Ross- 

1 68  RUHE — S A  SHALL 

begh  (of  the  birches)  ;  Rossinver  (of  the  confluence)  ;  Port- 
rush  (the  landing-place  of  the  promontory)  ;  Ross-shire 
seems  to  have  taken  its  name  from  Ross  (a  wood) ;  Mon- 
trose,  anc.  Monros  (the  promontory  on  the  marshy  land, 
mom) ;  Rosneath,  anc.  Rosneveth  (the  promontory  of  St. 
Nefydd),  in  Dumbartonshire  ;  Roslin  (the  promontory  on 
the  pool) ;  Kinross  (the  head  of  the  promontory),  either 
with  reference  to  the  county — in  regard  to  Fife,  of  which 
it  anciently  formed  part — or  with  reference  to  the  town  at 
the  head  of  Loch  Leven.  Fife  was  anciently  called  Ross  : 
it  got  the  name  of  Fife  in  honour  of  Duff,  Earl  of  Fife,  to 
whom  it  was  given  by  Kenneth  II.;  and  in  1426  Kinross 
was  made  a  separate  county.  Roskeen  (the  head  or  corner 
of  Ross-shire)  ;  Rosehearty,  in  Aberdeenshire,  corrupt,  from 
Ros-ardty  (the  dwelling  on  the  high  promontory). 

RUHE  (Ger.),  rest ;  e.g.  Ludwigsriihe  (Ludowic's  rest)  ;  Carlshriihe 
(Charles's  rest),  founded  by  Charles  William,  Margrave  of 
Baden,  in  1715;  Henricksriihe  (Henry's  rest).' 

RUN  (A.S.),  council ;  e.g.  Runhall  (the  hall  of  the  council)  ;  Run- 
nington,  anc.  Runenton  (the  town  of  the  council) ;  Runny- 
mede  (the  meadow  of  the  council). 

RYBA  (Sclav.),  fish ;  e.g.  Rybnik,  Rybniza  (the  fish  pond) ; 
Rybinsk,  Rybnaia  (fish  town). 

RYSCH,  or  ROW  (Sclav.),  a  dam  or  ditch ;  e.g.  Prierow  (near  the 
dam)  ;  Prierosbriick  (the  bridge  near  the  dam) ;  Ryswick 
(the  town  on  the  dam)  ;  Riez,  Rieze,  Riezow,  Riezig  (at  the 

,~  .  .  (  behind ;  e.g.  Sabor  (behind  the  wood)  ;  Zadrin 
av'''  \  (behind  the  R.  Drin)  ;  Zamosc  (behind  the  moss) ; 

ZA>  (Zabrod  (behind  the  ford);  Zablat  (behind  the 


SABHALL  (Gadhelic),  a  barn ;  e.g.  Saul,  Co.  Down,  anc.  Sabhall- 
Patrick  (Patrick's  barn),  being  the  first  place  of  worship 
used  by  St.  Patrick  in  Ireland ;  Saval  (the  barn  used  as  a 
church),  near  Newry ;  Drumsaul  (the  barn  or  church  on 
the  ridge) ;  Sawel,  a  mountain  in  Ireland,  probably  from 
the  same  root ;  Cairntoul,  a  hill  in  Aberdeenshire,  origin- 
ally Carn-t-Sabhall  (the  cairn  of  the  barn). 


SABLE  (Fr.),  sand  ;  e.g.  Sable,   Sable",   Sablat,   Sablon,   Sablieres, 
La  Sabloniere,  in  France. 

(  A  q  \      (  the  willow  ;  e.g.  Salehurst  (willow  copse); 


SALIX    Lat  Salford  (willow  ford)  ;  Saul.  in  Gloucester- 

(  shire  (the  place  of  willows).  In  France 
many  places  take  their  name  from  Saule,  Fr.  (the  willow)  ; 
e.g.  Sailly,  from  Salicettim  (a  place  planted  with  willows),  as 
also  Saux,  Saules,  Saulzais,  etc. 

,„       \    (  a  stone  dwelling  ;  set,  a  cottage,  cognate  with  the 

'''<  Span,  and  Port,  sala;  e.g.  Hohensale  (high  dwell- 

(  ing)  ;  Nordsehl  (north   dwelling)  ;  Oldenzeel  (old 

dwelling)  ;  Eversal  (the  dwelling  of  the  wild  boar)  ;  Brun- 

sele  (the  dwelling  at  the  well)  ;  Holzselen  (at  the  wood)  ; 

Laufenselden  (the  dwelling  near  the  waterfall)  ;  Marsal  (on 

the  marsh),  in  France.      In  Spain  :  Salas  (the  halls)  ;  Salas- 

de-la-ribera  (the  dwellings  on  the  river-bank)  ;  Salas-de-los- 

Infantes   (the   dwellings   of  the   infantry)  ;    Upsal,    Scand. 

Upsalr  (the  high  halls),  in  Sweden. 

/P     x  f  salt,  cognate  with  the  Lat.  sal  and  the  Grk. 

fr  Hh  i-  \        hols;  e.g.  the  Rivers  Saale,  Salzach,  Salz- 

,q  j      v  \  bachj    Sal,    Salat    (salt    stream);     Salies, 

//-        /-  i  \        Salins,  Salinas,  Salines,  Salenillas,  Salskaia, 
HALEN  (Cym.-Cel.),         .  .  '  '        ^,    .    '    . 

[_  place-names  in  France,  South  America,  and 

Russia  (in  the  neighbourhood  of  salt  mines  or  springs)  ; 
Saalfeld,  on  the  R.  Saal,  in  Saxony  ;  also  Saalfelden,  in 
Austria  (the  salt  field)  ;  Salamanca,  in  Spain,  anc.  Salmantica 
(the  place  in  the  neighbourhood  of  salt  springs)  ;  Salzburg, 
on  the  R.  Salzach  ;  Salzbrunn  (the  salt  well)  ;  Salzkam- 
mergut  (the  public  treasury  of  the  salt-works)  ;  Soultz  or 
Soultzbad  (the  saline  bath)  ;  Soultzbach  (the  salt  brook)  ; 
Soultz-sous-forets  (the  salt  springs  under  the  woods)  ;  Soultz- 
matt  (the  meadow  of  the  salt  springs)  ;  Selters,  anc. 
Saltrissa,  in  Nassau,  near  the  Selzar  or  mineral  springs  ; 
Saltzkotten  (the  huts  of  the  salt  miners),  in  Westphalia  ; 
Solikamsk  (the  town  of  the  salt-works  on  the  R.  Kama),  in 
Russia  ;  salt  and  sa/tz,  as  affixes,  are  also  applied  to  dwell- 
ings on  the  sea-coast,  thus  —  Westersalt,  Ostersalt,  Neusaltz 
(the  west,  east,  and  new  watering-place  by  the  sea)  ;  but 
Salton,  a  parish  in  East  Lothian,  does  not  come  from  this 
word.  It  is  said  to  have  derived  its  name  from  Nicolas  de 


Soules,  who  possessed  that  part  of  the  country  in  the 
thirteenth  century.  Hal,  the  Celtic  word  for  salt,  still  exists 
in  the  names  of  places  where  there  are  or  were  salt-works  ; 
e.g.  Haling,  in  Hants ;  Halton,  in  Cheshire ;  Halsal  and 
Hallaton,  in  Lancashire  ;  Halle,  in  Prussian  Saxony,  stands 
on  the  R.  Saala  ;  Reichenhall,  on  the  Saale  ;  Hallein,  on  the 
Salza,  near  the  salt  mines  in  Tyrol. 

SANG  (Ger.),  a  place  cleared  of  wood  by  burning,  from  sengen,  to 
burn  ;  e.g.  Feuersang  (the  fire  clearing)  ;  Altensang  (the  old 
clearing)  ;  but  Vogelgesang  means  the  place  of  singing-birds. 

SARN  (Welsh),  a  road.  The  word  sarn  refers  to  the  old  Roman 
road  which  the  Emperor  Maximus  called  in  honour  of  his 
wife  Helen,  a  Welsh  princess  whom  he  had  married ;  e.g. 
Sarn-Helen  (Helen's  road)  ;  Pen-Sarn  (the  head  or  end  of 
the  road)  ;  Tal-Sarn  (the  face  of  the  road). 

SAX,  SAHS  (Teut.),  a  stone,  cognate  with  the  Lat.  saxum;  e.g. 
Sachsa  (the  stony  water  in  the  neighbourhood  of  quarries)  ; 
Sasso,  in  Italy  (the  stone  or  tomb)  ;  Sassoferrato  (the  forti- 
fied rock)  ;  Sassuolo  (the  little  rock  or  stone),  in  Italy ;  but 
these  words,  either  as  prefixes  or  affixes,  in  topography 
generally  indicate  places  belonging  to  the  Saxons,  who  were 
so  called  from  the  seax,  a  kind  of  sword  which  they  used  in 
warfare  ;  thus  Sachsenberg,  Sachsenburg,  Sachsenheim, 
Sachsendorf,  Sassetot,  denote  the  dwellings  of  the  Saxons  ; 
Saxony,  in  Germany  (peopled  by  Saxons)  ;  Sussex,  Essex, 
and  Wessex  (the  south,  east,  and  west  districts  of  the 
Saxons),  in  England  ;  Saxby  (the  Saxons'  town),  in  Lincoln  ; 
Saxlingham  (the  home  of  the  descendants  of  the  Saxons), 
in  Norfolk ;  Sassenberg  (the  Saxons'  hill),  in  Westphalia. 

SCALE,  SKALI  (Scand.),  (  \  ^  °5,  Sfhfed  ;  <*'  S'alby  ff 
SHEAL  SHEAUNG  (Scotch),  \  Scaleby  (hut  town) ;  Scalloway  (the 
"  (  huts  on  the  bay,  vig),  in  Shetland  ; 
Galashiels  (the  huts  on  the  R.  Gala)  ;  Biggarshiels  (the 
huts  near  the  town  of  Biggar)  ;  Larbert,  Co.  Stirling, 
formerly  Lairbert-scheills  (the  huts  of  a  man  named  Lair- 
bert)  ;  North  and  South  Shields,  originally  a  collection  of 
fishermen's  huts ;  but  as  scald,  in  the  Scandinavian  language, 
means  a  bard — that  word  is  likely  to  have  formed  an  element 
in  place-names.  Scaldwell  is  probably  the  bard's  well; 
Skalholt,  in  Iceland,  may  be  the  bard's  hill. 


SCAM  (Old  Ger.),  little  ;  e.g.  Schambach,  Schamach  (the  little 

SCHANZE  (Ger.),  a  bulwark  ;  e.g.  Rheinschanze  (the  bulwark  of 
the  Rhine)  ;  Hochschanze  (high  bulwark). 

SCHEIDE  (Ger.),  a  watershed,  from  scheiden,  to  divide  ;  e.g.  Lenn- 
scheide,  Remschede,  Nettenscheide  (the  watershed  of  the 
Rivers  Lenn,  Rems,  and  Nette)  ;  but  this  word  sometimes 
means  a  place  separated  by  an  enclosure  from  the  surround- 
ing land,  as  in  Scheidhof  (the  separated  or  enclosed  court)  ; 
Scheidlehen  (the  separated  fief). 

SCHENKE  (Ger.),  a  public-house  ;  e.g.  Schenholtz  (the  wood  near 
the  public-house)  ;  Shenklein  (the  little  public-house)  ; 
Shenkendorf  (the  inn  village). 

SCHEUNE  (Ger.),  a  shed  or  barn ;  e.g.  Ziegelscheune  (the  brick  barn) ; 
Kalkscheune  (lime-shed);  Scheunenstelle(the  place  of  sheds). 

SCHLAG  (Ger.),  a  wood  clearing  or  field ;  e.g.  Leopoldschlag  (the 
field  of  Leopold)  ;  Grafenschlag  (of  the  count) ;  Pfafien- 
schlag  (of  the  priest)  ;  Kirchsclag  (of  the  church)  ;  Schlagen- 
wald  (the  cleared  wood)  ;  Schlagberg  and  Schlaghock  (the 
cleared  hill  and  corner)  ;  Murzuschlag  (the  clearing  on  the 
R.  Murz),  in  Styria. 

SCHLANGE  (Ger.),  a  snake  ;  e.g.  Slagenhorst  (snake  thicket) ; 
Schlangenbad  (snake  bath). 

SCHLEUSE  (Ger  \  (a  sluice  '  e'g'  Rhinschleuse  (the  sluice  of  the 
<T)  t  M  J  Rhme)  !  Sluys,  in  Holland  ;  and  Slooten,  also 
^  ,F  .  ''  J  a  town  in  Holland,  on  a  lake  of  the  same 
\  name  (from  sloo /,  a  ditch) ;  Sluispolder  (the 
reclaimed  land  at  the  sluice) ;  Schlusseburg,  in  Russia  (the 
fortress  at  the  sluice),  built  on  an  island  at  the  spot  where 
the  R.  Neva  issues  from  Lake  Ladoga ;  Helvoetsluis  (the 
sluice  on  the  Haring-vliet,  an  arm  of  the  R.  Maas) ;  Fort 
de  1'Ecluse  (the  fortress  of  the  sluice),  in  France. 

SCHLOSS  (Ger.),  a  castle  ;  e.g.  Marienschloss  (the  castle  of  the 
Virgin  Mary) ;   Heidenschloss  (the  castle   on  the  heath)  ; 
Schlossmiihle  (castle  mill)  ;  Schlosshof  (the  castle  court), 
fr      \    (  li^6  '  e-S-  Schmalkalden,  anc.  Schmalenaha  (the 

j  \  \  town  on  the  small  stream)  ;  Smalley,  with  the 
SMAA  (Scand.),  )  ,.,        ,  , .  ' '    ,  n  /-  r\    • 

"  (  same  meaning ;  Smaalehlen  (the  small  fief),  in 

Norway ;    Smallburgh  (little  town) ;    Schmallenberg  (little 
hill) ;  Smailholm  (little  hill),  a  parish  in  Roxburghshire. 


SCHMEIDE  (Ger.),  a  smithy;  e.g.  Nagelschmeide  (the  nail  smithy); 
Schmeidefeld  and  Schmeidsiedel  (the  field  and  site  of  the 
smithy)  ;  Schmeideberg  (the  hill  of  the  smithy). 

SCHWAlGfOld  Ger  )   (  acattle-shed5  ^  Herrnschweige  (the  count's 
*  "'*<  cattle-shed);  Brunswick,  anc.  Braunsiveig 

(  (Bruno's  shed,  or  the  town  of  Bruno). 

SCHWAND  (Ger.),  a  wood  clearing ;  e.g.  Schwand  or  Schwandt, 
in  Bavaria ;  Schwanden,  in  Switzerland ;  Schwandorf  (the 
village  at  the  wood  clearing). 

SCHWARZ  (Ger.),  black  ;  e.g.  Schwarza,  Schwarzach,  Schwarzbach, 
Schwarzwasser  (black  stream) ;  Schwarzburg  (black  for- 
tress) ;  Schwarzberg  (black  mountain)  ;  Schwarzwald  (black 
wood)  ;  Schwarzkreutz  (the  black  cross). 

SCHWERE  (Sclav.),  a  wild  beast ;  e.g.  Schwerin  and  Schwerin- 
lake,  in  Mecklenburg ;  and  Schwersentz,  in  Posen  (places 
infested  by  wild  beasts). 

/  A  q  \     (  clear?  bright ;  e.g.  Sherbourne  (the  clear  stream)  ; 
^       *''  <  but  this  word  is  sometimes  used  instead  of  scyre. 

SCER  i 

I  a  division  or  shire,  as  in  Sherwood  (the  wood 
where  the  shire  meetings  were  held) ;  Sherston  (shire 
boundary  stone) ;  Shardlow  and  Shardhill  (the  boundary 
hill) ;  Sharnford  (the  boundary  ford) ;  Sharrington  (the 
town  of  the  children  of  the  shire  or  division). 
SEANN  (Gadhelic),  old ;  e.g.  Shanmullagh  (the  old  summit) ; 
Shandrum  (the  old  ridge) ;  Shangarry  (the  old  garden)  ; 
Shanbally  and  Shanvally  (the  old  dwelling) ;  Shanbo, 
Shanboe,  and  Shanbogh  (the  old  hut),  in  Ireland ;  also 
Shankill  (old  church),  and  Shandon,  Irish  Seandun  (old 
fort).  There  are  several  places  in  Ireland  called  Shannon 
from  this  word,  but  it  is  uncertain  what  is  the  origin  of 
the  R.  Shannon,  whose  ancient  name  was  Senosj  Sanquhar, 
Gael.  Seann-Cathair  (the  old  fortress),  in  Dumfriesshire, 
named  from  an  old  castle  near  the  town. 
,p  .  (  a  lake  or  sea  ;  e.g.  Ostsee  and  Oostzee  (east  lake) ; 
'  m  M  \  Zuyderzee  (the  Southern  Sea)  ;  Zealand  and  Zee- 
'*  (  land  (land  surrounded  by  the  sea) ;  Gransee 
(boundary  or  corner  lake) ;  Bodensee  or  Lake  Constance, 
named  from  Bodami-Castrum,  the  castle  of  the  legate  of 
the  Carlovingian  kings  on  its  shore,  and  latterly  from  a 
fortress  erected  by  Constantine  the  Great ;  Dolgensee, 


Sclav,  (the'  long  take) ;  the  Plattensee  (the  lake  on  the 
marsh,  blattd)  ;  Unterseen  (below  the  lakes^  j.the  Red  Sea, 
the  translation  of  the  sea  of  Edom  (the  red). 

SEIFEN  (Ger.),  a  place  where  metals  are  washed;  e.g.  Seifen  and 
Seifendorf  (towns  where  metals  were  washed)  ;  Seifengold 
(where  gold  is  washed)  ;  Seifenzinn  (where  tin  is  washed)  ; 
Seifenwerk  (the  hill  of  the  metal  washing). 

SEILLE,  an  affix  in  French  and  Belgian  topography,  signifying  a 
wood  or  forest,  derived  from  the  Lat.  saltus  and  sylvaj 
e.g.  Baseille  (low  wood)  ;  Haseille  (high  wood)  ;  Forseille 
(out  of  the  wood)  ;  Senlis,  Lat.  Civitas  Sylvanectensium 
(the  town  of  the  Sylvanectes,  i.e.  dwellers  in  the  woods)  ; 
Savigny  and  Souvigny,  Lat.  Sylvaniacum  (in  the  woods)  ; 
Selvigny,  Souvigne",  with  the  same  meaning;  La-silve- 
benite  (the  blessed  wood)  ;  Silve-real  (royal  wood),  etc.,  in 
France ;  Transylvania  (the  district  beyond  the  woods) — 
its  Hungarian  name,  Erdely-Orsag,  means  the  woody 
country  ;  Selwood,  anc.  Brit.  Cozt-mawr,  Lat.  Sylva-magna 
(the  great  wood),  perhaps  Selby,  in  Yorkshire. 

SELENY,  or  ZIELENY  (Sclav.),  green ;  e.g.  Selinga  (the  green 
river)  ;  Zelendorf  (green  village)  ;  Zielonagora  (green  moun- 
tain) ;  Zieleng-brod  (green  ford) ;  Zielenzig  and  Szelenek 
(green  place). 

SELIG  (Teut. ),  holy ;  e.g.  Seligenstadt,  Seligenfeld,  Seligenthal 
(the  holy  place,  field,  valley)';  Sellyoak  (holy  oak),  perhaps 
Selby,  in  Yorkshire,  if  it  is  not  from  sylva,  wood. 

a  seat,  settlement,  or  possession,  cognate 

SET,  SEATA  (A.S.), 
ZETEL  (Dutch), 

SITZ  (Ger.), 
SSEDLIO  (Sclav.), 
SUIDHE  (Gadhelic), 

with  the  Lat.  sedes  ;  e.g.  Dorset  (the  settle- 
ment of  the  Durotriges,  i.e.  dwellers  by  the 
water) ;  Wiltshire,  anc.  Wilsaetan  (the 
settlement  on  the  R.  Willy)  ;  Shropshire, 

anc.  Scrobsaetan  (the  settlement  among 
shrubs)  ;  Somerset,  named  from  Somerton  (the  summer  seat 
of  the  West  Anglo-Saxon  kings) ;  Settle,  in  Yorkshire  (the 
settlement) ;  Sittingbourne,  in  Kent  (the  settlement  on  the 
brook).  In  the  Lake  District,  colonised  by  Norsemen,  this 
word  often  takes  the  form  of  side;  e.g.  Ormside,  Ambleside, 
Kettleside,  Silverside  (the  settlement  of  Ormr,  Hamel, 
Ketyl,  Soelvar),  etc. ;  Pecsaeten  (the  settlement  at  the  peak),  in 
Derbyshire ;  Alsace,  anc.  Alsatia,  i.e.  the  other  settlement, 


with  reference  to  the  German  settlements  on  the  west 
bank  of  the  Rhine,  as  distinguished  from  the  Franks  or 
Ripuari,  on  the  east  ;  Holstein,  anc.  Holtsatia  (the  settle- 
ment in  the  woods)  ;  Waldsassen  (wood  settlement)  ; 
Winkelsass  and  Endzettel  (the  corner  settlement)  ;  Neusass, 
Neusiedel,  and  Neusohl  (the  new  settlement);  Einsiedeln 
(the  settlement  of  Eina),  in  Switzerland  ;  Wolfsedal  (of 
Wolfa)  ;  Soest  or  Sost,  in  Prussia,  for  Suth-satium  (the 
southern  seat).  In  Sclavonian  names  we  have  Sedlitz  (the 
possession);  Stary-Sedlo  (the  old  possession);  Sedlitz- 
gross  (the  great  settlement)  ;  Sursee,  in  Switzerland  (the 
seat  or  dwelling,  Old  Fr.  Zi),  on  the  R.  Sur  ;  Sion  or  Sitten, 
in  Switzerland,  Cel.  Suidh-dunum  (the  seat  on  the  hill-fort). 
In  Ireland  :  Seagoe,  Irish  Suidhe-Gobha  (St.  Gobha's  seat)  ; 
Seeoran  (Oran's  seat)  ;  Seaghanbane  (the  white  seat)  ; 
Seaghandoo  (the  black  seat)  ;  Shinrone,  anc.  Suidhe-an-roin 
(literally  the  seat  of  the  seal,  but  figuratively  of  a  certain 
hairy  man)  ;  Hermosillo,  in  Mexico,  Span,  (beautiful  seat). 

SHAN  (Chinese),  a  mountain  ;  e.g.  Shan-tung  (east  of  the  moun- 
tain) ;  Shan-se  (west  of  the  mountain)  ;  Thian-Shan  (the 
celestial  mountain). 

SHAMAR  (Pers.),  a  river  ;  e.g.  Samer,  Samara,  Sambre,  river 
names.  The  Samur,  which  flows  into  the  Sea  of  Asoph. 

,.  „  .  (a   wood    or    grove;    e.g.    the    Shaws,    in 

SHAW  (A.  S.),  sceaga,  1  ~      ,     ,     j         ,    i         i    i_- 

>„      *1\  <  Cumberland    and    Lanarkshire  ;    Birchen- 

''  (  shaw  (the  birch  grove)  ;  Pollokshaws  (the 

woods  near  the  village  of  Pollok)  ;  Bradshaw  (broad 
wood)  ;  Shaugh-Prior  (the  prior's  wood)  ;  Shawbury  (the 
town  in  the  wood)  ;  Evershaw  (the  wood  of  the  wild  boar, 
eofer)  ;  Skegness  (the  headland  of  the  wood). 
SHEHR  CPers  )  (  a  dwellinS  '  e-S-  Begshehr  (the  dwelling  of  the 
/  beS  or  bey)  ;  Abou-shehr  (the  dwelling  of 

''  Abou)  ;  Allah-shehr  (God's  house)  ;  Eskshehr 
(old  dwelling)  ;  Yenishehr  (new  dwelling)  ;  Anoopshehr 
(incomparable  dwelling)  ;  Pondicherry,  originally  Pudicheri 
(new  dwelling  or  town)  ;  Paraicherie  (the  village  of  Pariahs) 
—  probably  Shiraz  and  Shirvan  belong  to  this  root. 
SIDH,  SITH  (Gadhelic),  a  fairy  or  a  fairy  hill.  The  belief  in  these 
supernatural  beings  is  still  general  among  the  Celtic  races. 
It  was  believed  that  they  resided  in  the  interior  of  pleasant 

SIERRA — SK  •"  .TA5  1 75 

hills  called  sidhe  or  siodhaj,  The  word  frequently  takes  the 
form  of  s/iee,  as  in  the  .^itve  Hills,  in  Co.  Meath ;  Glenshee, 
in  Perthshire  ;  Mullagvisliee  (the  fairy  hillock)  ;  Sheetrim, 
i.e.  Sidh-dhruim  (the  fairy  ridge),  the  old  name  of  the  rock 
of  Cashel ;  Killashee  (the  church  near  the  fairy  hill) ; 
Rashee  (the  fort  of  the  fairies) ;  also  Shean,  Sheann, 
Sheane,  Shane,  in  Ireland. 

.       (a.  mountain  chain,  having  a  serrated  appear- 
SIERRA  (Span.),  f        .,     T   ' 

,p  LIT       \  ance,  from  the  Lat.  serra,  a  saw ;  or  perhaps 

'''  (  from  the  Ar.  se/ira/i,  an  uncultivated  tract  of 
land,  being  the  root  of  the  desert  of  Sahara,  in  Africa  ;  e.g. 
Sierra- de-fuentes  (the  mountain  chain  of  the  fountains); 
Sierra-de-los-vertientes  (of  the  cascades)  ;  Sierra  Leone  (of 
the  lion)  ;  Sierra-Calderona  (the  mountain  chain  with  the 
cauldrons  or  craters);  Sierra-de-las-Monas  (of  the  apes); 
Sierra  Morena  (the  dark  mountain  range)  ;  Sierra  Nevada 
(the  snowy)  ;  Sierra  Estrella  (the  starry  mountain  range)  ; 
Sierra-de-Culebra  (of  the  snake)  ;  Sierra-de-gata  (of  agates) ; 
Esmeraldas-Serradas  (the  emerald  mountains),  in  Brazil ; 
Cerro-da-vigia  (the  mountain  of  observation)  ;  Cerro-de-la- 
Giganta  (of  the  giantess)  ;  Cerro-largo  (broad  mountain)  ; 
Cerro-gordo  (fruitful  mountain)  ;  Cerro-del-cobre  (of  the 
snake)  ;  but  serra,  in  Italian,  means  a  narrow  place — as  in 
Serra-capriola  (the  narrow  place  of  the  goats) ;  and  Serra- 
Monascesca  (of  the  monks). 

(  a  sharp  rock — allied  to  the  Welsh 

SKAER  (Scand.),  ,     .  , r    .  ,,  .    , 

ir*  ji.  i-  \      -\  skertd.   cleft  asunder,  ysgariad: 
SGOR  and  SGEIR  (Gadhehc).      j  '     .,,  ,  '•:  *.,  ,    ' 

'       (  e.g.  Skend-fawn  and  Skend-fach 

(the  great  and  little  skerid  or  division).  Esgair  is  another 
word  from  the  same  root,  applied  to  a  long  ridge ;  e.g. 
Esgair-hir  (the  long  ridge)  ;  Esgair-graig  (the  rock  ridge) — 
e.g.  Scarcliff  (the  cliff  of  the  sharp  rock)  ;  Nashscaur  (the 
promontory  of  the  steep  rock)  ;  Scarborough  (the  town  on 
the  rock  or  cliff)  ;  Scorton,  with  the  same  meaning,  in 
Yorkshire  ;  Scarnose  and  Scarness  (the  sharp  cape)  ;  Skerry- 
ford,  Skeerpoint,  on  the  coast  of  Wales  ;  Sheerness  (the 
sharp  headland),  on  the  Thames  ;  Scaranos,  with  the  same 
meaning,  on  the  coast  of  Sicily ;  Scarabines  (the  sharp 
points),  in  Caithness  ;  Scuir  (a  sharp  rock),  on  the  island 
of  Egg ;  Scordale,  in  Westmoreland,  and  Scordal,  in  Ice- 

1 76  S&tW—SHABH 

land  (the  valley  of  the  steep  rock) ;  Scarsach  (abounding 
in  steep  rocks),  in  Perth  V"-?carba  (the  island  of  the 
sharp  rock),  and  Scarp,  in  the"  Hebrides  ;  the  Skerry 
and  the  Skerries,  in  the  Shetland^,  and  on  the  coast 
of  Ireland  and  Wales ;  Skerry-vore  (the  great  rock),  in  the 

SKAW,  SKAGI  (Scand.),  an  isthmus  or  promontqrv ;  e.g.  the  Skaw 
or  Skagen  Cape,  on  the  coast  of  Denmark ;  Skagerack  or 
Skagen-rack  (the  strait  near  the  promontory). 

SKI,  SK,  SKIA,  an  affix  in  Sclav,  topography,  signifying  a  town, 
often  annexed  to  the  name  of  the  river  near  the  town,  or  to 
the  name  of  its  founder ;  e.g.  Tobolsk,  Tomsk,  Pinsk, 
Vitepsk,  Volsk,  Omsk,  on  the  Rivers  Tobol,  Tom,  Pina, 
Viteba,  Volga,  Om  ;  Irkutsk,  Berdiansk,  Bielorietzk,  Bob- 
roninsk,  Illginsk,  Miask,  Olekminsk,  Okhotsk,  Olensk,  on 
the  Rivers  Irkut,  Berda,  Biela,  Bobronia,  Ilga,  Miass,  Olekma, 
Okhota,  and  Olenek  ;  Bielozersk  (the  town  on  the  white 
island)  ;  Jarensk  (the  town  on  the  Jarenga  or  strong  river)  ; 
Kesilskaia  (on  the  red  river)  ;  Krasno-Ufimsk  (the  beautiful 
town  of  the  R.  Ufa) ;  Petsk  (silk  town),  in  Turkey,  where 
the  mulberry- tree  is  extensively  cultivated;  Yakutsk  (the 
town  of  the  Yakuts,  a  Tartar  tribe)  ;  Salskaia,  on  the  R. 
Sal ;  Sviajsk  (the  town  on  the  Sviga,  holy  river)  ;  Sviatskaia 
(the  town  of  Sviatovid,  a  Sclav,  deity)  ;  Dmitrovisk  (the 
town  of  Demetrius,  a  Russian  saint)  ;  Kupiansk  and  Kupiszki 
(the  town  on  the  promontory,  kupa). 

eKTP  /c        ,  .      (a  sheep ;    e.g.   Skipton,  Skipwich,    Schaefheim 

SCHAEFC(A  S  )  l  (sheeP  town)  »  Shapfells  (sheep  hills)  ;  Sheppey 
*  '  '''  (  (sheep  island) ;  Skipsia  (sheep's  stream)  ;  Schaef- 
matt  (sheep  meadow)  ;  Shefford  (sheep's  ford)  ;  Scaefstadt 
(sheep  town). 

SLIABH,  SLIEVE,  or  SLIEU  (Gadhelic),  a  mountain  or  heath,  akin  to 
the  Ger.  sliet,  a  declivity ;  e.g.  Slieve-Anieran  (the  iron 
mountain),  so  called  from  its  mines  ;  Slievesnaght  (snowy 
mountains)  ;  Slieve-Bernagh  (gapped  mountain)  ;  Bricklive 
(speckled  mountain)  ;  Beglieve  (small  mountain).  In  all 
these  places  in  Ireland  the  original  names  have  been  cor- 
rupted :  Sleaty  (the  mountains)  ;  Sleeven  (the  little  hill)  ; 
Slievenamon,  i.e.  Sliabh-na-mban-fion  (the  mountain  of  the 
fair  women  or  fairies)  ;  Slievebloom  (Bladh's  mountain)  ; 


Slieve-beagh  (birch-tree  hill)  ;  Slieve-corragh  (rugged  hill)  ; 
Slieveroe  (the  red  hill)  ;  Sliabh-cuailgne,  now  the  Cooley 
Mountains,  in  Ireland ;  Sleibhe-Cuillinn  (the  Coolin  or 
Cuchullin  Hills),  in  Skye  ;  Slamannan  (the  sliabh  or  moor  of 
the  district  formerly  called  Manan,  parts  of  Stirling  and 

SLOG  (A.S.),  a  slough  or  marshy  place;  e.g.  Slough,  Co.  Bucks; 
Sloby,  Slawston,  Slaugham  (the  dwelling  on  the  marshy 

SLUAGH  (Gadhelic),  a  multitude,  a  host ;  e.g.  Ballinasloe  (the  ford- 
mouth  of  the  hosts),  in  Co.  Galway ;  Srahatloe,  i.e.  Srath- 
a'-tsluagh  (the  river  holm  of  the  hosts) ;  Knockatloe  and 
Tullintloy  (the  hill  of  the  hosts),  in  Ireland. 

SNAID,  SNOED  (Teut.),  a  separated  piece  of  land,  from  the  Old  Ger. 

sniden  and  Modern  Ger.  schneiden  (to  cut)  ;  e.g.  Eckschnaid 

(the  oak  snaid)  ;  Hinterschnaid  (behind  the  snaid)  ;  Snaith, 

in  Yorkshire  ;  Snead,  Montgomery  ;  Sneyd,  Co.   Stafford  ; 

Sneaton  (the  town  on  the  snaid)  ;  Snodland  and  Snodlands 

(the  separated  lands)  ;  Snodhill  (the  hill  on  the  snaid). 

,.  ^  .  (a.  place  privileged   to  hold  local   courts ;    e.g. 

J;  ,~        ,  ,.    --J  Thorpe-le-Soke  and  Kirby-le-Soken  (the  village 

'•"    (  and  church-town  where  the  courts  were  wont  to 

be  held) ;  Walsoken  and  Walton-le-Soken  (the  place  near 

the  wall,  or  perhaps  the  well,  where  the  court  was  held) ; 

Sockbridge  and  Sockburn  (the  bridge  and  stream  near  the 

court  station). 

SOTO  (Span.),  a  grove ;  e.g.  Soto,  the  name  of  several  places  in 
Spain ;  Sotilla  (the  little  grove)  ;  Sotilla-de-las-Palomas 
(the  little  grove  of  the  doves)  ;  Sotilla-de-la-ribera  (the  little 
grove  of  the  river-bank). 

SPINA  (Lat  )  (  a  th°rn  >  e'g'  EPinac>  EPinal>  Epinay,  in  France  ; 
..p  \  <  Espinosa,  in  Spain  (the  thorny  place)  ;  Epinville 
^  '**  (  (the  thorny  villa)  ;  Epineuil  (the  thorny  fountain, 
ceuil)  ;  Epinoy,  Epineuse,  etc.,  in  France ;  Speen,  in  Co. 
Berks,  anc.  Spin<z  (the  thorny  place). 
,^  ~  \  fan  hospital  or  place  of  entertainment  for 

O.P  I J.  AJL  ( IN  Or«-r  !"•)»  .         . .  T       -  .,._          ,       .  . 

YSPYTTY  (Cym  Cel  )    J  strangers  or  invalids,  from  the  Lat.  hospt- 

SPIDEAL  (Gadhelic)        )  tiumj  e'g"  SPitta1'  in  Caithness  and  Co. 

\  Pembroke  ;  Spittle,  in  Cheshire  and  in 

Berwickshire  ;  the  Spital  of  Glenshee,  in  Perthshire ;  Dal- 



na-Spidal  (the  field  of  the  hospital)  ;  Spittalfields,  in  Middle- 
sex ;  Yspytty-Rhew-Ystwith,  on  the  R.  Ystwith ;  Yspytty- 
Evan  (Evan's  hospital),  in  Wales ;  Llanspithid,  in  Brecknock, 
which  derived  its  name  from  an  ancient  Ysbytty  hospitium 
that  existed  here,  supported  by  the  priory  of  Malvern. 
These  names  and  many  others  in  England  and  Scotland 
derived  their  names  from  hospitals  attached  to  religious 
houses  in  the  Middle  Ages. 

SPRING  CTeut  \        (  a  water-source  5  e-g-  Springthorpe  (the  farm 
SPRONP  Vsramn    \  at    the    fountain)  '>    Adlerspring  (the    eagle's 

O-r-KLJiNlj    I  OLdllU.  )•       I     r  .      •      \  T   •  •  /     .        t  r      i 

'  (  fountain)  ;  Lippspnng  (at  the  source  of  the 
R.  Lippe) ;  Springe  (at  the  source  of  the  R.  Haller) ; 
Magdespring  (the  maiden's  fountain). 

SRATH  (Gadhelic)       I  an  extensive  valley,  Anglicised  strath;  e.g. 
/r«        f*i\4  Strathmore  and  Strathbeg  (the  great  and 
YSTRAD  (Cym.-Cel.),  )  ,.   ,  Ci    ^,  J?    l_.,. 

"  ( little     valleys) ;     Strathavon,     Strathblan, 

Strathbogie,  Strathconan,  Strathearn  (the  valleys  of  the 
Rivers  Avon,  Blane,  Bogie,  Conan,  and  Earn)  ;  Strathyre, 
corrupt,  from  Srathiar  (the  western  valley,  with  reference  to 
Strathearn,  the  eastern),  in  Perthshire  ;  Strathclyde,  Strath- 
naver,  Strathspey,  Strathallan,  Strathpeffer,  Strathbran,  Strath- 
griffe  (the  valleys  of  the  Rivers  Clyde,  Naver,  Spey,  Allan, 
Peffer,  Bran,  and  Griffe)  ;  Strath  Tary,  in  Sutherlandshire 
(the  bull's  strath,  tairebb)  •  Strichen,  in  Aberdeenshire, 
corrupt,  from  Srath-Ugie  (the  valley  of  the  R.  Ugie)  ;  Strath- 
don,  corrupt,  from  Srath-domhain  (the  valley  of  the  deep 
river)  ;  Ystrad-Tywy  (the  valley  of  the  R.  Tywy),  in  Wales  ; 
Ystrad-yw  (yew-tree  valley  or  the  valley  of  the  brook  Ywen) ; 
Yester,  a  parish  in  East  Lothian,  from  Ystrad;  Ystrad-fflur 
(the  flowery  valley),  called  by  the  Romans  Strata- Florida ; 
Ystrad-gwnlais  (the  valley  of  the  trench,  dais,  through  which 
a  stream  flows)  ;  Straiton,  in  Ayrshire  (the  town  on  the 
Strath)  ;  Traquhair  (sheep  valley). 

//-   jt.  i-  \          f  a  nose,  hence  a  promontory  :  e.%.  Stronaba 
SRON  (Gadhelic),        I  /t,  ,     c'  '       ,     , 

fC        r  1  N     i  ^        cow  s  promontory)  ;  Stronaclacher  (the 

v  y™*"  J*  [  stony  promontory) ;  Stronechrigen  (the 
rocky  point)  ;  Stronfearn  (the  point  of  the  alders)  ;  Stron- 
deas  (the  southern  point)  ;  Strontian  (the  little  promontory)  ; 
Sorn,  in  Ayrshire,  named  from  an  ancient  castle  situated 
on  a  rocky  headland ;  Troon  (the  promontory),  on  the 


Ayrshire  coast  ;  Sroan-keeragh  (the  sheep's  promontory)  ; 
Shrone-beha  (birch-tree  promontory),  in  Ireland  ;  Duntroon 
Castle  (the  fortress  on  the  promontory),  in  Argyleshire  ; 
Turnberry  Head,  in  Ayrshire,  from  trwyn;  also  Trwyn 
Point,  in  Ayrshire  ;  Au-tron  (on  the  point),  in  Cornwall  ; 
Trwyn-y-Badan  (the  promontory  of  the  boats),  in  Wales. 

SRUTH,  SRUTHAIR  (Gadhelic),  f  \  river  ™  *owin*  wate^;    s™> 

SROTA  (Sansc.),  1  SrSC"  ^°  >fl°^COSfe 

(  stroum,  Teut.,  struja,  Sclav.  ;  e.g. 

Srue,  Sruh,  Shrough,  Sroughan  (the  stream),  in  Ireland  ; 
also  Abbeyshrule  (the  abbey  on  the  stream)  ;  Bealnashrura 
(the  ford-mouth  of  the  stream)  ;  Sroolane,  Srooleen,  Sruffan, 
and  Sruffaun  (little  stream)  ;  Killeenatruan,  anc.  Cillin-a- 
tsruthain  (the  little  church  of  the  stream)  ;  Anstruther  in 
Fife,  and  Westruther  in  Berwickshire,  probably  from  the 
same  root  ;  but  Strowan,  in  Perthshire,  is  named  for  St. 
Rowan  ;  Ardstraw,  in  Tyrone,  is  a  corrupt,  of  Ard-sratha 
(the  height  near  the  bank  of  the  stream). 

STACKR  (Scand  \        (  a  Pr°Jectin§  rock  or  P°int  5  e-S-  the  Stack 
''          Rocks  and  South  Stack,  on  the   coast   of 


,        .  , 

STUAIC  (Gadhelic),     )  ...  .  .    'T  .  , 

(  Wales  ;  the  Stags,  on  the  Irish  coast  ;  Stack 

Island,  Wales  ;  and  St.  Bude's  Stack.  In  Ireland  this 
word  is  generally  Anglicised  into  stookj  thus  —  the  Stookans 
(the  little  rock  pinnacles),  near  the  entrance  of  the  Giant's 
Causeway  ;  Stookan  and  Stookeen  (the  little  rock). 

STADT  and  STATT  (Ger.),  j  a  PlaCC  °/  'T  ;  *T*'  a  Stat;°"f°r 

STEDE,  Or  STEAD  (A.S.)      1  ^  '   ^t      '  &  ^  ^  j    **%***.  * 

(  bank  or  shore  ;  e.g.  Carlstadt,  Thene- 
sanstadt,  Christianstadt  (towns  named  after  one  of  the 
German  emperors,  Charles,  after  the  Empress  Theresa, 
and  after  Christian  IV.  of  Sweden)  ;  Darmstadt,  Illstadt, 
Stadt-Steinach,  Lippstadt  (towns  on  the  Rivers  Darm,  111, 
Steinach,  and  Lippe)  ;  Bleistadt  (lead  town),  near  lead 
mines  ;  Brahestadt,  in  Russia  (founded  by  Count  Brahe)  ; 
Elizabethstadt,  Hung.  Ebes-falva,  named  after  the  Empress 
Elizabeth  ;  Frederickstadt  (Frederick's  town),  in  Denmark 
and  in  Norway  ;  Gerbstadt,  in  Saxony  (the  town  of  Gerbert)  ; 
Gluckstadt,  Lat.  Fanum-fortunce  (the  fortunate  town  or  the 
temple  of  fortune)  ;  Halbertstadt  (the  town  of  Albert)  ; 
Heiligenstadt  (holy  town)  ;  Hermanstadt  (the  town  of 


Herman,  one  of  the  Germans  who  colonised  certain  German 
cities  in  Transylvania  in  the  twelfth  century) ;  Ingoldstadt, 
in  Bavaria  (the  town  of  Ingold) — the  name  of  this  town 
was  mistranslated  by  Latin  and  Greek  authors  into  Auripolis 
and  Chrysopolis  (the  golden  city)  ;  Rudolstadt  (the  town  of 
Rudolph)  ;  Grimstadt,  in  Norway,  and  Grimstead,  in  Co. 
Wilts  (the  town  of  Grim,  a  common  Scandinavian  name)  ; 
Stade  (the  station),  in  Hanover  ;  Scoppenstadt,  in  Brunswick, 
anc.  Scipingestete  (the  ship  station)  ;  Stadt-am-hop  (the 
town  at  the  court),  in  Bavaria  ;  Tennstadt,  anc.  Dannenstedi 
(the  station  of  the  Danes),  in  Saxony ;  Kroppenstadt,  the 
Germanised  form  of  the  Sclav.  Grobenstadt  (the  count's 
town) ;  Reichstadt  (rich  town) ;  Altstadt  (old  town) ;  Elstead, 
in  Sussex  and  in  Surrey  (the  place  of  Ella,  the  Saxon)  ; 
Stadhampton  (the  town  at  the  home  place),  in  Oxford ; 
Thaxsted  (the  thatched  place),  in  Essex  ;  Boxstead  (the 
place  of  beech -trees,  or  of  the  Bokings,  a  patronymic) ; 
Hampstead  (the  home  place)  ;  Wanstead  (Woden's  place)  ; 
Armenianstadt,  in  Transylvania,  colonised  by  Armenians  in 
1726;  Staithes  (the  banks),  in  Cumberland;  Stathern 
(the  dwelling  on  the  bank),  Leicester ;  Halstead,  A.S. 
Haelsted  (a  healthy  place). 

STAEF,  STAUF  (Teut),  j  f  stake  Or  P°^'  f'  "  ^many  applied 

STAV  (Scand )  \        a  PerPendlcuIar  rock  '>  e-S-   Stauffen- 

(  berg  (the  mountain  with  pillar-like  rocks), 

in    Lower    Hesse ;    Donaustauff  (the    steep    rock    on    the 

Danube)  ;  Hohenstauffen  (the  high  rocks),  in  Wurtemberg  ; 

Regenstauf  (the  rock  on  the  R.   Regen)  ;  Staufen  (a  fort 

situated  on  a  rock),  in  Baden ;  Staffa  (the  island  with  the 

pillar-like  rocks),  off  the  coast  of  Argyleshire ;  Staffenloch 

(the  lake  of  the  pillars),  in  the  Island  of  Skye. 

,T       ,       (  a  stall,  place,  or  seat ;  e.g.  Hohenstellen 

STELLE  \  (the  high  place)  ;  Herstal  (the  Place  of 

(  the  army)  ;   Tunstall  (the  place  on  the 

hill,  dun),  in  Co.  Stafford. 

/•ACN        /a  stone  or  rock,  and  in  topography  sometimes 

^    '   '''      j  applied  to  a  rock-fortress  ;  e.g.  Staunton,  Steynton 

STEENrDutch^  Vthe  tOWn   °n   the   St°ny  Around);   Stanton,   in 

''  (^  Gloucestershire,  named  from  a  remarkable  stone 

in  the  neighbourhood)  ;  Fewstone  (fire  stone),  in  Yorkshire, 

STAN  181 

said  to  have  been  named  from  a  fire-circle  near  the  place  ; 
Staines  (the  stones),  in  Middlesex,  marking  the  jurisdiction 
of  the  mayor  of  London  ;  Stantz  (the  stony  place),  in 
Switzerland ;  Steenbeke,  Steenbegue,  Steinbach  (the  stony 
brook) ;  Stanley  (stony  field),  in  Yorkshire ;  Steenbirge, 
Steenbrugge,  Steenhout,  Steenkirche  (the  stony  hill,  bridge, 
wood,  church),  in  Belgium  ;  Steenvorde  (stony  ford)  ; 
Stein-am-anger  (the  rock  on  the  field)  ;  Steinitz  (the  German 
rendering  of  Sczenz,  dog  town),  in  Moravia ;  OfFenstein 
(the  fortress  of  Offa)  ;  Lahnstein  (the  fortress  on  the  R. 
Lahn)  ;  Lauenstein  (the  lion's  fortress,  with  reference  to 
some  person  who  bore  that  sobriquet)  ;  Ehrenbreitstein 
(the  broad  stone  of  honour) ;  Stennis  (the  headland  of  the 
stones),  in  Orkney  ;  Hauenstein,  in  Baden  (the  hewn  rock), 
so  called  because  the  precipices  of  the  Jura  in  that  locality 
resemble  masonry ;  Ysselstein  (the  rock  on  the  R.  Yssel)  ; 
Bleistein  (lead  rock),  near  lead  mines,  in  Bavaria ;  Dach- 
stein,  in  Alsace,  anc.  Dagoberti  Saxum  (the  rock  of  Dago- 
bert)  ;  Frankenstein  (the  rock  of  the  Franks)  ;  Falkenstein 
(of  the  falcon  or  of  the  personal  name  Falk)  ;  Greiffenstein 
(of  the  vulture)  ;  Schaunstein  (the  beautiful  rock  or  fortress)  ; 
Neckar-Steinach  (the  stony  place  on  the  Neckar)  ;  Iselstein, 
on  the  Isel ;  Wetterstein,  on  the  Wetter ;  Buxton,  in 
Derbyshire,  was  named  from  the  piles  of  stones  called 
buck-stones,  found  in  the  Yorkshire  and  Derbyshire  moors  ; 
Standish,  in  Gloucestershire,  corrupt,  from  Stonehouse.  In 
some  cases  the  affix  stone  is  used  instead  of  town  or  ton, 
as  in  Maidstone,  A.S.  Medwegston,  Cel.  Caer-Medwig  (the 
town  on  the  R.  Medway) ;  Goodmanstone  (the  priest's 
town),  Dorsetshire  ;  and  in  Cumberland  and  Westmoreland, 
where  the  Norsemen  had  settlements,  this  word  often  marks 
the  site  of  the  grave  of  one  of  their  heroes,  as  in  Harold- 
stone,  Hubberstone,  Thurston,  Gamfrestone,  Silverstone, 
Stanton,  Drew  (the  Druid's  stone),  in  Somersetshire,  near 
an  ancient  stone-circle ;  Kingston,  in  Surrey,  where  in  the 
centre  of  the  town  is  still  shown  the  stone  on  which  the 
A.S.  kings  were  crowned. 

(Pers  )  (  a   district    or    region  ;    e-g-    Hindostan    (the 

,         x    \  district  watered  by  the  R.  Indus,  Pers.  hindu 

STHANA  (Sansc.),     )  •  «•!_*«  /  i         j-       •  ri_ 

(  — water)  ;    Afghanistan  (the  district   of  the 


Affghans,  who  are  said  to  have  taken  their  designation 
from  a  certain  chief  called  Malik  Afghana) ;  Rajpootana 
(the  district  of  the  Rajpoots  or  king's  sons)  ;  Kurdistan  (of 
the  Kurds)  ;  Beloochistan  (of  the  Beluchis)  ;  Gurgistan  or 
Georgia  (the  district  watered  by  the  R.  Kur  or  Kyros) ; 
Kaffaristan  or  Kaffraria  (of  the  unbelievers)  ;  Arabistan  (of 
the  Arabs) ;  Bootan  (the  district  of  the  Highlanders) ; 
Dushistan  (the  south  region),  also  called  Gurmsir  (warm 
country) ;  Gulistan  (the  district  of  roses)  ;  Baghistan  (of 
gardens)  ;  Khorasan  (the  country  of  the  sun)  ;  Zangistan  or 
Zanguebar,  Pers.  and  Ar.  (the  country  or  coast -lands  of 
the  Zangis) — v.  BAHR. 

STAPLE  (Teut),  literally  a  prop,  support,  or  heap  ;  but  in  the 
commerce  of  the  Middle  Ages  it  was  applied,  in  the  first 
place,  to  the  buildings  or  towns  in  which  the  chief  products 
of  a  district  were  treasured  up  or  sold ;  and,  in  the  second 
place,  to  the  commodities  themselves ;  e.g.  Stapleton  (the 
town  of  the  market) ;  Staplehurst  and  Stapleford  (the  wood 
and  ford  near  the  market-place)  ;  Dunstable  (the  market- 
place on  the  hill),  formerly  Dunstaple;  Whitstable  (white 
market-place)  ;  Barnstaple,  anc.  Berstable  (the  market-place 
for  the  produce  of  the  district — bear,  what  it  bears).  In 
France :  Etaples,  L'etape,  Staple,  etc. 

STARY(Sclav.),old;  £.£".  Stargard,  Starogard  (the  old  fortress);  Stary- 
sedlo,  Storosele,  Starosol  (the  old  settlement) ;  Starodub  (the 
old  oak-tree)  ;  Starwitz,  Staria,  Starinka,  Stariza  (old  place) ; 
Starobielsk  (the  old  town  on  the  R.  Biela)  ;  Staro-Constan- 
tinov  (the  old  town  of  Constantine).  In  places  where  the 
population  is  chiefly  German  this  word  takes  the  form  of  stark, 
as  in  Starkenburg,  Starkenhorst ;  Istarda  or  Starova  (old 
town),  in  Turkey;  Staroi-Oskol  (the  old  town  on  the  R.  Oskol, 
in  opposition  to  Novoi-Oskol,  the  new  town  on  that  river). 

STEIG,  STIG,  STY  (Teut.  and  Scand.),  a  steep  path ;  e.g.  Stickney 
(the  island  or  watery  meadow  by  the  steep  path)  ;  Kirchsteg 
(the  steep  path  to  the  church)  ;  Durnsteeg  (thorny  path)  ; 
Stiegmuhle  (the  mill  on  the  steep  path) ;  Amsteg  (at  the 
steep  path). 

STEORT  ( A  S  ^        f  the  tail~in  topog^phy  a  point ;  e.g.  Start- 

(C\\A  c     \   I  Pomt>  m  Devonshire  ;  Starston  (the  town  on 

ren''  [the  point);   Sterzhausen,  Sterzmtihle,  Staart- 


polder — v.  HAUS,  MiJHLE,  POLDER  ;  Staartven  (the  marsh  on 
the  point). 

STEPPES  (Sclav.),  an  uncultivated  waste — a  word  applied  to  the 
extensive  desert  plains  in  Russia. 

STER,  or  ESTER,  in  Brittany,  a  stream ;  e.g.  Ster-boueux  (the 
muddy  stream)  ;  Stercaer  (the  stream  at  the  fort) ;  Ster- 
poulder  (of  the  black  pool),  etc.  According  to  Forsteman, 
there  is  a  Teutonic  river-root,  sir,  which  he  finds  in  the 
names  of  100  German  streams  ;  e.g.  Elster,  Alster,  Wilster, 
Gelster,  Laster,  and  Ister — an  ancient  name  of  the  Danube — 
Stour,  Stura,  etc. 

STER  (Scand.),  Old  Norse  setr  (a  station  or  place),  contracted 
from  stadr  (a  place)  ;  bu-stadr  (a  dwelling-place),  contracted 
to  bister  or  buster;  e.g.  Grunaster  (green  place) ;  Kelda- 
bister  (the  place  at  the  well  or  fountain)  ;  Kirkbuster  (the 
dwelling  at  the  church)  ;  Hesting-ster  (the  settlement  of 
Hesting).  The  same  word  appears  in  the  names  given  by 
the  Danes  to  three  of  the  provinces  of  Ireland — Ulster,  for 
the  Irish  Uladh,  i.e.  Ulla-ster;  Leinster,  Irish  Laighen  or 
Layn;  Munster,  Irish  Mumha  (named  after  a  king). 

STOC,  STOW  (Teut.),  literally  a  stake  or  the  trunk  of  a  tree, 
applied  at  first  to  a  place  protected  by  a  stockade,  or 
surrounded  by  stocks  or  piles  ;  and  in  German  topography 
sometimes  applied  to  hills,  as  in  Hochstock  (high  hill)  ; 
Stockheim  (the  home  on  the  hill) ;  sometimes  to  places 
built  upon  stakes,  as  in  Stockholm.  In  Great  Britain, 
standing  alone,  it  means  simply  the  place,  as  Stock,  in 
Essex  ;  Stow,  a  parish  in  Mid  Lothian  ;  Stoke-upon-Trent ; 
Stow-in-the-Wold  or  waste  land ;  Stoke-Bardolph,  Stoke- 
Fleming,  Stoke-Gabriel,  Stoke-Poges,  Stoke-Edith  (named 
from  the  proprietors) ;  Stow-market  (the  market-place) ; 
Stow-Upland  (the  place  in  the  high  lands) ;  Kewstoke  (at 
the  quay) ;  Elstow,  in  Wilts  (old  place) ;  Elstow,  in  Bed- 
ford (St.  Helen's  place),  the  site  of  a  nunnery  dedicated  to 
that  saint ;  Basingstoke  (the  place  belonging  to  the  Basings, 
a  patronymic) ;  Bridstow  (St.  Bridget's  place)  ;  Bristol,  anc. 
Briegstow  (the  place  at  the  breach  or  chasm,  brice,  through 
which  the  R.  Avon  passes) — its  Celtic  name  was  Nant-Avon 
(on  the  valley  of  the  Avon) ;  Padstow,  in  Cornwall,  anc. 
Petrocstowe,  Welsh  Llan-petroc  (the  place  or  church  of  St. 


Petroc) ;  Tavistock  and  Tawstock  (places  on  the  Rivers 
Tavy  and  Taw).  As  a  prefix,  stock  often  denotes  the 
chief  place  in  a  district,  as  in  Stockton  (the  chief  town 
on  the  Tees),  and  in  Stockport  (the  chief  port  on  the 

STOLL  (Ger.),  a  mine-shaft ;  e.g.  Stollenberg  (the  hill  of  the  mine- 
shaft)  ;  Stollenschmeide  (the  smithy  at  the  mine-shaft)  ;  but 
Stollenkirchen,  i.e.  Stallinchirchun,  is  from  Stalla  (a  per- 
son's name). 

STOLPE  (Sclav.),  a  rising  ground  in  a  marshy  place  ;  e.g.  Stolpe, 
the  name  of  a  circle  and  of  several  towns  in  Hungary  and 
Pomerania ;  Stolpen,  in  Saxony. 

STOR  (Scand.),  great ;  e.g.  Stdrfiord  (the  great  bay)  ;  Storhammer 
(great  hill)  ;  Storoe  (great  island)  ;  Storaa  (great  river)  ; 
Storsjon  and  Storsoen  (great  lake) ;  Stora-kopparberg  (the 
great  copper  mountain),  in  Sweden  and  Norway. 

a  row,  a  street,  a  road,  borrowed  from  the 

STRAD  (A.S.), 
STRASSE  (Ger.), 

.STRCEDE  (Scand.), 
SRAID  (Gadhelic), 
YSTRAD  (Cym.-Cel.), 

Lat.  strata;  e.g.  Stratford  (the  ford  near 
one  of  the  great  Roman  roads,  called 
streets) ;  Stratford-le-Bow  (the  ford  with 
the  bow  or  bridge  near  the  Roman  road)  ; 

Stratsett  (the  road  station)  ;  Streatham  and 
Stretton  (the  town  on  the  road) ;  Stratton,  in  Cornwall, 
and  Stradbally,  in  Ireland  (the  village  of  one  street) ; 
Straid,  Strade  (the  street) ;  Stradeen  (little  street),  in 
Ireland  ;  Strond,  on  the  R.  Strond ;  Strasbourg,  in  West 
Prussia  (the  town  on  the  highway) ;  but  Strasbourg,  in 
Alsace,  anc.  Stratiburg,  is  the  German  translation  of  its 
Latin  name  Argentoriatum  (the  town  of  silver — strati, 
Teut.,  silver)  ;  Stony  Stratford  (the  stony  ford  on  the  great 
Roman  road,  called  Erming  Street) ;  Watling  Street  is  said 
to  have  been  named  from  ivaedla  (the  mendicant  or  pil- 
grim) ;  Icknield  Street  from  the  Icenij  Erming  Street 
from  earm  (a  pauper). 

STRAZNA  (Sclav.),  a  watch-tower,  akin  to  the  A.S.  streone;  e.g. 
Straznitz,  in  Moravia  (the  town  with  the  watch-tower). 

STRELITZ  (Sclav.),  a  huntsman ;  e.g.  Strelitz-klein  and  Strelitz- 
gross  (the  great  and  little  town  of  the  huntsman,  or  of 
the  Strelitzi,  the  name  given  to  the  lifeguards),  in  Russia ; 
Strelitzkaia  and  Strielinskaia,  with  the  same  meaning. 


STROM,  STROOM  (Teut),  a  stream  or  current ;  e.g.  the  Maelstrom 
(mill  stream,  so  called  from  its  rushing  sound)  ;  Rheinstrom 
(the  Rhine  current)  ;  Stroomsloot  (the  sluice  of  the  current)  ; 
Stroma,  Stromoe,  Stromsoe,  Stromay  (the  island  of  the 
current)  ;  Stromen  and  Stromstadt  (the  place  near  the 
current)  ;  Stromen-Fiorden  (the  bay  of  the  current)  ;  Strom- 
berg  (the  town  or  hill  on  the  stream) ;  Stromness  (the 
headland  of  the  current). 

SU  (Turc.),  water ;  e.g.  Ak-su  (the  white  stream) ;  Kara-su  (the 
black  stream)  ;  Adji-su  (bitter  water). 

(  the  south ;  Buttman  traces  this  word  to  the 

'  <  sun,  the  oldest  form  of  the  word  being  sundar: 

SOBER,  SOUDEN,     )          '  ,  cju  o       ju    • 

(  e.g.  Sonnenburg,  Sonderhausen,  Sundheim, 
Soudham,  Southofen  (the  south  dwelling  or  enclosure) ; 
Southdean  (south  hollow)  ;  Southwark,  Dan.  Sydvirche 
(the  south  fortress)  ;  Southover  (south  shore)  ;  Suffolk  (the 
district  of  the  south  people,  as  distinguished  from  Norfolk)  ; 
Sutton  and  Sodbury  (south  town)  ;  Sudborne  (south  stream)  ; 
Suderoe  (south  island)  ;  Sudetic  Mountains  (the  southern 
mountain  chain)  ;  Sudereys  (the  southern  islands),  a  name 
applied  by  the  Norsemen  to  all  the  British  islands  under 
their  rule  south  of  the  Orkneys  and  north  of  the  Island  of 
Man — hence  the  bishoprick  of  Sodor  and  Man  ;  Sutherland 
(the  land  to  the  south  of  Caithness)  ;  Soderkoping  (the 
south  market-town),  in  Sweden ;  Soest,  in  Prussia  (on  the 
Sosterbach) ;  Sidlaw  Hills  (the  south  hills,  in  reference  to 
their  forming  the  south  boundary  of  Strathmore). 

SUMAR,  SOMAR  (Teut.),  summer ;  e.g.  Somercotes,  Somersall, 
Somerton  (summer  dwellings) ;  Somerghem  in  Belgium, 
and  Sommerberg  in  Bohemia,  with  the  same  meaning  ; 
but  Somarsheim,  in  Hungary,  is  the  German  corrupt,  of 
Szomorfalva  (the  village  of  sorrow)  ;  Szmarja  or  Szent-marfa 
(St.  Mary's  town),  Germanised  into  Sommarein. 

SUXD  (Scand.),  a  strait ;  e.g.  the  Sound,  between  Sweden  and 
Zealand  ;  Christiansund,  at  the  mouth  of  a  narrow  inlet, 
founded  by  Christian  IV.  ;  Frederichsund,  on  a  narrow 
inlet  in  Zealand  ;  Ostersund  (the  eastern  strait),  in  Sweden  ; 
Stralsund  (the  arrow-like  strait — straele,  an  arrow). 

SUNTARA  (Teut.),  privileged  land  ;  e.g.  Frankensundern  (the 
privileged  place  of  the  Franks)  ;  Beversundern  (the  privi- 

1 86  SZASZ—TAL 

leged  place  on  the  R.  Bever)  ;  Sontra,  in  Hesse-Homburg 
(the  privileged  place) ;  Sunderland  (the  privileged  land),  in 

SZASZ  (Hung.),  Saxon  ;  e.g.  Szasvaros,  Ger.  Sachsenstadt  (the 
town  or  fortress  of  the  Saxons),  in  Transylvania  ;  Szasz- 
Sebes  (the  Saxon-Sebes  or  swift  stream). 

SZENT  (Huns  }    (  a  Saint ;  e'g'  Szenta'   Szentes  (the  saints>  town 

SANT  fWelshY'  \  °r  holy  t0wn);  e&  Szendro  (St-  Andrew's  town) ; 

''    [  Mindszent  (the  town  of  All  Saints);  Szent-kercsyt 

(the  town  of  the  holy  cross)  ;  Santarem,  in  Portugal,  from 

St.    Irene,    Santiago   (for   St.   James)  ;    St.    Denis,   named 

after  St.  Dionysius,  where  the  remains  of  this  saint  were 

interred ;   St.   Heliers,  in  Jersey  (for  St.   Hilarius)  ;  Szent- 

Gyb'rgy  (St.  George's  town) ;  St.  Ives,  in  Cornwall,  named 

after  an  Irish  saint  called  Jia,  who  came  to  that  spot;  St. 

Ives,  in  Huntingdon,  named  after  Ivon,  a  bishop. 

TA  (Chinese),  great  ;  e.g.  Ta-kiang  (the  great  river)  ;  Ta-Hai  (the 
great  lake)  ;  Ta-Shan  (great  mountain)  ;  Ta-Gobi  (the 
great  desert). 

/T  ,  „        .     (  an   inn  ;    e.g.   Taberna,   in   Spain  ; 

TABERNA  (Lat.  and  Span.),      „  ,         '      °   .  ,     . 

TAFARN  (Welsh}  \  Zabem-Rhem(the  mn  onthe  Rhme>  5 

(  Zabern-berg  (the  hill  inn)  ;  Zabern- 

Elsass  (the  Alsatian  inn),  called  in  French  Saverna,  corrupt. 
from  the  Lat.  Tabernce  ;  Tavernes  and  Taverny,  in  France. 

TAING,  TANGA  (Teut.  and  Scand.),    (  a  tOn|Ue'  a  P°int  of.  land  ; 

'  Parlsh 

TUNGA  '      '-  '. 

(  Sutherlandshire  ;    Tong,    in 

Ross  ;  Tongland,  in  Kirkcudbright,  upon  a  peninsula  formed 
by  the  Rivers  Dee  and  Tarf;  Tonge,  in  Lancashire;  but 
Tongres,  Tongrinnes,  and  Tongerloo,  in  Belgium,  derive 
their  names  from  the  Tungri,  a  tribe  ;  Tong-fell,  in  Cumber- 
land, and  Tangfjeld,  Norway,  and  Tunga-fell,  Iceland  (the 
mountain  with  the  tongue  or  point)  ;  Thong-castle,  in  Kent, 
and  Thong-castor,  near  Grimsby. 

TAL  (Cym.-Cel.),  the  forehead,  or,  as  an   adjective,  high;  e.g. 
Talgarth  (the  brow  of  the  hill  ;  Talibont  (bridge-end,  ponf)  ; 

TAMH—  TEA  CH  1 87 

Talbenny  (the  head  of  the  hill-pen),  in  Wales.  Tal-y-cavn 
(the  head  of  the  trough)  ;  Tal-y-Llychan  (the  head  of  the 
pools),  in  Caermarthen  ;  Talachddu  (the  head  of  the  black 
water,  a  small  brook  called  Achddu),  a  parish  in  Brecknock. 

TAMH,  TAW  (Cym.-Cel.),  quiet,  cognate  with  A.S.  tarn,  found  in 
many  river  names  ;  e.g.  the  Tame,  Tamar,  Tamer,  Teane, 
Teign,  Thame,  Taw,  Tawey,  Tavoy,  Tay,  Temesch,  Tees, 
Thames  (the  quiet  water),  joined  to  uisge,  a,  y,  <?,  or,  ri 
(flowing  water). 

TAMNACH  (Gadhelic),  a  green  field,  common  in  Irish  topography 
under  various  forms,  such  as  Tawny,  Tawnagh,  Tonagh, 
and  Taminy  ;  e.g.  Tonaghneeve,  for  Tamhnaich-naemh  (the 
field  of  the  saints),  now  Saintfield  ;  Tawnaghlahan  (broad 
field) ;  Tawnkeel  (narrow  field) ;  Tamnaghbane  (white  field) ; 
Tavnaghdrissagh  (the  field  of  the  briers). 

TANNA  (Old  Ger.),  wood ;  tanne  (modern),  the  fir-tree  ;  e.g.  Nieder- 
than  (the  lower  wood) ;  Hohenthan  (high  wood)  ;  Than- 
heim,  Thanhausen,  Tandorf  (the  dwellings  at  the  wood)  ; 
Tanberg  (wood  hill). 

TARBERT,  or  TAIRBERT  (Gadhelic),  an  isthmus ;  e.g.  Tarbet,  in 
Cromarty  and  Ross  ;  Tarbert,  in  Harris ;  Tarbet,  on  Loch 
Lomond  ;  East  and  West  Tarbert,  in  Argyleshire  ;  Tarbet- 
ness  (the  point  of  the  isthmus),  in  Ross-shire. 

TARBH  (Gadhelic)      (  a  buU>  co&nate  with  the  Lat-  taurus  and 

T4BW  CCvm   rvi  \     \  the    Grk'    fauros->'   e-£-   Knockatarriv  and 

ei''J      (  Knockatarry  (the  hill  of  the  bull)  ;  Clontarf, 

anc.    Cluain-tarbh  (the   bull's   meadow)  ;    Cloontarriff  and 

Cloontarriv,  with  the  same  meaning.     Some  river  names, 

such  as  Tarf,  Tarras,  Tarth,  Tarn,  may  have  this  word  as  a 

prefix,  or  perhaps  tara,  Irish,  rapid. 

TARNIK  (Sclav.),  the  thorn  ;  e.g.  Tarnowce  and  Tarnowitz  (thorn 
village)  ;  Tarnau,  Tarnow,  Tornow,  Torniz  (a  thorny  place)  ; 
Tarnograd  (thorn  fortress)  ;  Tarnopol  (thorn  city). 

TEACH  and  TIGH  (Gadhelic),    j  f.  ho!?se  °'  d/wellin^'  c°s"at*  ™* 
TY  (Cym  -Cel  )  \  tectum,  Ger.  dock,  and 

(  Scand.   tag,   a  roof;    Anglicised 

tagh)  in  the  genitive,  tigh.  This  word,  under  various  forms, 
is  common  in  Irish  topography ;  e.g.  Tagheen  (beautiful 
house) ;  Taghboy  and  Taghbane  (the  yellow  and  white 
house) ;  Taghadoe  (St.  Tua's  house) ;  Tiaquin,  in  Co. 


Gal  way,  i.e.  Tigh-Dachonna  (St.  Dachonna's  house) ; 
Timahoe,  for  Tech-Mochua  (St.  Mochua's  house  or  church). 
Joined  to  the  genitive  of  the  article,  it  takes  the  form  of  tin 
or  tinna,  thus — Tinnahinch  (the  house  of  the  island  or  river 
holm,  innis)  •  Tincurragh  (of  the  marsh)  ;  Tinakilly  (of  the 
church  or  wood)  ;  Timolin  (of  St.  Moling)  ;  Tigh-na-bruaich, 
in  Argyleshire  (the  dwelling  on  the  edge  of  the  bank)  ; 
Tynron,  in  Dumfries,  i.e.  Tigh-an-roinne  (the  house  on  the 
point) ;  Tyndrum,  in  Perthshire  (the  dwelling  on  the  ridge) ; 
Tisaran,  anc.  Teach-Sarain  (the  house  of  St.  Saran),  in 
King's  Co.  Stillorgan,  also  in  Ireland,  corrupt,  from  Tigh- 
Lorcain  (the  house  of  St.  Lorcain  or  Lawrence)  ;  Saggard, 
from  Teach-Sacra  (of  St.  Mosacra)  ;  Cromarty,  anc.  Crum- 
bachtyn  (the  dwelling  on  the  winding  bay)  ;  Tinnick,  in 
Ireland,  i.e.  Tigh-cnuie  (the  house  on  the  hill).  In  Wales  : 
Ty-gwyn  (white  house);  Ty-Ddewi  (St.  David's  house); 
Great  Tey  and  Little  Tey  (great  and  little  dwelling)  ;  Tey- 
at-the-elms,  in  Essex. 

TEAMHAIR  (Irish),  a  palace  situated  on  an  elevated  spot ;  e.g. 
Tara,  anc.  Teamhair,  the  ancient  capital  of  Meath,  and 
several  other  places  called  Tara,  in  Ireland.  This  word 
sometimes  takes  the  form  of  tavver,  tawer,  or  tower,  as  in 
Towerbeg  and  Towermore  (the  little  and  great  palace). 

TEAMPULL  (Gadhelic),  a  temple  or  church,  derived  from  the  Lat. 
templum;  e.g.  Templemichael,  Templebredon  (the  churches 
of  St.  Michael  and  St.  Bredon)  ;  Templemore  (the  great 
church  or  cathedral)  ;  Templecarriga  (of  the  rock)  ;  Temple- 
tochar  (of  the  causeway),  in  Ireland  ;  Templemars  and 
Talemars,  in  France,  anc.  Templum-Martis  (the  temple  of 

.//*  ju  r  %  (  fire-      In  topography  this  word  is  found  in 

TEINE  (Gadhelic),  ,           /.°       j  ,. 

/,-        /-  i  \  4  the  forms  of  tin  and  tinny,  and  must  indicate 

TAN  (Cym.-Cel.),  )                        ,.          ,          . ',   . 

''  (  spots  where  fires  of  special  importance  were 

wont  to  be  kindled.  Whether  these  fires  were  beacon-fires, 
or  whether  they  referred  to  the  Beltane  fires  kindled  by  the 
ancient  Celts  on  May  Day,  cannot,  in  special  cases,  be 
determined ;  but  that  the  Beltane  fires  were  connected  with 
the  religious  rites  of  the  Druids  is  allowed,  even  by  those 
who  do  not  derive  the  word  Beltane  from  the  name  of  a 
Celtic  deity,  or  trace  the  observance  of  these  rites  to  the  sun 


and  fire  worship  once  alleged  to  have  existed  among  the 
Celtic  tribes,  but  now  held  to  be  an  untenable  theory  by 
Celtic  scholars.1  In  Ireland,  near  Coleraine,  we  find  Kil- 
tinny  (the  wood  of  the  fire)  ;  Tamnaghvelton  (the  field  of 
the  Beltane  sports)  ;  Clontinty,  Co.  Cork  (the  meadow  of 
the  fires)  ;  Mollynadinta,  anc.  Mullaigh-na-dtaeinte  (the 
summit  of  the  fires)  ;  Duntinny  (the  fort  of  the  fire),  Co. 
Donegal.  In  Scotland  tinny  is  also  found  in  topography, 
thus  —  Ardentinny  and  Craigentinny  (the  height  and  rock  of 
the  fire)  ;  Auchteany,  and  perhaps  Auchindinny  (the  field  of 
the  fires)  ;  Tinto  (the  hill  of  the  fire),  in  Lanarkshire. 

TEPETL  (Astec),  a  mountain  ;  e.g.  Popocatepetl  (the  smoky 
mountain),  in  Mexico  ;  Citlaltepetl  (the  star-like  mountain  — 
citalme,  a  star)  ;  Naucampatepetl  (the  square-shaped  moun- 
tain), in  Mexico. 

TEPLY  (Sclav.),  warm  ;  e.g.  Tepla  (the  warm  stream)  ;  Tepel,  on 
the  R.  Tepla  (in  the  neighbourhood  of  warm  mineral 
waters)  ;  Teplitz,  the  name  of  towns  in  Hungary,  Bavaria, 
and  Illyria,  sometimes  written  Toplitz  ;  Teplik  and  Teplovka, 
in  Russia  ;  Teflis,  in  Georgia,  celebrated  for  its  warm  baths. 

TERRA  (Lat     It    and  Port  }        f  land  ;*.£•.  Terciera  (the  rough 
RA  (Lat.,  It.,  an.       Mt.;,  . 

Jand)  .     h    Azoreg     T 

TIERRA  (Span.),  ,.,      "  '.    .. 

<the  neW    and)'  '"   Si     y 

TERRE  (French  ,  ,f              '            . 

,„  \,    ,.      "\  f,        r  i  \  posed  to  be  on  the  site  of  the 

TiR(Gadhehc  and  Cym.-Cel.),  .     .    _  ,       „.           ,  ,  r 

"  [ancient  Gela  ;  Tierra-del-fuego 

(the  land  of  fire),  so  named  on  account  of  the  numerous 
fires  seen  on  the  land  by  the  first  discoverers  ;  Terregles 
(church  land)  ;  Tiree  Island,  Gael.  Tir-ith  (the  land  of 
corn)  ;  Terryglas,  i.e.  Tir-da-ghlas  (the  land  of  the  two 
rivers),  Co.  Tipperary  ;  Terryland,  i.e.  Tir-oilein  (the  land 
of  the  island)  ;  Tyrone,  anc.  Tir-Eoghain  (Owen's  land)  ; 
Tir-Rosser,  i.e.  Tir-Rhos-hir  (the  long  peat  land),  in 
Caermarthen  ;  Pentir  (the  headland)  ;  Gwydir,  from  the 
roots  gwy,  water,  and  tir,  a  general  term  for  moist  land  in 
different  places  in  Wales.  It  was  the  ancient  name  of 
Glastonbury  ;  Tiranascragh  (the  land  of  the  sand  hill,  esker), 
Co.  Galway  ;  Tyrconell  (the  land  of  Conell),  the  ancient 
name  of  Co.  Donegal  ;  Carstairs,  in  Lanarkshire,  anc. 

1  For  the  word  Beltein,  v.  Joyce's  Irish  Names  of  Places,  vol.  i.  p.  187  ; 
Chambers's  Encyc  lopadia  ;  and  Petrie's  Round  Towers  of  Ireland. 


Casteltarras,  probably  corrupt,  from  Castelterres  (the  castle 
lands),  the  castle  in  the  village  having  been  the  site  of  a 
Roman  station  ;  Culter,  in  Lanarkshire,  anc.  Cultir  (the 
back  of  the  land) ;  Finisterroe  (land's  end),  now  Cape 
Finistere,  the  north-west  extremity  of  France ;  Blantyre 
(warm  land — blane,  warm),  in  Lanarkshire  ;  Terrebonne 
(good  land),  in  Canada ;  Terre- haute  (high  land),  in 

THAL  (Ger.),  a  valley — v.  DAL. 

THING,  or  TING,  a  term  applied  by  the  Scandinavians  to  the  legis- 
lative assemblies  of  their  nation,  and  also  to  the  places 
where  these  assemblies  met,  from  an  old  word  tinga,  to 
speak.  Traces  of  these  institutions  appear  in  the  topo- 
graphy of  certain  districts  in  Great  Britain  formerly  occu- 
pied by  Danes  or  Norwegians.  The  Norwegian  Parliament 
is  still  called  the  Storthing  or  great  assembly ;  smaller 
courts  are  called  Lawthings,  and  the  Althing  was  the 
general  assembly  of  the  whole  nation.  These  meetings 
were  generally  held  on  some  remote  island,  hill,  or  promon- 
tory, where  their  deliberations  might  be  undisturbed.  The 
Swedish  Parliament  used  to  assemble  on  a  mound  near 
Upsala,  which  still  bears  the  name  of  Tingshogen,  Scand. 
haugr;  Thingveller  (the  council-plains),  in  Iceland  ;  Sands- 
thing  (the  place  of  meeting  on  the  sand),  in  Iceland  ; 
Aithsthing  (the  meeting-place  on  the  headland),  in  Ice- 
land ;  Dingwall,  in  Ross-shire,  has  the  same  derivation — its 
Gaelic  name  is  Inverpeffer  (at  the  mouth  of  that  stream)  ; 
Tingwall,  in  Shetland,  Tynwald  Hill,  Isle  of  Man,  Thingwall 
in  Cheshire,  and  Dinsdale  in  Durham,  from  the  same  root  ; 
Tinwald,  in  Dumfries  (the  wood  of  the  meeting)  ;  Tain,  in 
Ross-shire,  Norse  Thing — its  Gaelic  name  is  Baile-Duich 
(St.  Duthic's  town). 

THOR  and  THUR,  prefixes  derived  from  the  Saxon  and  Scandi- 
navian deity  Thor;  e.g.  Thorley,  Thurley,  Thursley,  Thorsby, 
Thurlow,  the  valley,  dwelling,  and  hill,  named  after  Thor, 
or  perhaps  from  a  people  or  family  name  derived  from  the 
god,  i.e.  the  Thurings,  from  whence  also  probably  come 
Thorington  in  England,  and  Thorigne  and  Thorigny  in 
France  ;  Thuringerwald,  in  Germany  ;  Thurston,  Thursford, 
Thurscross,  Thurlstone,  etc.  ;  Thorsoe  (Thor's  island)  ; 


Thurso  (Thor's  stream,  on  which  the  town  of  Thurso  is 
situated)  ;  Thorshaven  (Thor's  harbour),  in  Norway  and  in 
the  Faroe  Islands.  On  the  continent  the  god  Thor  was 
worshipped  under  the  name  of  Thunor,  hence  the  English 
word  thunder  and  the  German  Donner  (supposed,  in  the 
Middle  Ages,  to  be  Thor's  voice).  From  this  word  are 
derived  Thunersberg  and  Donnersberg  (the  mountain  of 
Thor) ;  Donnersbach  (Thor's  stream),  in  Styria  ;  Torslunde 
(Thor's  sacred  grove),  in  Denmark. 

THORPE  (A.S.),  an  assembly  of  people,  cognate  with  the  Welsh 
torf  (a  crowd  or  troop),  Gael,  treubh  (a  tribe),  and  troupe, 
French  ;  and  then  gradually  coming  to  denote  a  farm  or 
village  ;  e.g.  Thorp,  in  Northamptonshire  ;  Calthorpe  (cold 
village) ;  Langthorpe  (long  village) ;  Ingelthorpe,  Kettles- 
thorpe,  Swansthorpe,  Bischopsthorpe  (the  farm  or  village 
of  Ingold,  Kettle,  Sweyn,  and  the  bishop)  ;  Nunthorpe  (the 
nun's  village)  ;  Raventhorpe  (Hrafen's  village)  ;  Thorparch, 
in  Yorkshire  (the  village  bridge),  on  the  R.  Wharfe  ;  Milne- 
thorpe  (the  village  of  the  mill)  ;  Althorpe  (old  villages)  ; 
Basingthorpe  (the  village  of  the  Basings,  a  patronymic)  ; 
Copmanthorpe  (of  the  merchant). 

THWAITE  (Scand.  thveif),  a  cleared  spot  or  an  isolated  piece  of 
land,  akin  to  the  Danish  tvede,  a  peninsula ;  e.g.  Harrow- 
thwaite,  Finsthwaite,  Ormathwaite,  Sattersthwaite,  places 
cleared  and  cultivated  by  the  Scandinavians,  whose  names 
they  bear;  Applethwaite  (of  apples);  Calthwaite  (cold  clear- 
ing) ;  Birkthwaite  (of  birches)  ;  Micklethwaite  (great  clear- 
ing) ;  Crossthwaite,  in  Cumberland,  where  St.  Kentigern 
is  said  to  have  erected  a  cross ;  Lockthwaite  (Loki's 

TOBAR  (Gadhelic),  a  fountain  or  well,  from  the  old  word  doboir, 
water.  Wells  and  fountains  were  held  in  great  veneration 
by  the  Celts  in  heathen  times,  and  are  the  subjects  of  many 
traditions  in  Ireland  and  Scotland.  Many  of  the  early 
preachers  of  Christianity  established  their  foundations  near 
these  venerated  wells,  which  were  the  common  resorts  of 
the  people  whom  they  had  come  to  convert.  In  this  way 
the  new  religion  became  associated  in  the  minds  of  the 
converts  with  their  favourite  wells,  and  obtained  the  names 
of  the  saints,  by  which  they  are  known  to  this  day ;  e.g. 

192  TOFT— TON 

Tobermory  (St.  Mary's  well),  in  the  Island  of  Mull ;  Tobar- 
na-bhan-thighern  (the  chieftainess's  well),  in  Badenoch  ; 
Ballintobar  (the  town  of  the  well),  Co.  Mayo,  now  called 
Tobermore  (the  great  well),  which  had  a  well  blessed  by  St. 
Patrick ;  Tibbermore  or  Tippermuir  (the  great  well),  in 
Perthshire  ;  Tobar-nam-buadh,  in  Skye  (the  well  of  virtues) ; 
Tipperary,  anc.  Tiobrad-Arann  (the  well  of  the  district  of 
Ara)  ;  Tipperkevin  (St.  Kevin's  well)  ;  Tipperstown,  anc. 
Baile-an-tobair  (the  town  of  the  well) ;  Tobercurry  (the 
well  of  the  cauldron) ;  Toberbilly  (the  well  of  the  old 
tree)  ;  Tobernaclug  (the  well  of  the  bells,  clog).  Bells  were 
held  sacred  by  the  Irish  on  account  of  a  certain  bell 
favoured  by  St.  Patrick.  Perhaps  the  rivers  Tiber  and 
Tiverone,  as  well  as  Tivoli,  anc.  Tibur,  may  come  from 
this  root. 

TOFT,  TOT  (Scand.),  an  enclosure  or  farm ;  e.g.  Lowestoft,  Dan. 
Luetoft  (the  enclosure  or  place  of  the  beacon-fire,  which  in 
early  times  was  placed  on  the  promontory  where  the  town 
stands)  ;  Langtoft  (long  farm)  ;  Monk's  Tofts  (the  monk's 
farm),  and  West  Tofts,  in  Norfolk  ;  Ecclestofts  (the  church 
farm  buildings),  in  Berwickshire ;  Ivetot,  anc.  Ivonis-tot 
(the  farm  of  Ivo  and  Hautot  (high  farm),  in  Normandy ; 
Sassetot  (the  Saxon's  farm)  ;  Littletot  (little  farm)  ;  Bergue- 
tot  (birch  farm),  in  Normandy. 

TOM  (Gadhelic  and  Welsh),  a  knoll  or  mound  ;  e.g.  Tomintoul 
(the  knoll  of  the  barn),  Gael.  Tom-an-t-sabhail,  Co.  Banff; 
Tomachuraich  (the  boat -shaped  knoll),  Inverness -shire  ; 
Tom-ma-Chessaig  (St.  Kessag's  mound),  at  Callander ; 
Tom-na-faire  (the  knoll  of  the  watch-tower),  on  Loch  Etive  ; 
Tomatin  (the  knoll  of  the  fire,  teine) ;  Tomnacroiche  (of 
the  gallows)  ;  Tom-da-choill  (of  the  two  woods)  ;  Tombreck 
(speckled  knoll)  ;  Tomgarrow  (rough  knoll) ;  Tomnaguie 
(windy  knoll),  in  Ireland  ;  Tom-bar-lwm  (the  mound  of  the 
bare  hill) ;  Tommen-y-Bala  (the  mound  of  Lake  Bala, 
having  been  raised  as  representative  of  Mount  Ararat)  ; 
Tommen-y-mur  (of  the  rampart). 

fan  enclosure,  a  town.     The  primary  meaning  of 

p    '   °''        J.  this  word  comes  from  the  Gothic  tains,  Scand. 

n  '"     [/«'«»,  Ger.  zaun,  a  fence  or  hedge  formed  of 

twigs.      Originally  it   meant   a  place  rudely  fortified  with 

TON  193 

stakes,  and  was  applied  to  single  farm-steadings  and  manors, 
in  which  sense  tun  is  still  used  in  Iceland,  and  toon  in 
Scotland.  The  word  toon  retained  this  restricted  meaning 
even  in  England  in  the  time  of  Wickliffe.  These  single 
enclosures  became  the  nucleus  of  a  village  which,  gradually 
increasing,  became  a  town  or  city,  in  the  same  manner  as 
villages  and  towns  arose  around  the  Celtic  duns,  raf/ts,  and 
Uses.  This  root,  in  the  names  of  towns  and  villages,  is 
more  common  than  any  other  in  Anglo-Saxon  topography, 
being  an  element  in  an  eighth  part  of  the  names  of  dwelling- 
places  in  the  south  of  Great  Britain.  The  greatest  number 
of  these  names  is  connected  with  those  of  the  original  pro- 
prietors of  the  places,  of  which  but  a  few  examples  can  be 
given  here.  In  such  cases,  the  root  ton  is  generally  pre- 
ceded by  s  or  ing — qu.  v. ;  e.g.  Grimston,  Ormiston,  Ribston, 
Haroldston,  Flixton,  Kennington  (the  property  of  Grim, 
Orm,  Hreopa,  Harold,  and  Felix)  ;  Canewdon  (of  Canute)  ; 
Addlington  and  Edlington  (of  the  nobles) ;  Dolphinton, 
Covington,  and  Thankerton,  parishes  in  Lanarkshire,  took 
their  names  from  Dolphine,  Colban,  and  Tancred,  to  whom 
the  lands  were  given  in  very  early  times  ;  Symington  and 
Wiston,  in  Lanarkshire,  are  found  mentioned  in  old 
charters,  the  one  as  Symington,  in  Ayrshire,  named  from 
the  same  Simon  Lockhart,  the  progenitor  of  the  Lockharts 
of  Lee  ;  Cadoxton,  i.e.  Cadog's  town,  in  Wales  ;  Ecclesia 
de  uilla  Simonis  Lockard  (the  church  of  Simon  Lockhart's 
villa),  and  the  other,  Ecclesia  uilla  Withce  (the  church  of 
Withce's  villa)  ;  Haddington  (the  town  of  Haddo) ;  Alfreton, 
Wimbledon,  Herbrandston,  Houston  (of  Alfred,  Wibba, 
Herbrand,  Hugh) ;  Riccarton,  in  Ayrshire,  formerly  Richard- 
ston,  took  its  name  from  Richard  Waleys,  i.e.  Richard  the 
Foreigner,  the  ancestor  of  the  great  Wallace) ;  Stewarton, 
in  Ayrshire,  had  its  name  from  the  family  which  became  the 
royal  race  of  Scotland  ;  Boston,  in  Lincoln  (named  after 
St.  Botolph,  the  patron  saint  of  sailors)  ;  Maxton,  a  parish 
in  Roxburghshire  (the  settlement  of  Maccus,  a  person  of 
some  note  in  the  reign  of  David  I.) ;  Flemingston  and 
Flemington  (named  from  Flemish  emigrants)  ;  Woolston 
(from  St.  Woolstan)  ;  Ulverston  (from  Ulphia,  a  Saxon 
chief) ;  Wolverhampton  and  Royston  (from  ladies  who 


endowed  religious  houses  at  these  places)  ;  Minchhampton 
(the  home  of  the  nuns,  minchens)  ;  Hampton  (the  enclosed 
home)  ;  Preston  and  Presteign  (priest's  town)  ;  Thrapston 
(the  dwelling  at  the  cross-roads)  ;  Broughton  (the  town  at 
the  fort  or  mound),  a  parish  in  Peeblesshire,  with  a  village  of 
the  same  name  ;  Albrighton  (the-  town  of  Aylburh) ;  Har- 
rington (of  the  descendants  of  Haro)  ;  Barton  and  Barnton 
(the  enclosure  for  the  crop ;  literally,  what  the  land  bears)  ; 
Shettleston,  in  Lanarkshire,  Lat.  Villa-filii-Sadin  (the  villa 
of  Sadin's  son)  ;  Bridlington  (the  town  of  the  Brihtlingas, 
a  tribe),  sometimes  called  Burlington;  Adlington  (town  of 
Eadwulf)  ;  Prestonpans,  in  Mid  Lothian,  named  from  the 
salt  pans  erected  there  by  the  monks  of  Newbattle  ;  Layton, 
in  Essex,  on  the  R.  Lea ;  Luton,  in  Bedford,  also  on  the 
Lea ;  Makerston,  in  Roxburghshire,  perhaps  from  St. 
Machar ;  Johnstone,  in  Renfrew  (founded  by  the  Laird  of 
Johnston  in  1782);  Liberton,  near  Edinburgh,  where 
there  was  an  hospital  for  lepers ;  Honiton,  Co.  Devon, 
Ounen-y-din  (the  town  of  ash-trees)  ;  Kensington  (of  the 
Kensings) ;  Edmonton,  in  Middlesex  (Edmond's  town)  ; 
North  and  South  Petherton,  in  Somerset  (named  from  the 
R.  Parret),  anc.  Pedreda;  Campbeltown,  in  Argyleshire, 
received  its  name  from  the  Argyle  family  in  1701 — its 
Gaelic  name  was  Ceann-Loch  (the  loch  head) ;  Launceston — 
v.  LANN  ;  Torrington,  in  Devon  (the  town  on  the  hill,  tor, 
or  on  the  R.  Torridge)  ;  Watlington  (the  village  protected 
by  wattles).  Of  towns  named  from  the  rivers  near  which 
they  are  situated,  Collumpton,  Crediton,  Frampton,  Taun- 
ton,  Lenton  (on  the  Culm,  Credy,  Frome  or  Frame,  Tone, 
and  Lee) ;  Northampton  (on  the  north  shore  of  the  R. 
Aufona,  now  the  Nen) ;  Okehampton,  on  the  R.  Oke  ; 
Otterton,  Leamington,  Bruton,  Moulton,  Wilton,  on  the 
Otter,  Leam,  Brue,  Mole,  and  Willy ;  Darlington  or 
Darnton,  on  the  Dar ;  Lymington,  in  Hants,  anc.  Lenton 
(on  the  pool)  ;  Southampton  (the  south  town  on  the  Anton 
or  Test,  which  with  the  Itchen  forms  Southampton  Water)  ; 
Ayton,  in  Berwickshire,  on  the  R.  Eye. 

TOPOL  (Sclav.),  the  poplar -tree  ;  e.g.  Toplitz,  Neu  and  Alt  (the 
place  of  poplars),  in  the  basin  of  the  R.  Elbe,  to  be  distin- 

TOR  GA  U—  TORR  1 95 

guished   from   Teplitz,   in    Bohemia — v.  TEPLY,   which   is 
sometimes  misnamed  Toplitz. 

TORGAU  (Sclav.),  a  market-place  ;  e.g.  Torgau,  Torgovitza,  Torgo- 
witz  (market-towns). 

TORR  fGadhelid    f  a  mound'  a  heaP>  a  conical  hill>  cognate  with 
„.('<(  the  Lat.  turn's,  the  Ger.  thurm,  and  the  Grk. 
TWR  (Cym.-Cel),   )   .  /  \     ^       .     T    , 

\PyrSos  (a  tower);    lor,  in   Ireland,  means  a 

tower  also ;  e.g.  Toralt  (the  tower  of  the  cliff)  ;  Tormore 
(great  tower  or  tower-like  rock) ;  Tornaroy  (the  king's 
tower)  ;  Tory  Island,  off  the  Irish  coast,  had  two  distinct 
names — Torach  (i.e.  abounding  in  tower-like  rocks),  and 
Toirinis  (the  island  of  the  tower),  so  named  from  a  fortress 
called  Tor-Conaing  (the  tower  of  Conaing,  a  Fomorian 
chief)  ;  Torran,  Tortan  (little  tower),  applied  to  little  knolls, 
as  in  Toortane  and  Turtane  ;  Mistor  and  Mamtor,  in  Devon- 
shire ;  Croken  Torr,  in  Cornwall  (a  hill  where  meetings  were 
held — gragan,  Welsh,  to  speak)  ;  Torphichen  (the  raven's 
hill),  a  parish  in  West  Lothian  ;  Torbolton,  in  Ayrshire, 
tradition  says  is  the  town  of  Baal's  mound.  There  is  a 
beautiful  hill  in  the  parish  where  superstitious  rites  are  still 
held  ;  a  bonfire  is  raised,  and  a  sort  of  altar  erected,  similar 
to  those  described  in  the  sacrifices  to  Baal  on  Mount 
Carmel ;  Torbay,  in  Devonshire,  named  from  the  hill  which 
overlooks  the  bay,  which  gives  its  name  to  Torquay ;  Torr- 
dubh  and  Torrduff  (black  hill)  ;  Torbane  and  Torgorm 
(the  white  and  the  blue  hill)  ;  Torbreck  (speckled  hill)  ; 
Torinturk  (the  wild  boar's  hill)  ;  Kintore  (at  the  head  of  the 
hill),  in  Aberdeenshire  ;  Turriff,  in  Banffshire,  is  the  plural 
form  of  toir.  From  the  Lat.  turris  and  its  derivatives, 
come  Tordesillas  (the  tower  of  the  bishop's  see),  in  Spain  ; 
Torquemada,  Lat.  Turris  cremata  (the  burned  tower)  ; 
Torr-alba  and  Torre-blanca  (the  white  tower)  ;  Torrecilla, 
Lat.  Turricella  (the  church-towers),  in  Spain  ;  Torres-novas 
and  Torres-vedras  (the  new  and  old  towers),  in  Portugal ; 
Torella  (the  little  tower),  Naples  ;  Truxillo,  in  Spain,  i.e. 
Turris-Julii  (the  tower  of  Julius);  Tourcoing  (corner  tower), 
in  France ;  La-tour-Sans-Venin,  near  Grenoble,  is  a  corrupt,  of 
Tour-Saint-  Verena — to  this  saint  the  chapel  was  dedicated  ; 
Tournay,  in  Belgium,  Lat.  Turris  Nerviorum  (the  tower  of  the 
Nervii) ;  Torres-Torres  (the  fortifications  of  the  mountains), 


Tours,  in  France,  is  not  named  from  this  root,  but  from  the 
Turones,  a  tribe ;  but  Torres  Strait  was  named  after  the  navi- 
gator Torres,  who  discovered  it  in  1606.  In  the  Semitic  lan- 
guages also  Tzur  means  a  rock  ;  it  is  the  root  of  the  names 
of  the  city  of  Tyre,  and  of  Syria,  of  which  in  early  times  it 
was  the  chief  city.  Taurus  or  Tor  is  a  general  name  for  a 
mountain  chain ;  Tabris  (the  mountain  town),  a  city  of  Persia. 

TRAFTH  CCvm  OH    (  a  strand  5  e-S-  Traeth-mawr  (great  strand)  ; 

TRAIGH  (cldhelS  1  Traeth-bach  (little  strand)  ;  Trefdraeth  (the 
''  (  dwelling  on  the  strand),  in  Wales  ;  Traeth- 
coch  (red  strand),  in  Anglesea.  In  Ireland :  Tralee,  Co. 
Deny,  is  from  Traigh-liath  (the  gray  strand)  ;  Tranamadree 
(the  strand  of  the  dogs),  Co.  Cork  ;  Ballintra,  when  it  occurs 
on  the  coast,  means  the  town  on  the  strand,  but  inland  it 
comes  from  Baile-an-tsratha  (the  town  on  the  river-holm)  ; 
Ventry,  Co.  Kerry,  is  from  Fionn-traigh  (white  strand)  ;  as 
also  Trabane,  Trawane,  and  Trawbawn,  which  derive  their 
names  from  the  whitish  colour  of  the  sand  ;  Fintray,  a  parish 
in  Aberdeenshire  on  the  R.  Don,  is  also  white  strand  ;  but 
Fintray,  in  Dumbartonshire,  was  formerly  Fyntref  or  Fyntre, 
probably  the  dwelling,  tre,  on  the  Fenach,  which  is  the 
boundary-stream  of  the  parish  on  one  side  ;  Traeth-Saith, 
in  Wales,  named  after  a  mythological  patriarch. 

TRANK  (Ger. ),  a  tank  for  watering  animals  ;  e.g.  Kleintrank  (little 
tank)  ;  Rosstrank  (horse  tank)  ;  Trankmuhle  (mill  tank). 

TRAWA  (Sclav.),  grass  ;  e.g.  the  Traun  and  the  Trave  (i.e.  the 
grassy  rivers)  ;  Traunkirchen  (the  church  on  the  Traun)  ; 
Traunik,  Trawitz  (the  grassy  place)  ;  Traunviertel  (the  dis- 
trict of  the  R.  Traun),  in  Silesia  and  Austria. 

TRF  orTRFFCCvm  rvn   (  a  dwellinS>  a  town;  e-S-  Treago,  anc. 
iKK,  or  iKr-r  i  \^ym.-\_ei. ),  i    _,     ..  .,    .,        ,   .  ,      ...      , 

TRFARHAIR  (cL]  \  1  Tref-y-goll  (hazel-tree  dwelling),    in 

IKtABHAlK   I  Vjacl.  ),  I    «T  i       f-r-  1/1  i     .  \ 

{  Monmouth ;  Tre-n-eglos  (church  town), 
in  Cornwall ;  Tremaine  (stone  dwelling),  Cornwall ;  Tref-y- 
d'awdd  (the  town  of  the  dyke,  i.e.  Offa's  dyke),  the  Welsh 
name  for  Knighton,  in  Pembrokeshire ;  Oswestry  might 
come  naturally  from  this  word,  but  the  Welsh  call  it  Croes- 
Oswald  (the  place  of  St.  Oswald's  martyrdom)  ;  Coventry, 
too,  might  be  from  the  same  root,  but  Camden  says  it  is  a 
corruption  of  Conventria  (the  district  of  the  convent)  ; 
Daventry,  abridged  from  Dwy-avon-tre  (the  dwelling  on  the 


two  rivers)  ;  Truro,  i.e.  Tre-rhiw  (the  dwelling  on  the  sloping 
bank,  or  on  the  stream)  ;  Redruth,  in  Cornwall,  anc.  Tref- 
Derivydd  (the  Druid's  town)  ;  Trefrhiw  (the  town  on  the 
stream),  in  Caernarvon ;  Tremadoc  (Madoc's  dwelling)  ; 
Trecoid  (the  dwelling  in  the  wood) ;  Braintree,  Co.  Essex 
(hill  dwelling)  ;  Dreghorn,  in  Ayrshire,  anc.  Trequern  (the 
dwelling  near  alder-trees)  ;  Thrisk,  in  Yorkshire,  anc.  Tref- 
Ysk  (the  dwelling  by  the  water)  ;  Tranent,  in  Mid  Lothian, 
corrupt,  from  TreaMiairnant  (the  dwellings  in  the  valley)  ; 
Crailing,  in  Berwickshire,  anc.  Travertin  (the  dwellings  on 
the  pool)  ;  Tring,  Co.  Herts,  anc.  Treungla  or  Treangle  (the 
village  at  the  corner),  Welsh  ongl,  Lat.  angulusj  Trelech 
(the  dwelling  at  the  stone,  called  Harold's  grave) ;  Tre- 
Taliesin  (the  dwelling  of  Taliesin,  the  celebrated  Welsh 
bard)  ;  Trenewydd  (new  dwelling),  in  Wales  ;  Rhuddry,  a 
parish  in  Glamorgan,  probably  corrupt,  from  Yr-yw-tre  (the 
yew-trees'  home);  Tre'r  Beirdd  (bard's  town);  Trefawr, 
Trefach  (great  and  little  town) ;  Tredegar,  i.e.  Tre-deg-fair- 
ar  (land),  (the  choice  abode)  ;  Tre-Wyddel  (the  forester's 
abode)  ;  Trefhedyn,  i.e.  Tref-y-din  (hill  town). 

TROM,  TRIUM  (Gadhelic),  the  elder-tree  ;  e.g.  Trim,  in  Co.  Meath, 
corrupt,  from  Ath-trium  (the  ford  of  the  elder-trees) ; 
Trummery  and  Trimmer  (places  abounding  in  elder-trees)  ; 
Tromann,  Trumman  (the  little  elder-tree). 

TUAIM,  TOOM  (Gadhelic),  a  mound  raised  over  a  grave,  cognate 
with  the  Lat.  tumulus ;  e.g.  Tuam,  Co.  Gal  way,  anc. 
Tuaim-da-ghualann  (the  tumulus  of  the  two  shoulders, 
from  the  shape  of  the  ancient  sepulchral  mound)  ;  Toome, 
on  the  R.  Bann  ;  Tomfmlough  (the  tumulus  of  the  clear 
lake)  ;  Tomgraney  (the  tomb  of  Grian)  ;  the  Tomies  (hills 
on  Lake  Killarney)  ;  Toomona  (the  tomb  of  the  bog)  ; 
Toomyvara,  i.e.  Tuaim-ui-Mheadra  (O'Mara's  tomb). 

TUAR  (Gadhelic),  a  bleach-green,  Anglicised  toor  ;  e.g.  Tooreen 
(little  bleach-green)  ;  Tooreenagrena  (the  sunny  little  bleach- 
green)  ;  Monatore  (the  bog  of  the  bleach-green)  ;  Tintore,  for 
Tigh-an-tuair  (the  house  at  the  bleach-green),  in  Ireland. 

TULACH  (Gadhelic),  a  little  hill  or  mound,  and  also  a  measure 
of  land — Anglicised  tulla,  tullow,  fully,  or  tulli;  e.g. 
Tullow  (the  hill)  ;  Tullamore  (great  hill)  ;  Tullanavert  (the 
hill  of  the  graves,  ferta)  ;  Tullaghcullion  and  Tullycullion 


(of  the  holly)  ;  Kiltullagh  (church  hill)  ;  Tullaghan  (little 
hill)  ;  Tallow,  Co.  Waterford,  more  correctly  Tealach-an- 
iarainn  (the  hill  of  the  iron,  from  the  neighbouring  iron 
mines)  ;  Tullyallen,  on  the  Boyne,  and  Tulliallan,  in 
Perthshire,  i.e.  Tulaigh-dlainn  (the  beautiful  hill)  ;  Tullyard 
(high  hill)  ;  Tillicoultry  (the  hill  at  the  back  of  the  land), 
in  Clackmannan  ;  Tullibardine  (the  bard's  hill)  ;  Tulloch- 
gorum  (the  blue  hill)  ;  Tullybody  (the  hill  of  the  black  cow,  bo 
dubK)  ;  Tillyfour  (the  grassy  hill,  feoiridK).  Tully  or  tilly, 
however,  is  sometimes  a  corruption  of  teaglach  (a  family),  as 
in  Tullynessle  and  Tillymorgan  —  z/.  W.  SKENE,  LL.D. 

TUNDRA  (Tartar),  a  mossy  flat,  the  name  given  to  the  vast  plains 
on  the  Arctic  Ocean. 

TURA  (Tartar),  a  town  or  settlement  ;  e.g.  Tura,  a  river  in  Russia, 
so  called  by  the  Tartars  because  they  made  a  settlement 
at  the  place  ;  Tura,  also  in  Hungary  ;  O'Tura  (old  town)  ; 
Turinsk  (the  town  on  the  R.  Tura),  in  Russia. 

TWISTLE  (Scand.),  a  boundary  ;  e.g.  Twistleton  (the  town  on 
the  boundary)  ;  Oswaldtwistle  (Oswald's  boundary)  ;  Hal- 
twistle  (high  boundary)  ;  Birchtwistle  (birch-tree  boundary)  ; 
Ectwistle  (oak-tree  boundary). 


UAMH  (Gadhelic),  a  cave  ;  e.g.  Cluain-uamha  (the  pasture  of  the 
cave),  the  ancient  name  of  Cloyne,  Co.  Cork  ;  Drumnahoe, 
i.e.  Druim-na-huamha  (the  ridge  of  the  cave)  ;  Mullinahone 
(the  mill  of  the  cave)  ;  Lisnahoon  (the  fort  of  the  cave),  in 
Ireland.  Wem,  in  Salop,  and  Wembdon,  in  Somerset,  as 
well  as  other  place-names  with  the  prefix  wem,  may  be 
derived  from  the  A.S.  wem  (a  hollow),  analogous  to  the  Cel. 
uaimh.  Wamphray,  in  Dumfriesshire,  Gael.  Uamh-fridh 
(the  forest-cave). 

UCHEL,  UCH  (Cym.-Cel),  high,  cognate  with  the  Gael,  uchda  (a 
height)  ;  e.g.  Ucheltref  and  Ochiltree  (the  high  dwelling)  ; 
the  Ochills,  a  hill  range  in  Perthshire,  Lat.  Ocelli-monies. 

//-   ji_  !•  \    (  water  :  e.g.  Esk,  Usk,  Esky,  Esker, 
UISCE  oruiSGE(Gadhehc),  I  'Qf          > 

GWY  (Cym.-Cel.), 

Esla,  Aisne,  Isar,  Isere,  Isen,  Etsch  (river  names)  ;  Duffus 


and  Doubs  (black  water)  ;  Marosh  (marshy  water)  ;  the 
Theis,  anc.  Tibiscus ;  Adige,  anc.  Athesis ;  the  Po,  anc. 
Padusa;  Loch  Ewe,  and  Ewes,  a  parish  in  Dumfries  watered 
by  a  stream  of  this  name  ;  Wisbeach  (on  the  beach  of  the 
Wysg  or  Wash),  now  some  miles  from  the  beach  by  the 
gradual  advance  of  the  land  ;  Knockaniska  (the  hillock  on 
the  water)  ;  Killiskey  and  Killiskea  (the  church  on  the 
water),  in  Limerick  ;  but  Balihiskey,  in  Tipperary,  is  from 
Bealach-uisce  (the  road  of  the  water)  ;  the  Rivers  Minho  and 
Mincio,  anc.  Minius  and  M Indus  (little  stream)  ;  Duffus 
(dark  water)  ;  I  stria  (half  land,  half  water)  ;  Argense  or 
Argenteus  (silver  stream),  in  France  ;  Caldas  (warm  waters), 
in  Spain  and  Portugal ;  Ischia  (the  island  of  waters),  abound- 
ing in  mineral  springs ;  Issny,  on  the  R.  Leine,  anc.  Issia- 
cum  (on  the  water) ;  Metz,  anc.  Mettis  (between  the  waters), 
also  named  Divodurttm  (on  the  two  rivers) ;  Osimo,  in 
Italy,  anc.  Auximum,  and  Osna,  in  Spain,  anc.  Uxama 
(on  the  water). 

URA  (Basque),  water ;  e.g.  Astura  (rocky  water),  a  river  which 
gives  its  name  to  the  Asturias ;  Illuria  (the  town  on  the 
water)  ;  Illuro,  with  the  same  meaning,  now  Maturo,  in 
Spain  ;  Osuno,  anc.  Ursonum,  and  Tarazona,  anc.  Turiaso 
(the  place  of  good  waters),  in  Spain — osoa,  Basque  (good)  ; 
Oloron,  anc.  Illura  (the  town  on  the  water) — illta,  Basque 
(a  town). 

URBS  (Lat.),  a  city;  e.g.  Orvieto,  Lat.  Urbs-vetus  (the  old  city). 


VALLIS  (LaM  (a  valley;   e&  Vallais  (the   land 

j        /I*     /f    \  )  °f  valleys),    in    Switzerland — its 

VAL  and  VALLEE  (Fr.),  <  .  ,    ,  .    '  ' 

/c  j  T*  \     I  inhabitants  were  formerly  called 

VALLE  (Span.,  Port.,  and  It.),    /  ,r     . 

\NantuateS)    i.e.   valley  dwellers ; 

Val-de-Avallano  (the  valley  of  hazels)  ;  Val-de-fuentes  (of 
fountains) ;  Val-del-laguna  (of  the  lagoon) ;  Val-del-losa 
(of  the  flagstone)  ;  Val-del-Moro  (of  the  Moor) ;  Val-de- 
Olivas  (of  olive-trees)  ;  Val-de-penas  (of  the  rocks)  ;  Val-de- 
robles  (of  the  oak-trees),  in  Spain  ;  Val-de-lys  (the  valley  of 
streams),  in  the  Pyrenees,  from  an  old  Provengal  word 
lys  (water);  Vallde -de -Carol  (of  Charles),  through  which 

200  VAR — VELIKA 

Charlemagne  passed  from  his  conquest  of  the  Moors ; 
Vallombrosa  (the  shady  valley)  ;  Valparaiso  (the  valley  of 
Paradise)  ;  Valtelline,  in  Lombardy,  consisting  of  a  long 
valley,  traversed  by  the  R.  Adda  and  Teglio  ;  Vaucluse, 
Lat.  Vallis-clusa  (the  enclosed  valley)  ;  Orvaux,  Lat.  Aure- 
vallis  (the  golden  valley)  ;  Rieval,  Lat.  Regia-vallis 
(the  royal  valley) ;  Vals  (in  the  valley  of  the  Volane) ; 
Vaucouleurs,  Lat.  Vallis-coloris  (the  valley  of  colour),  in  a 
valley  of  the  R.  Meuse,  whose  green  and  smiling  meadows 
have  given  it  this  name;  Gerveaux  or  Yorvaux,  in  Durham, 
Lat.  Uri-vallis  (the  valley  of  the  R.  Ure) ;  Pays-de-Vaud 
(the  country  of  valleys  or  of  the  Waldenses)  ;  Clairvaux, 
Lat.  Clara-vallis  (the  bright  valley) ;  Roncesvalles  (the 
valleys  abounding  in  briers)  ;  Vaudemont,  Lat.  Vallis-de- 
monte  (the  valley  of  the  mountain) ;  Val-di-chiana  (the 
valley  of  the  standing  pool),  in  Italy. 

VAR,  VARAD  (Hung.),  a  fortress  ;  e.g.  Kolos-var,  Ger.  Klausen- 
burg,  anc.  Claudipolis  (the  enclosed  fortress,  or  the  city  of 
Claudius) ;  Nagy-varad  (great  fortress) ;  Vasvar,  Ger. 
Eisenburg  (iron  fortress) ;  Szamos-Ujvar  (the  new  for- 
tress), on  the  R.  Zamos  ;  Sarivar  (palace  fortress)  ;  Foldvar 
(the  land  fortress)  ;  Szekes-Fehervar,  Ger.  Stiihl-  Weissen- 
burg  (the  white  fortress  of  the  throne) ;  Karoly-Fehervar 
or  Karlsburg  (Charles's  white  fortress) ;  Varosvar,  Ger.  Eisen- 
thurm  (the  red  fortress  or  iron  tower),  in  Hungary  ;  Ersek- 
Ujvar,  Ger.  Neuhausel  (the  bishop's  new  fortress  or  seat). 

VAROS  (Hung.),  a  town  ;  e.g.  Ujvaros  (the  new  town)  ;  Also-varos 
(lower  town)  ;  Szasz-varos,  Ger.  Sachsenstadt  (the  Saxon's 

VATN  and  VAND  (Scand.),  a  lake ;  e.g.  Vatnsdalr  (the  valley  of 
lakes)  ;  Arnarvatn  (eagle  lake)  ;  Fiskvatn  (fish  lake)  ; 
Langavat  (long  lake) ;  Steepavat  (steep  lake) ;  Sanvatn 
(sandy  lake)  ;  Miosen-Vand  (little  lake)  ;  Helgavatn  (holy 
lake)  ;  Vatster  (the  lake  dwelling)  ;  Myvatn  (the  lake  of  the 
midges)  ;  Vatnagaard  (the  farm  on  the  lake). 

VEGA  (Span.),  a  plain  ;  e.g.  Vega-de-la-neustra-Senora  (the  plain 
of  our  Lady) ;  Vega-Espinarada  (the  plain  surrounded 
by  thorns). 

VELIKA,  or  WELIKI  (Sclav.),  great ;  e.g.  Velikaia  (the  great  river)  ; 
Velikja-luki  (the  great  marsh),  in  Russia ;  Welkawes  (the 


great  village  or  dwelling),  in  Sclavonia ;  Welka,  Welkow, 
Welchau,  Welchow,  etc.,  with  the  same  meaning. 

VERNUS  (Lat.),  the  alder-tree,  Cel.  gwern;  e.g.  Verney,  Vernez, 
Vernois,  Vernoy,  Verneuil,  Vernieres,  etc.,  the  names  of 
various  places  in  France. 

VIE,  VE,  WY  (Scand.),  holy ;  e.g.  Wydale  (the  holy  valley) ; 
Wyborg,  Weighton,  Wisby,  Wigthorpe  (holy  dwelling)  ; 
Wigan,  aijic.  Wibiggan  (the  holy  building),  in  Lancashire  ; 
Wigton,  in  Cumberland  (holy  town)  ;  but  Wigton,  in  Scot- 
land (the  town  on  the  bay,  vig) ;  Sviga  (holy  river),  in 
Russia  ;  Sviajsk  (the  town  on  the  holy  river)  ;  Sveaborg 
and  Viborg  (holy  town)  ;  Sviatos-nos  (holy  cape)  ;  Sviatskaia 
(holy  town,  or  of  the  deity  worshipped  by  the  Sclavonians, 
called  Sviato-vid),  in  Russia. 

VILLA  (Lat.),  a  farm,  manor,  or  town,  with  its  derivatives  in  the 
Romance  languages ;  e.g.  Villa-hermosa  (the  beautiful 
town) ;  Villa-franca-de-panades  (the  free  town  of  the 
bakers),  in  Spain.  In  France  :  Charleville  (named  after 
Charles,  Due  de  Nevers)  ;  Flamanville  (founded  by  a  colony 
of  Flemings),  in  Normandy;  Joinville,  Lat.  Jo-vis-  Villa  (the 
city  of  Jove,  named  from  a  Roman  tower  near  the  town)  ; 
Luneville  (the  city  of  the  moon),  supposed  to  have  been 
named  from  a  temple  to  Diana ;  Offranville,  in  Normandy, 
Lat.  Vulfrani  Villa  (the  manor  of  Wulfran)  ;  Auberville 
and  Aubervilliers  (the  manors  of  Albert)  ;  Thionville  (the 
manor  of  Theodone),  Lat.  Theodonis  Villa;  La  Ville-tertre 
(hill  town)  ;  Deville,  formerly  Dei  Villa  (the  city  of  God)  ; 
Marteville,  Lat.  Martis  Villa  (of  Mars)  ;  Villa-Vigosa 
(abundant  town),  in  Spain  and  Portugal ;  Villa-rica  (rich 
town) ;  Yeovil,  in  Somerset  (the  town  on  the  R.  Yeo)  ; 
Maxwell,  in  Kirkcudbright  and  in  Roxburghshire,  corrupt, 
from  Maccusville  (the  manor  or  settlement  of  Maccus,  to 
whom  the  lands  were  given  by  David  I.)  ;  Philipville  or 
Philipstadt,  in  Belgium  (named  by  Charles  V.  after  his  son)  ; 
Louisville,  in  the  United  States  (named  after  Louis  XVI., 
whose  troops  assisted  the  Americans  in  the  War  of  Inde- 

VINEA,  VINETUM  (Lat.),  a  vineyard  ;  e.g.  Le  Vignae,  La  Vignelle, 
Les  Vigneaux,  Vigneaux,  Vigny,  Vinax,  and  places  abound- 
ing in  the  vine  ;  La  Vigne,  in  France. 


VOE  (Scand  }      (  a  bay ;  e.g.  Leirvogr  (mud  bay)  ;   Laxvoe  (sal- 

^  <  rnon  bay)  ;    Siliavoe   (herring   bay)  ;    Grunavoe 

(  (green    bay) ;    Westvoe   (west    bay) ;    Aithsvoe 

(the  bay  on  the  aith  or  headland)  ;  Sandvoe  (sandy  bay)  ; 

Kaltenwaag  (cold   bay)  ;  Vaage  (on   the   bay),  a  town  in 


VORM  (Ger.),  in  front  of;  e.g.  Vormbach,  Vormbusch,  Vorm- 
horst,  Vormhagen  (in  front  of  the  brook,  tljicket,  wood,  and 


WATH  (\  q  ^     (  a  ford'  c°Snate  with  the  Lat-  vadutn  and 
VAD(Scarid)  Vhe   Gadhelic  <**;    *•£•   Wadebridge   (the 

(  bridge  at  the  ford),  in  Cornwall ;  Wath- 
upon-Dearne  (the  ford  of  the  R.  Dearne),  in  Yorkshire  ; 
Carnwath  (the  ford  at  the  cairn),  in  Lanarkshire  ;  Lasswade 
(the  ford  on  the  pasture-land,  laes\  in  Mid  Lothian ;  Wath 
(the  ford),  on  the  Yorkshire  Ouse  ;  Langwaden  (long  ford), 
in  Germany ;  Wageningen,  Lat.  Vadu  (on  the  ford),  in 
Holland,  on  the  R.  Leek. 

wAm,  or  WADY  (Ar.),  a  river-course  or  ravine;  e.g.  Wadi-el-Ain 
(the  ravine  of  the  fountain)  ;  Wadi-Sasafeh  (of  the  pigeons)  ; 
Wadi-Sidri  (of  the  thorn)  ;  Wady-Solab  (of  the  cross) ; 
Wady-Shellal  (of  the  cataract)  ;  Wady-Magherah  (of  the 
caves);  Wady-Sagal  (of  the  acacia);  Wady-Mousa  (of 
Moses) ;  Wady-Abou-hamad  (of  the  father  fig-tree,  named 
from  a  very  old  tree)  ;  Wady-Mokatteb  (of  the  writing, 
from  the  number  of  inscriptions  made  by  pilgrims)  ;  Wady- 
hamman  (of  the  wild  pigeons). 

/„     ,  (  a   wood    or   waste    land ;    e.g.   Walden- 

WALD  (Ger.),  }  c  cc         •      -r? 

/  A  P  \     -\  Saffron,   in   Essex    (the   waste    land   on 

WEALD,  WOLD  (A.S.),      )       ,  .   ,  rV 

7'  (  which  saffron  was  afterwards  cultivated)  ; 
the  Weald,  Wold,  and  Wealdon  (the  waste  lands),  in 
Essex,  Kent,  Lincoln,  and  Yorkshire  ;  Waltham  and  Wal- 
thamstow  (the  dwelling-place  near  the  wood)  ;  Waldstadt, 
Waldheim,  Walddorf  (dwellings  near  the  wood),  in  Ger- 
many ;  Waldeck  (woody  corner,  or  corner  of  the  wood) ; 
Waldshut  (the  forest  hut),  in  Switzerland ;  Boemerwald 
(the  Bohemian  forest) ;  Waldau  (woody  meadow)  ;  Wald- 
sassen  (the  settlement  in  the  wood) ;  Unterwalden  (under 


or  below  the  wood)  ;  Zinnwald-Sachsisch  (the  wood  near 
the  Saxon's  tin  mine) ;  Finsterwalde  (the  dark  wood) ; 
Greifswald  (the  griffin's  wood) ;  Habechtswald  (hawk's  wood) ; 
Lichtenwald  (the  cleared  wood) ;  Rugenwalde  (the  wood  of 
the  Rugii,  a  tribe),  in  Pomerania ;  Regenwalde  and  Saalwalde 
(the  woody  districts  of  the  rivers  Rega  and  Saale);  Methwald 
(in  the  midst  of  woods),  in  Norfolk ;  Leswalt  (the  pasture, 
Zaes,  in  the  wood),  in  Wigtonshire ;  Mouswald  (the  wood  near 
Lochar  Moss),  in  Dumfriesshire  ;  Wooton-Basset,  in  Wilts 
(the  woody  town  of  the  Basset  family,  so  called  from  the 
quantity  of  wood  in  the  neighbourhood). 

\V*TT  fOld  r  "»  f  an  emDanknient,  a  rampart,  a  wall,  cognate 
WEALL  fA  S  1  \  w^  ^e  ^at'  va^umi  tne  Gadhelic  balla,  and 
^  '  '•"  (  the  Welsh  gwalj  e.g.  Walton,  on  the  Naze, 
where  there  was  a  walled  enclosure  to  defend  the  northern 
intruders  from  the  assaults  of  their  hostile  Saxon  neighbours ; 
Walton,  also,  in  the  east  corner  of  Suffolk  (the  town  near 
the  wall) ;  also  Walton,  on  the  Thames ;  Walton -le- dale 
and  Walton  (on  the  hill),  in  Lancashire ;  Wallsend  (at  the 
end  of  the  wall),  in  Northumberland  ;  Walford,  in  Hereford 
(the  ford  near  a  Roman  fortification)  ;  Wallsoken  (the  place 
near  the  wall,  where  the  judicial  courts  were  held) — v.  SOC  ; 
Walmer  (the  sea-wall),  in  Kent  ;  Wallburg,  Walldorf  (walled 
towns),  in  Germany ;  Wallingford,  in  Berks,  anc.  Gallena, 
Welsh  Gwal-Jien  (the  old  wall  or  fortification),  A.S.  Weal- 
ingaford;  Wallmill,  Wallshiels,  Wallfoot,  Wallhead,  places 
in  Northumberland  near  the  wall  of  Adrian ;  Walpole  (the 
dwelling,  bol,  near  the  wall),  in  Norfolk,  a  sea-bank  raised  by 
the  Romans  as  a  defence  from  the  sea ;  but  Walsham  and 
Walsingham,  in  Norfolk,  take  their  name  from  the  Wael- 
sings,  a  tribe.  This  place  was  called  by  Erasmus  Parath- 
alasia,  Grk.  (by  the  sea-beach). 

WAT  srH  (C     \       (.  f°re'gn-      These  words  were  applied  by  the 
WFATH  A  S  \        )  Teutonic  and Sclavonicnations  to  allforeigners, 

1  and  to  the  countries  inhabited  or  colonised 
VLACH  (Sclav.),      /  ,       .  f  _ 

\by  those  who  did  not  come  from  a  Teutonic 

stock  or  speak  their  language.  In  the  charters  of  the 
Scoto-Saxon  kings  the  Celtic  Picts  of  Cambria  and  Strath- 
clyde  were  called  Wallenses ;  e.g.  Wales,  Givalia — root 
gwal  or  gall,  foreign.  The  Welsh  call  their  own  country 


Cymru  (the  abode  of  the  Kymry  or  aborigines) — (the  home 
of  the  Cymric  Celts),  so  named  by  the  Saxons  ;  Wallachia 
(the  strangers'  land,  vlacfi),  so  called  by  the  Germans  and 
Sclaves  because  colonised  by  the  Romans  ;  Walcherin,  anc. 
Walacria  or  Gualacra  (the  island  of  the  strangers  or  Celts) ; 
Cornwall  (the  horn  or  promontory  of  the  Celts)  ;  also 
Cornuailles  (a  district  in  Brittany  peopled  by  British  emi- 
grants from  Wales)  ;  Wallendorf  (the  town  of  the  strangers), 
the  German  name  for  Olaszi  or  Olak,  in  Hungary,  peopled 
by  Wallachians  ;  Wallenstadt  and  Wallensee  (the  town  and 
lake  on  the  borders  of  the  Romansch  district  of  the  Grisons, 
conquered  by  the  Romans  under  Constantius) ;  Walschland, 
the  German  name  for  Italy.  The  Celts  of  Flanders  were 
also  called  Walloons  by  their  German  neighbours  ;  and 
Wlachowitz,  in  Moravia,  means  the  town  of  the  Wallachs 
or  strangers.  The  Gadhelic  gall  (foreign),  although  used 
with  the  same  meaning  as  weal/i,  is  not  connected  with  it. 
It  is  a  word  that  has  been  applied  to  strangers  by  the  Irish 
from  the  remotest  antiquity  ;  and  as  it  was  applied  by  them 
to  the  natives  of  Gaul  {Calif),  gall,  in  the  first  instance,  might 
mean  simply  a  native  of  Gaul.  It  was  afterwards  used  in 
reference  to  the  Norwegians,  Fionn-ghaill  (the  fair-haired 
strangers)  ;  and  to  the  Danes,  Dubh-ghaill  (the  darfi-haired 
strangers)  ;  and  in  connection  with  them  and  with  the 
English  the  word  enters  largely  into  Irish  topography  ;  e.g. 
Donegal,  i.e.  Dun-nau-Gall  (the  fortress  of  the  foreigners 
or  Danes)  ;  Clonegall  and  Clongall  (the  meadow  of  the 
strangers)  ;  Ballynagall  and  Ballnagall  (the  town  of  the 
strangers,  or  English).  For  the  further  elucidation  of  these 
words  v.  Irish  Names  of  Places,  by  Dr.  Joyce,  and  Words 
and  Places,  by  the  Rev.  Isaac  Taylor.  The  words  Gaill 
and  Gallda  are  applied  by  the  Highlanders  of  Scotland  to 
their  countrymen  in  the  Lowlands,  but  they  have  no  con- 
nection with  the  name  which  they  apply  to  themselves — 
The  Gaidheil,  derived  from  an  ancestor  Gaodal. 
WANG  (Ger.  and  A.S.),  a  field  or  strip  of  land,  allied  to  the  Scot- 
tish whang,  a  slice ;  e.g.  Feuchtwang  (moist  field)  ;  Duir- 
wangen  (barren  field)  ;  Ellwangen,  anc.  Ellhenwang  (the 
field  of  the  temple,  eleh  or  alhs) ;  Affolterwangen  (apple-tree 
field)  ;  Wangford  (the  ford  of  the  -wang). 

WA  RA —  WARID  205 

WARA  (Sansc.),  a  dwelling  ;  e.g.  Kattiwar  (the  dwelling  of  the 
Katties,  a  tribe)  ;  Judwar  (of  the  Juts  or  Jats) ;  Kishtewar 
(the  dwelling  in  the  wood).  In  Anglo-Saxon  ivara  means 
inhabitants — thus  Lindisivaras  (the  inhabitants  of  Lincoln  ; 
Cantwara,  of  Kent). 

WARD,  WART,  WARTH  (Teut.),  a  watch-tower  or  beacon,  or  a  place 
guarded,  A.S.  waerdian,  Ger.  Marten,  to  guard — waering, 
a  fortification  ;  e.g.  Hohenwarth,  Lat.  Altaspectila  (the  high 
watch-tower) ;  Warburg  (the  town  of  the  watch-tower), 
in  Westphalia.  In  England :  Warden,  Wardle,  Wardley 
(guarded  places,  or  places  where  the  warden  of  the  district 
resided) ;  Wardlaw  (the  beacon  hill) ;  Wardoe  (beacon 
island),  in  Norway  ;  Warwick,  i.e.  Waering-vic  (the  fortified 
dwelling,  or  the  fort  of  the  Waerings) ;  Woerden  or  War- 
den (the  fortified  place),  in  Holland  ;  Vordhill,  in  Shetland, 
and  Varberg,  in  Sweden  (the  hill  of  the  beacon)  ;  Warthill, 
or  beacon  hill,  in  Westmoreland ;  Warburton,  found  as 
Wardeburgh  (the  town  near  the  watch-fort) — here  Athel- 
freda,  Queen  of  Mercia,  built  a  citadel ;  Warrington  (the 
town  with  the  fortress,  waering)  ;  Gross-wardein,  the  Ger- 
man rendering  of  Nagy  varad,  Sclav,  (great  fortress). 
From  guardar,  Span,  (to  defend),  we  have  Guardamar  (the 
sea  guard,  with  a  hill-fort  at  the  mouth  of  the  R.  Segura)  ; 
La  Guardia  (built  as  a  defence  against  the  incursions  of  the 
Moors)  ;  Guardia-regia  (royal  fortress)  ;  Leeuwarden,  anc. 
Lienwarden  (the  guarded  place  near  lime-trees),  in  the 

WARID,  WERID  (Old  Ger.),    )  a/iver  is'a nd'  °r  J^*1™  a  pl<* 

WERDER  (Mod.  Ger.),  \  °f  gr°r?  ms^ted  ^  ma/shes  f d 

(  secured  by  dykes.      It  often   takes 

the  forms  of  iverth  or  "Mirth,  cognate  with  the  A.  S.  worth  or 
'worthing,  qu.  -v.;  e.g.  Bischopswerder  (the  bishop's  island); 
Elsterwerder,  Saarwerder  (the  islands  in  the  Rivers  Elster 
and  Saar)  ;  Donauworth  (the  island  in  the  R.  Danube)  ; 
Kirchwerder  (church  island) ;  Marienwerder  (the  island  or 
enclosure  dedicated  to  the  Virgin  Mary)  ;  Falconswaart  (the 
falcon's  enclosure),  in  Holland  ;  Poppenwarth  (the  priest's 
enclosure) ;  Werden,  Werder,  \Vertheim  (dwellings  near 
river  islands)  ;  Worth  (the  enclosed  place),  in  Bavaria ; 
Worth-sur-Sauer  (the  enclosure  on  the  R.  Sauer)  ;  Nonnen- 


werth  (the  nun's  enclosure)  ;  Furstenwerder  (the  prince's 
island)  ;  Verden  (near  a  large  island  formed  by  the  R.  Aller), 
in  Hanover ;  Verderbruch  (the  island  bridge) ;  Bolswaard 
(Bolswine's  river  island),  in  Holland  ;  Wertingen  (a  town 
on  an  island  in  the  R.  Schmutter)  ;  Schonwerder  (beautiful 
island  on  the  R.  Unstruth) ;  Werth-sur-Sauer,  in  Alsace  (on 
an  island  formed  by  the  Rivers  Sauer  and  Soultzbach)  ; 
Borumeler-Waard  (an  island  near  the  town  of  Berumel),  in 
Holland,  formed  by  the  junction  of  the  Rivers  Waal  and 
Maas ;  but  Hoyerswerda,  in  Silesia,  is  a  corruption  of  the 
Wendish  name  Worejze  (the  town  on  the  ploughed  land). 
WARK,  VIRKI  (Scand.),  a  fortress  ;  e.g.  Wark,  in  Dumfriesshire, 
Warke  Castle,  on  the  Scottish  border ;  Warkthwaite  (the 
enclosure  belonging  to  the  fortress),  in  Cumberland ;  Ald- 
wark  (old  fortress)  ;  Newark,  in  Nottingham  and  in  Selkirk 
(the  new  fortress)  ;  Southwark  (the  south  fortress)  ;  Warks- 
burn,  Warkton,  Warkworth  (places  named  from  their  vicinity 
to  Warke  Castle),  in  Northumberland. 

.„       .      (  water ;    e.g.    Rothwasser    (a  town  on 

WASSER,  WAZAR  (Teut.),     I-..          j     •        x       c  u 

'    .  v          '    <  the  red  river)  ;  Schwartz wasser  (black 

av'''  (  water) ;     Whiteadder    (white    water), 

river  names  ;  Ullswater  (named  from  Ulla  or  Ulf,  a  Norse 
chief) ;  Wasserburg,  in  Bavaria,  on  the  R.  Inn,  and  Wasser- 
burg  on  Lake  Constance  (the  town  on  the  water) ;  Waterloo 
(the  watery  marsh)  ;  Wasserbillig  (the  plain  by  the  river) ; 
Zwishenwassern  (between  the  waters,  at  the  confluence  of 
two  streams),  in  Illyria ;  Altwasser,  Sclav.  Starawoda  (the 
old  stream),  in  Moravia.  The  ancient  name  of  the  R. 
Odra  was  Wodra  (water). 

.        .          /a  way,  a  road,  cognate  with  the  Lat.  via;  e.g. 
WEG  (yer.),         I  Wegefurt  and  Wayford  (the  way  to  the  ford); 
1       /A  c  \       )  Bradenwaag,    (broad    way)  ;     Lichtenweg   (the 
WAEG  (A.b.),      ^  cleared  road) .  Wegmuhle  (mill  road) ;  Wainfleet 
(the  way  by  the  harbour) ;  Wakefield  (the  field  by  the  way- 
side) ;   Norway,  A.S.  Nonvaegas  (the  northern  districts  or 
paths)  ;    Courbevoie,   Lat.   Curba-vta  (the  curbed  way),  in 

tr     \     (  pasture ;    e.g.    Langenweid  (the  long  pasture) ; 

'EIDE  A  cy'   \  Rathsweide  (the  councillor's  pasture)  ;  Neuweid 

WEOD  (A.b.),      |  ^new  pasture)  .  Mittweyda  (the  middle  pasture). 


WEILER  (Ger.),  a  hamlet,  Old  Ger.  wila;  e.g.  Klein weil 
(the  little  hamlet) ;  Kurzweil  (short  hamlet) ;  Langweil 
(long  hamlet),  Pfaffwyl  (the  priest's  hamlet)  ;  Weiller,  in 
Alsace,  Echzell,  in  Hesse-Darmstadt,  corrupt,  from  Achizwila 
(the  hamlet  on  the  water)  ;  Eschweiler  (the  hamlet  near  ash- 
trees)  ;  Dettweiler  (the  hamlet  of  the  diet,  or  people's 
meeting) ;  Rappersweil  (the  hamlet  of  Rappert,  a  per- 
sonal name) ;  Rothwell,  in  Baden,  anc.  Rotwili  (red  hamlet). 
In  England  this  word  takes  the  form  of  well  or  «////,  as 
in  Kittlewell  and  Bradwell.  In  Normandy,  Hardvilliers, 
Rohrwiller,  Neuviller,  etc. 

WEIR  (A.S.),  a  dam,  that  which  wards  off  the  water,  wearan,  A.S., 
to  guard  ;  e.g.  Ware,  in  Co.  Hertford,  named  from  a  dam 
on  the  R.  Lea,  made  by  the  Danes  ;  Wareham  (the  town 
on  the  Weir),  in  Dorsetshire ;  Warminster  (the  monastery 
near  the  weir.) 
/r  \  (  white  ;  e.g.  Weisshorn  (white  cape)  ;  Weissmaes 

HW      (\  S*\       J  (wnite    fi^d)  ;    Weissenberg    and    Weissenfels 

HVin  (S  '  d\  I  (wnite  rock)  ;  Weissenburg  and  Weissenstadt 
**  \ (white  town);  Weissenthurm  (white  tower). 
Sometimes  the  word  takes  the  form  of  wttten,  as  in  Witten- 
berg and  Wittenburg  (white  fortress),  although  this  prefix 
is  frequently  derived  from  vz'tte,  wood  ;  Whitacre  (white 
field)  ;  Whitburne,  Whitbourne,  Whitbeck  (white  stream)  ; 
Witley  (white  meadow)  ;  Whiston,  in  Worcester,  so  named 
because  it  was  originally  a  convent  of  white  nuns. 

WEND,  WIND,  words  applied  in  German  topography  to  mark  the 
settlements  of  the  Wends  or  Sclavonians,  from  the  verb  ivan- 
deln,  to  wander.  The  Sclavonians  call  themselves  Slowjane, 
which  means  intelligible  men,  or  Srl>,  which  means  kinsmen; 
while,  by  all  the  Sclavonic  tribes,  the  Germans  are  called 
nzemiec,  the  dumb  men,  because  their  language  is  unintel- 
ligible to  their  Sclavonic  neighbours.  The  Wends  in  the 
sixth  century  occupied  the  north-eastern  parts  of  Germany, 
but  are  now  chiefly  confined  to  Lusatia  ;  e.g.  Wendischbach 
(the  Wends'  brook) ;  Wendischhausen  and  Windsheim  (the 
dwellings  of  the  Wends) ;  Wendischgratz  (the  Wends'  for- 
tress) ;  Wendischkappel  (the  Wends'  chapel  or  church)  ; 
Windecken  and  Wendischhayn  (the  Wends'  corner  and 


WERBA  (Sclav.),  pasture  ;  e.g.  Werben,  on  the  Elbe. 

WERCH  (Sclav.),  a  summit ;  e.g.  Werchau  (the  town  on  the  height), 
in  Prussia ;  Werch-see  (the  lake  on  the  height) ;  Werchne- 
Udinsk  (the  height  on  the  R.  Uda) ;  Verkne-Dnieprevosk 
(the  high  town  on  the  R.  Dnieper)  ;  Werchne-Uralish,  on 
the  R.  Ural  ;  Verkne-Kolynski,  on  the  R.  Kolyma ; 
Verkne-Sousensk,  on  the  R.  Sosna ;  Werchblatt  (high 

WERF,  WARF  (Teut),  a  dam  or  wharf;  literally,  what  is  thrown  up — 
werfen;  e.g.  Werfen  (the  town  on  the  embankment),  in 
Upper  Austria  ;  Antwerp,  anc.  Andoverpum  (at  the  wharf)  ; 
Hohenwerpum  (high  wharf)  ;  Neuwarp  (new  wharf). 

WERK,  WEORC  (Teut.),  a  work,  applied  in  topography  to  places 
where  manufactures  are  carried  on ;  e.g.  Bergwerk  (a  hill 
work  or  mine)  ;  Konigswerk  (the  king's  manufactory)  ; 
Hofwerk  and  Werkhausen  (places  connected  with  mines)  ; 
Hiittenwerk  (the  huts  of  the  workmen  in  the  Hartz  Moun- 
tains) ;  Seifenwerk  (the  place  for  washing  the  metals  at  the 
mines) ;  Frederickswerk  (a  cannon  foundry  in  Denmark 
established  by  King  Frederick)  ;  Wirksworth,  in  Derbyshire 
(the  enclosure  near  the  mines). 

WESTEN  (Ger.),  the  west.  This  word  Buttman  traces  to  an  old 
Ger.  root  ivesen,  Goth,  visan  (rest),  i.e.  the  quarter  of  the 
heavens  where  the  sun  sinks  to  rest ;  e.g.  Westphalia  (the 
western  plain)  ;  Westerwald  (west  wood)  ;  Westerufer  (the 
western  shore,  i.e.  of  the  R.  Inn)  ;  Westhausen  and  West- 
hoffen  (the  west  dwellings  and  court),  in  Alsace ;  Wesen, 
on  the  west  shore  of  Lake  Wallensee ;  Westeraas,  in 
Sweden,  anc.  Vestra-aros  (western  dwelling),  so  called  to 
distinguish  it  from  Ostra-aros  (the  eastern  dwelling)  ;  West- 
man's  Isles,  Scand.  Vestmanna-eyar,  on  the  coast  of  Iceland, 
so  called  because  peopled  by  men  from  the  west — Irish 
pirates ;  Westbury,  Westbourn,  Weston,  Westbrook,  from 
the  same  root. 

/r_       .  /  a  dwelling,  a  village,  a  town — a  word 

WICH,  wic,  WYK  (Teut.),  I  .  , 

'  >»        "  )  in  general  use  in   the   topography  of 

WICK,  VIG  (Scand.),  <  /•* 

\~  .      /'  i  Great  Britain,  as  well  as  on  the  con- 

WAS,  WIES  (Sclav.),  I..  ,    ,     ' .  , 

\tinent,    but    with    various    meanings. 

According  to  Leo,  the  Teut.  wick  or'  vichs  arose  from  the 
root  ivaes,  A.S.,  and  wiese,  Ger.   (a   moist  meadow)  and 

WICH  209 

hence  was  applied  to  places  situated  on  low  lands,  often  on 
the  bank  of  a  stream ;  e.g.  Meeswyk  (the  town  on  the 
Maas)  ;  Beverwyk,  on  the  Bever.  The  primary  meaning 
seems  to  have  been  a  station — with  the  Anglo-Saxons  a 
station  or  abode  on  the  land,  with  the  Norsemen  a  station 
for  ships.  The  root  of  the  word  runs  through  all  the  Aryan 
languages  —  Sansc.  veqa,  Grk.  oikos,  Pol.  ivies,  Ir.  fieh, 
Cym.-Cel.  qivic,  all  meaning  an  abode  ;  e.g.  Alnwick  (the 
town  on  the  R.  Alne) ;  Ipswich,  anc.  Gippensivich,  on  the 
Gipping ;  York,  A.S.  Eorvic,  Lat.  Eboracum,  Welsh  Caer- 
Ebreuc  (the  town  on  the  water,  or  R.  Eure) ;  Hawick  (the  town 
on  the  haugh  or  low  meadow)  ;  Noordwyk  (north  town)  ; 
Nederwyk  (lower  town) ;  Zuidwyk  and  Zuick  (south  town), 
in  Holland  and  Belgium  ;  Harwich  (army  town),  so  called 
from  having  been  a  Saxon  station  or  military  depot ;  Keswick 
(the  town  of  Cissa)  ;  Wickware,  in  Gloucestershire  (the 
town  of  the  family  of  De  la  Ware).  On  the  other  hand,  the 
Scandinavian  wick  or  vig  signifies  a  bay,  or  a  place  situated 
on  the  coast,  or  at  the  mouth  of  a  river — thus  Schleswick  (on 
a  bay  formed  by  the  R.  Schlie),  in  Prussia ;  Wick  (the 
town  on  the  bay),  in  Caithness  ;  Sandwich  (the  town  on  the 
sandy  bay) ;  Lerwick  (on  the  muddy  bay)  ;  Greenwich, 
Scand.  Granvigen  (the  town  on  the  pine  bay)  ;  Reikjavik, 
in  Iceland  (the  reeky  or  smoky  bay)  ;  Vigo  in  Spain,  and 
Vaage  in  Norway  (on  spacious  bays)  ;  Swanage,  in  Dorset, 
anc.  Swanwick  (Sweyen's  bay  town)  ;  Brodick,  in  Arran 
(the  broad  bay  town)  ;  Wicklow,  in  Ireland,  probably 
Danish  Vtgloe  (bay  shelter),  used  by  the  Danes  as  a  ship 
station  ;  Smerwick  (butter  bay)  ;  Berwick,  contracted  from 
Abtnuick  (at  the  mouth  of  the  R.  Tweed) — v.  ABER.  Wiche 
also  denotes  a  place  where  there  are  salt  mines  or  springs, 
and  in  this  sense  is  probably  connected  with  the  Scand.  vig, 
as  salt  was  often  obtained  by  the  evaporation  of  sea-water 
in  shallow  bays ;  thus  Nantwich — v.  NANT  ;  Middlewich 
(the  middle  salt  works) ;  Droitwich,  Lat.  Salincz  (the  salt 
springs,  where  the  droit  or  tax  was  paid).  In  some  cases 
wick  or  wick  is  derived  from  the  Lat.  vicus,  cognate  with 
the  Grk.  oikos  and  Sansc.  vega  (a  dwelling) — thus  Katwyk- 
sur-mer  and  Katwyk-sur-Rhin  are  supposed  to  occupy  the 
site  of  the  Roman  Vicus-Cattorum  (the  dwelling-place  of 


the  Chatti)  ;  Vick  or  Vique,  in  Spain,  from  Vicus-Ausoni- 
ensis  (the  dwelling  of  the  Ausones)  ;  Vidauban,  in  France, 
from  Vicus-Albanus  (the  dwelling  of  Albanus)  ;  Longwy, 
from  Longus-vicus  (long  town)  ;  Limoges,  anc.  Lemo-vicum 
(the  town  of  the  Lemovici)  ;  also  in  France  :  Vic-despres 
(the  town  on  the  meadows)  ;  Vic-sur-Losse  and  Vic-sur- 
Aisne,  the  towns  on  these  rivers.  The  Sclav,  ivice  is 
found  in  Jazlowice  (the  town  on  the  marsh)  ;  and  Malsch- 
wice  (Matthew's  town),  etc. 

WIDR,  or  VITU  (Teut.  and  Scand.),  wood ;  e.g.  Norwood  (north 
wood) ;  Selwood,  Lat.  Sylva-magna  (great  wood),  Celtic 
Coitmaur;  Cotes  wold  (from  its  sheep-cotes,  in  the  wood)  ; 
the  Wolds,  near  Wolderness,  in  Yorkshire ;  Ringwood,  in 
Hants,  Lat.  Regni-sylva  (the  wood  or  forest  of  the  Regni, 
a  tribe)  ;  Wittstock  and  Woodstock  (woody  place)  ;  but 
Wittingau,  Wittingen,  Wittgenstein,  Wittgensdorf,  and 
other  names  with  this  prefix  in  Germany,  come  from  the 
patronymic  Wittick  or  Wittikind  (i.e.  the  children  of  the 
woods).  In  England  the  same  prefix  may  mean  white,  as 
in  Witney,  or  from  places  where  the  Saxon  Witangemote 
held  their  meetings ;  Holywood,  in  Dumfriesshire,  Lat. 
Abbia  sacra  nemoris  (the  abbey  of  the  sacred  wood),  called 
by  the  Irish  Der-Congal  (the  sacred  oak  grove  of  Congal). 

WIECK,  or  WIKI  (Sclav.),  a  market  especially  for  corn  ;  e.g.  Wieck 
(the  market  town),  the  name  of  numerous  places  in  the 
Sclavonic  districts ;  Wikow  (the  Sclavonic  name  for  Elster- 
werder) — v.  WARID,  etc. 

WIESE  (Ger  \      (  Pasture-ground  or  meadow  ;    e.g.    Pfaffenwiese 

q  A  o  \      \  (the    priest's    meadow)  ;     Schaafwiese     (sheep 

'''       (pasture);  Wiesbaden  (the  meadow  baths);  the 

Wash  (near  moist  pasture-ground) ;    Wismar   (beautiful  or 

rich  meadow),  in  Mecklenburg ;  Wiesflech  (the  hamlet  in 

the  meadow  pasture) ;    Ziegelwasen  (the  goat's  meadow)  ; 

Wisheim  (the  dwelling  in  the  meadow  or  pasture-ground). 
WILIG  (A.S.),  the   willow ;  e.g.  Wilcrick  (willow  crag)  ;   Wilden 

(willow  hollow)  ;  but  Willoughby  and  Willoughton,  probably 

from  a  personal  name. 
WIN  (A.S.),    victory ;    e.g.   Winford,  Winslow,    Wingrave,    Wim- 

borne  (the  ford,  hill,  entrenchment,  and  brook  of  the  victory). 


WINKEL  (Ger )    (  a    C0rner  ;     *'£'    Winceby     (corner    dwelling)  ; 

WINCFI  (A.  S  \    \  Winchcomb  (the  corner  hollow) ;  Winchelsea  (the 

'    '    '''  (  island  or  moist  land  at  the  corner)  ;  Winchendon 

(corner  hill)  ;    Winkleigh   (corner  meadow)  ;    Winkelhorst 

(corner  thicket)  ;    Winkeldorf  (corner  village)  ;    Winklarn 

(the  waste  field  at  the  corner). 

WISCH,  or  OSSICK,  contracted  from  the  Sclav,  hussoki  (high)  ;  e.g. 
Wissek,  Weissagh,  Wisowice  or  Wisowitz,  Ossiegt,  and 
Ossagh  (high  village)  ;  Wischhrad  (high  fortress)  ;  Wisoki- 
mazo-wieck  (the  high  middle  market -town),  in  Poland ; 
but  in  Germany  wisch  is  sometimes  a  form  of  iviese 
(meadow),  as  in  Wischmiihle  (the  meadow  mill)  ;  Wisch- 
hausen  (the  dwelling  in  the  meadow) ;  Essek,  for  Ossick 
(high  place),  in  Sclavonia. 

WITHIG  (A.S.),  the  willow;  e.g.  Witham,  Withern  (willow  dwelling); 
Withybrook  (willow  stream)  ;  Withridge  (willow  ridge). 

won  (A.S.),  a  turning;  e.g.  Woburn,  Wooburn  (the  bend  of  the 
stream)  ;  Woking  (the  turning  at  the  chink  or  chine). 

WOL  (Sclav.),  the  ox  ;  e.g.  Wolgast  (the  oxen's  shed)  ;  Wohlau  (an 
enclosure  for  oxen),  a  town  in  Prussia  which  carries  on 
a  great  trade  in  cattle ;  Wollin  (the  place  of  oxen),  at  the 
mouth  of  the  R.  Oder. 

WOLSCHA,  or  OELZA  (Sclav.),  the  alder-tree  ;  e.g.  Wolschau,  Wol- 
schen,  Wolsching,  Wolschinka  (the  place  abounding  in 
alders)  ;  the  Sclavonic  name  for  the  R.  Elster  is  Wolshinka 
(the.  river  of  alders)  ;  Oels,  in  Silesia,  on  the  Oelse  (alder- 
tree  stream) ;  Oelsen  and  Olsenice  (the  village  of  alder- 
trees)  ;  Olsnitz  (the  town  on  Elster,  or  alder  stream). 

WOLV,  or  WOL,  a  prefix  sometimes  employed  with  reference  to  the 
wolf,  as  in  Wolvesley  (the  wolves'  island),  where  a  tribute 
of  wolves'  heads  was  paid  annually  by  the  Britons  to  the 
Saxons,  by  order  of  King  Edgar.  Sometimes  as  a  contrac- 
tion for  wold  (the  waste  land),  as  in  Wolford,  Wolborough, 
Woldingham,  Wooler,  and  in  Woolverton  ;  but  it  comes 
often  also  from  a  personal  name,  as  in  Wolfhamcote, 
Wulferlow,  Wolferton  (from  Ulp  or  Wulfhern). 

WORTH,  or  WEORTHING  (A.S.),  a  farm,  manor,  or  estate,  a  place 
warded  or  protected,  A.S.  ivarian  (to  defend);  cognate 
with  the  Ger.  warid  or  iverder;  e.g.  Worthing  in  Sussex, 
Worthen  in  Salop,  Worthy  and  Worting  in  Hants, 


Worthington  in  Lancashire  (the  farm  or  manor)  ;  High- 
worth  (high  manor) ;  Kenilworth  (the  estate  of  Kenelm)  ; 
Bosworth  (of  Bosa)  ;  Edgeworth  (the  estate  on  the  border)  ; 
Edgeware,  anc.  Edgeivorth,  same  meaning ;  Polwarth  (the 
estate  on  the  marshy  land),  a  parish  in  Berwickshire ; 
Ravenworth  (the  manor  of  Hrafen)  ;  Rickmansworth  (of 
Rickman)  ;  Tamworth  (the  manor),  on  R.  Tarn ;  Wands- 
worth,  on  the  R.  Wandle ;  Worksworth  (the  place  near 
the  miner's  works)  ;  Chatsworth  (the  manor  in  the  wood), 
Celtic  coed;  Hammersmith,  corrupt,  from  Hermoderworth 
(the  manor  of  Hermode). 

(r     .      (  an  herb,  a  plant ;  ivyrtun,  a  garden  ;  e.g.  Wurtz- 
xi  c  \       \  bur&>    anc-    Herbipolis    (the    city    of    plants) ; 
r  (A-b-)>      (  Wortley  (the  place  or  field  of  herbs);  Warton 
(the  garden). 

YEN  (Chinese),  salt;  e.g.  Yen-shan  (salt  hill);  Yen-yuen  (salt 

YENI  (Turc.),  new ;  e.g.  Yenidja-Vardar  (the  new  fortress),  anc. 
Pella;  Yenidya-Carasu  (the  new  place  on  the  black  water)  ; 
Yenikale  (the  new  castle)  ;  Yenikhan  (new  inn)  ;  Yeniseisk 
(the  new  town  on  the  R.  Yenisei)  ;  Yenishehr  (the  new 
dwelling)  ;  Yeni-Bazar  (new  market)  ;  Yenikoi  (new  village) ; 
Yeni-Hissar  (new  castle). 

ZAB  (Ar.),  a  fountain  ;  e.g.  Great  and  Little  Zab,  in  Turkey. 
ZARNY,  or  CZERNY  (Sclav.),  black ;  e.g.  Zschorne  (black  town)  ; 

Sornosche-Elster,  i.e.  the  black  R.   Elster ;  Zschornegosda 

(black  inn) ;  Zarnowice,  Zarnowitz,  Same,  Sarnow,  Sarnowo, 

Sarnaki  (black  village). 
ZERENY,  or  CZERENY  (Sclav.),  red  ;.e.g.  Tscherna  (the  red  river)  ; 

Tscherniz  or  Zerniz  (red  town)  ;  Tzernagora  (red  mountain). 
ZERKWA  (Sclav.),  a   Greek  church,   from   the   Grk.   kuriakej    a 

Romish    church    in   their   language    is    called    kostiolj    a 

Protestant  church,  zbor;  e.g.  Zerkowo,  Zerkowitz,  Zerkwitz 

(the  town  of  the  Greek  church). 


ZETTEL  (Sclav.),  from   sedal  (Ger.),  a  seat    or  settlement ;   e.g. 

Brockzettel  (the  settlement  or  seat  on  the  broken-up  land) ; 

Endzettel  (the  settlement  at  the  corner) ;   Weinzettel  (the 

wine  settlement), 
zi  (Old  Fr.),  a  habitation  ;   e.g.  Sussi   (the  habitation   on   high 

ground) ;     Issy   (the   dwelling,   here,    or   on    low  ground)  ; 

Passy  (the  dwelling  near  the  boat — hoc  or  bad). 


A  few  Names  which  do  not  occur  in  the  body  of  the  Work  are  explained 
in  the  Index. 


Abbey feale,  4 

Abbeyleix  and  Abbey shrule,  4 

Abyssinia,  named  from  the  Rivers  Abai 

and  Wabash,  or,  according  to  Bruce, 

from  habish  (mixed),  i.e.  the  country 

of  the  mixed  races 
Acapulca,  9 
Acre,    anc.    Accho,   Ar.    the  sultry  or 

sandy  shore 

Adelsberg,  the  nobles'  fortress 
Aden,  Ar.  a  paradise 
Afium-kara-hissar,    Turc.     the    black 

castle  of  opium 
Agades,  the  enclosure 
Agde,   in  France,   Grk.    Agathos,   the 

good  place,  founded  by  Greeks  from 


Aghrim,  or  Aughrim,  67 
Agosta,  Lat.  Augusta 
Agra,  2 
Airdrie,  10 
Aix,  9 

Aix-la-Chapelle,  9 
Akerman,  Turc.  (white  castle) 
Akhalzk,  new  fortress 
Alabama,  the  land  of  rest 
Alagous  Bay  (abounding  in  lakes) 
Aland,  water  land 
Albania,  7 

Albert,  in  Cape  Colony,  named  after 
the  Prince  Consort 

Albuera,  Ar.  the  lake 

Albuquerque,  Lat.  the  white  oak- 

Alcala,  Ar.  the  castle,  114 

Alcantara,  6 

Alcarez,  Ar.  the  farm 

Aldershott,  107 

Alemtayo  (beyond  the  R.  Tagus) 

Aleutian  Islands,  the  bold  rocks 

Alexandria  and  Alexandretta,  named 
after  Alexander  the  Great 

Alexandria,  in  Cape  Colony,  in  honour 
of  Queen  Victoria 

Alexandria,  in  Italy,  after  Pope  Alex- 
ander III. 

Alhama,  100 

Alleghany  Mountains,  from  a  tribe 

Alloa,  the  way  to  the  sea 

Almaden,  Ar.  the  mine 

Almanza,  Ar.  the  plain 

Almanzor,  Ar.  victorious 

Almeida,  Ar.  the  table 

Altona,  called  by  the  Hamburgians 
All-su-nah,  i.e.  (all  too  near),  in 
allusion  to  its  vicinity  to  Hamburg 

Alyth,  the  ascent  or  slope 

America,  named  after  the  Florentine 
adventurer  Amerigo- Vespucci 

Angora,  anc.  Ancyra 



Annam  (the  place  of  the  South) 

Anstruther,  179 

Antrim  (at  the  elder  trees) 

Antwerp,  208 

Aoasta,  Lat.  Augusta 

Apennine  Mountains,  154 

Appenzel,  4 

Appleby,  37 

Applecross,  3 

Aranjues,  Lat.  Ara  Jovis,  the  altar  o 


Aravali  Mountain,  the  hill  of  strength 
Arbois,  anc.  Arborosa,  the  woody  placi 
Arbroath,  3 
Archangel,   named  in  honour  of  th< 

Archangel  Michael 
Archipelago,  the  chief  sea 
Arcos,    anc.   Argobriga,  the  town  on 

the  bend 
Ardeche,  now  Ardoix,  in  France,  from 

ardoise,  slate 
Ardee,  in  Ireland,  on  the  R.  Dee,  now 

the  Nith 

Ardeen  and  Ardennes,  10,  n 
Ardfert,  10 
Ardrossan,  10 
Argos,  the  plain 
Argyle,  150 

Aries,  Cel.  Ar-laeth,  the  marshy  land 
Armagh,     i.e.     Ardmacha,     Macha's 


Armorica,  143 

Arras,  named  from  the  Atrebates 
Arthur  Seat,  in  Edinburgh,  Gael.  Ard- 
na-said,  i.e.  the  height  of  the  arrows, 
meaning   a   convenient    ground    to 
shoot  from 
Ascension  Island,   so  named  because 

discovered  on  Ascension  Day 
Asperne,  n 
Aspropotamo,  Modern  Grk.  (the  white 

Assouan,  Ar.  the  opening  at  the  mouth 

of  the  Nile 

Astrakan,  named  after  a  Tartar  king 
Astura  R.,  199 
Asturias,  12 

Attica,  Grk.  the  promontory 
Aubusson,  36 

Auch,  named  after  the  Ausci,  a  tribe 

Auchinleck,  5 

Auckland,  5 

Audlem,  7 

Augsburg,  35 

Aurillac,  supposed  to  have  been  named 

after  the  Emperor  Aurelian 
Auriol,  anc.  Auriolum,  the  golden  or 

Austerlitz,  151 
Australia,  the  southern  land 
Austria,  164 
Autun,  69 

Auvergne,  the  high  country,  1 1 
Ava,  or  Awa,   named  from  angwa,  a 

Avignon,  14 
Avranches,  named  from  the  Abrin- 


Awe,  Loch,  2 
Azores  Isles,  Port,  the  islands  of  hawks 



Babelmandeb  Strait,  15 

Bactria,  Pers.  the  east  country 

Badajos,  corrupt,  from  Lat.  Pax  Au- 

Baden,  15 

Baffin's  Bay,  named  in  honour  of  the 

Bagdad,  16 

Bahar,  corrupt,  from  Vihar,  a  Buddhist 

Bahia,  Port,  the  bay,  16 

Bahr-el-Abiad,  17 

Bahrein,  17 

Baikal,  the  rich  sea 

Baireuth,  162 

3akewell,  162 

Bakhtchisarai,  the  palace  of  the  gar- 

3ala  (river  head),  in  Wales 

Balachulish,  17 

Balaclava,  21 

Bala-Ghauts,  18 

Jala-hissar,  18 

Balasore,  18 



Balbriggan,  Brecan's  bridge 

Balearic  Isles,  because  their  inhabitants 
were  skilful  in  the  use  of  the  sling 
(Balla,  Grk.  to  throw) 

Balfour,  17 

Balkan,  18 

Balkh,  1 8 

Ballantrae,  the  dwelling  on  the  sea- 
shore, 196 

Ballater,  125 

Ballina,  corrupt,  from  Bel-atha,  ford 
mouth,  21 

Ballingry,   the  town  of  the  king — v. 


Ballintra,  196 

Balloch,  22 

Ballycastle,  castle-town — v.  17 

Ballymena,  17 

Ballymoney,  17 

Ballyshannon,  22 

Balmaghie,  18 

Balmaklellan,   the  town  of  the  Mac- 

lellans,  18 
Balmerino,  17 
Balmoral,  17 
Balquhidder,  the  town  at  the  back  of 

the  country 
Balta  and   Baltia,   the  country  of  the 

belts  or  straits,  the  ancient  name  of 

Scandinavia,  18 
Banbury,  35 
Banchory,  the  fair  valley 
Banchory-Devenick    and    Banchory  - 

Ternan,   named  in  honour  of  two 

saints  who  lived  there 
Banda- Oriental,  the  eastern  bank  of 

the  Rio-de-la-Plata 
Banff,  34 
Bangor,  23 
Banjarmassin,  from  bender,  a  harbour, 

and  masing,  usual,  or  from  banjer, 

water,  and  massin,  salt 
Banks  Islands  and  Banks  Land,  named 

in  honour  of  Sir  Joseph  Banks 
Bantry,  Ir.  Beantraighe,   i.e.   belong- 

Note. — For  Scotch  or  Irish  names  beginning 
with  bai  or  bally,  v.  BAILE  or  BEAL,  pp. 
17  and  21 

ing  to  the  descendants  of  Beann,  of 
the  royal  race  of  Ulster 

Barbadoes,  Port,  the  island  of  pines 

Barbary,  the  country  of  the  Berbers 

Barbuda,  the  island  of  the  bearded  men, 
so  named  by  the  Portuguese 

Barcelona,  named  from  Hamilcar 
Barca,  who  founded  it 

BardhWan,  Pers.  the  thriving  place 

Bardsey,  72 

Barfleur,  81 

Bar-le-Duc,  194 

Barnstaple,  152 

Barrow,  19 

Barrow  Strait,  named  in  honour  of 
Sir  John  Barrow 

Barton,  194 

Basque  Provinces,  from  bassoco,  a 
mountaineer,  or,  according  to  Hum- 
boldt,  from  basoa,  a  forest 

Bass  Strait,  named  after  Bass,  a  navi- 

Basse  Terre,  low  land 

Bassora,  or  Bozra,  the  fortress 

Batavia,  108 

Bath,  16 

Battersea,  71 

Battle  and  Buittle,  27 

Bautzen,  33 

Bavaria,  the  country  of  the  Boii 

Bayeux,  named  from  the  Bajoccas,  a 

Bayonne,  17 

Beachy  Head,  19 

Beauley  and  Beaulieu,  21 

Beaumaris,  21 

Beauvais,  named  from  the  Bellovacii 

Bedford,  82 

Bednore,  151 

Beersheba,  20 

Behring  Strait,  so  named  by  Captain 
Cook  in  honour  of  Behring,  a  Rus- 
sian navigator 

Beinn,  Ben,  etc.,  a  mountain,  22 

Beira,  Port,  the  river-bank 

Beja,  corrupt,  from  the  Lat.  Pax-Julia 

Belfast,  22 

Belgium,  named  from  the  Belgae 

Belgrade,  21 



Belize,  named  after  a  person  called 

Bell  Rock  or  Inch  Cape,  a  reef  of  rocks 
south-east  from  Arbroath,  so  called 
from  the  lighthouse  which  was  erected 
on  it  in  1811,  previous  to  which  the 
monks  of  Arbroath  caused  a  bell  to 
be  suspended  upon  it  so  as  to  be  rung 
by  the  waves,  and  thus  give  warning 
to  mariners 

Belleisle,  21 

Bellie,  the  mouth  of  the  ford 

Belper,  21 

Beluchistan,  182 

Benares,  named  from  the  names 
of  the  two  rivers  on  which  it  is 

Bender,  etc.,  23 

Beni,  etc.,  23 

Benin,  corrupt,  from  Lat.  benignus, 

Berbice,  at  the  mouth  of  the  R. 

Berdiansk,  176 

Berg  and  its  derivatives,  23 

Bergamo,  on  a  hill 

Berhampore,  160 

Berkeley,  25 

Berkshire,  25 

Berlin,  perhaps  from  Sclav,  berle,  un- 
cultivated ground,  but  uncertain 

Bermudas  Isles,  named  after  the  dis- 
coverer Juan  Bermudez 

Berriew,  corrupt,  from  Aber-Rhiw, 
at  the  mouth  of  the  R.  Rhiw,  in 
Wales,  3 

Bervie,  112 

Berwick,  209 

Berwyn,  19 

Beveland,  122 

Beverley,  25 

Bewdley,  21      % 

Beyrout,  20 

Bhagulpore,  160 

Bhurtpore,  160 

Bicester,  corrupt,  from  Birincester,  i.e. 
the  fortress  of  Birin,  Bishop  of  Glou- 

Bideford,  by  the  ford 

Biela-Tsorkov,  white  church 

Bielgorod,  white  fortress 

Bielorietzk,  176 

Biggar,  the  soft  land 

Bilbao,  under  the  hill 

Bingley,  the  field  of  Bing,  the  original 

Bir,  20 

Birkdale,  the  birch  valley 

Birkenhead  and  Birkhampstead,  25 

Birmingham,  99 

Biscaya  and  Bay  of  Biscay,  named 
from  the  Basques,  which,  accord- 
ing to  Humboldt,  means  forest 

Bishop-Auckland,  so  called  from  the 
number  of  oaks  that  grew  here,  and 
from  the  manor  having  belonged  to 
the  bishops  of  Durham 

Black  Sea,  perhaps  so  called  from  its 
frequent  storms  and  fogs.  The 
Greeks  called  it  Euxine,  from  eiixinos, 
hospitable,  disliking  its  original 
name,  Axinos,  inhospitable 

Blaen  and  its  derivatives,  26 

Blair  and  its  derivatives,  26 

Blantyre,  the  warm  retreat 

Bodmin,  27 

Bohemia,  100 

Bois-le-Duc,  the  duke's  wood 

Bokhara,  the  treasury  of  sciences,  the 
chief  town  in  a  state  of  the  same 

Bolivia,  named  after  its  liberator 

Bologna  and  Boulogne,  named  from 
the  Boii 

Bombay,  named  after  an  Indian  god- 
dess Bombed  but  translated  by  the 
Portuguese  into  Bom-bahia,  good 

Bordeaux,  9 

Bornholm,  127 

Borovsk,  28 

Borrowstounness,  145 

Bosphorus,  Grk.  the  passage  of  the 

Bourges,  named  from  the  Bituriges 

Brabant,  18 



Bramapootra     R.,    the    offspring    of 

Brazil,  named  from  the  colour  of  its 

dye-woods,  braza,  Port,  a  live  coal 
Breadalbane,  29 
Brecknock,  the  hill  of  Brecon  or  Bry- 

chan,  a  Welsh  prince 
Breda,  29 
Breslaw,   named    after   King  Vratis- 

Breton,  Cape,  discovered  by  mariners 

from  Brittany 
Bridgenorth,  31 
Bridgewater,  31 
Brieg,  29 
Brighton,   corrupt,   from  Brighthelm- 

ston,  from  a  personal  name 
Bristol,  183 
Britain  :  the  Cym.-Cel.  root  brith,  to 

paint,  is  supposed  by  some  to  be  the 

root  of  the  word  ;  the  British  poets 

called  it  Inis  gwyn,   white  island, 

which  answers  to  the  Roman  name 

Brixton,  31 
Brodick,  209 
Brody,  30 
Brooklyn,   in   New  York,   Dutch,    the 

broken-up  land 
Bruges,  31 
Brunswick,  172 
Brussels,  30 
Brzesce-Litewski,  28 
Bucharest,  the  city  of  enjoyment 
Buckingham,    a    tribe   name,    or   the 

dwelling  among  beeches,  33 
Buda,  33 
Budweis,  33 
Buenos-Ayres,  28 
Builth,  8 
Bungay,  95 
Burgos,  36 
Burslem,   Burward's    dwelling   in    the 

clayey  soil,  him 
Bury,  34 
Bushire,  174 
Bute,  33 
Buttermere,  136 
Buxton,  33 


Cabrach,  the  timber-moss,  a  parish  in 
Co.  Banff 

Cader-Idris,  the  chair  of  Idris,  in  Wales 

Cadiz,  86 

Cahors,  named  from  the  Cadurci 

Cairo,  Ar.  Al-kahirah,  the  victorious 

Calahorra,  114 

Calais,  39 

Calatayud,  114 

Calcutta,  88 

California  is  supposed  to  have  taken  its 
name  from  an  old  romance,  in  which 
this  name  was  given  to  an  imaginary 
island  filled  with  gold,  and  Cortes 
applied  the  name  to  the  whole  dis- 

Callander,  the  corner  of  the  water — v. 

The  Calf  of  Man.  The  word  calf 
was  frequently  used  by  the  Norse- 
men for  a  smaller  object  in  relation 
to  a  larger — i.e.  the  small  island  off 

Calvados,  named  from  one  of  the  vessels 
of  the  Spanish  Armada,  wrecked  on 
the  coast  of  France 

Cambay,  anc.  Khumbavati,  the  city  of 
the  pillar 

Cambuskenneth,  39 

Canada,  Ind.  Kannahta,  a  collection 
of  huts 

Candahar,  named  after  Alexander  the 

Candia,  Ar.  Khandce,  the  trench  island 

Cannes,  40 

Cannoch,  i.e.  cann,  bright,  and  oich, 
water,  the  ancient  name  of  the  spot 
on  which  Conway  Castle  stands 

Canopus  was  called  by  the  Egyptians 
the  city  of  Kneph,  a  god 

Cantal,  the  head  of  the  rock,  41 

Canton,  i.e.  K-wang  Chou,  the  metro- 

Cantyre  or  Kintyre,  45 

Capri  and  Caprera,  the  islands  of  wild 


Cardigan,  named  after  its  ancient  king 

Ceredig,  and  is  therefore  corrupted 

from  Ceredigion 
Carew,  38 
Carlingford,  39 
Carlisle,  38 
Carlow,  129 
Carlscroone,  118 
Carlshamm,  Charles's  haven,  97 
Carluke,  39 

Carmel,  Heb.  the  fruitful  field 
Carmichael,  39 
Carnac,  41 
Carnatic,  named  from  the  Carnates,  a 


Carniola,  41 
Carolina,   U.  S. ,  named  after  Charles 

Caroline  Isles,  named  after  Carlos  II. 

of  Spain 
Carpathian  Mountains,  from  Chrabat, 

a  mountain  range 

Carrantuohill,    Ir.   the  reversed  reap- 
ing-hook, the  highest  mountain  in 

Carthage,  86 
Carthagena,  86 
Casale,  42 
Cashel,  42 
Caspian  Sea,  named  from  the  Caspii, 

a  tribe 
Cassel,  42 
Castile,  42 

Catania,  Phoen.  the  little  city 
Cattegat,  88 
Caucasus,  147 
Cavan,  44 
Caxamarca    in    Peru,    the    place    of 


Cefalu,  46 
Cephalonia,  46 

Cerigo,  anc.  Cythera,  the  harp-shaped 
Cerro — v.  SIERRA 
Cevennes,  46 
Ceylon,  65 
Chambery,  the  bend  of  the  water,  on 

the  R.  Leysse,  in  France 
Chamouni,  40 
Champlain,  named  from  the  Governor- 

General  of  Canada  in  the  seventeenth 

Charles  Cape,  named  after  Baby 
Charles  in  the  reign  of  James  I. 

Charlestown,  named  after  Charles  II. 

Chatham,  55 

Chaumont,  39 

Chelsea,  46 

Chemnitz,  114 

Chepstow,  47 

Chester,  43 

Cheviot  Hills,  46 

Chilham,  99 

Chiltern  Hills,  n 

China,  probably  named  from  the 
dynasty  of  Thsin  in  the  third  century 

Chippenham,  47 

Chiusa,  116 

Christchurch,  in  Hants,  anc.  Twinam- 
burne,  between  two  streams,  and 
afterwards  named  from  a  church  and 
priory  founded  by  the  W.  Saxons 
in  the  reign  of  Edward  the  Confessor 

Christiana,  named  after  Christian  IV. 
of  Sweden 

Ciudad,  49 

Civita-Vecchia,  49 

Clackmannan,  49 

Clameny,  109 

Clare  Co.,  50 

Cleveland,  50 

Cleves,  50 

Clifton,  50 

Clitheroe,  50 

Clogheen,  49 

Clonakilty,  50 

Clones,  50 

Clontarf,  50 

Closeburn,  48 

Cloyne,  50 

Coblentz,  54 

Cochin,  kochi,  a  morass 

Cockburnspath,  in  Berwickshire,  cor- 
rupt, from  Colbrand's  Path 

Cognac,  the  corner  of  the  water 

Coire  or  Chur,  56 

Colberg,  31 

Coleraine,  58 


Colmar,  Lat.  Collis-Martis,  the  hill  of 

Colombo,  corrupt,  from  Kalan-Totta, 

the  ferry  on  the  Kalawa  Ganga 
Colonna,  Cape,  117 
Como,  Lake,  54 
Comorin,  Cape,  named  from  a  temple 

to  the  goddess  Durga 
Compostella,  Santiago  de,  corrupt,  from 

Sanctus  Jacobus  Apostolus,  so  called 

from  a  legend  that  the  Apostle  James 

was  buried  there 
Comrie,    at    the   confluence   of  three 

rivers,  in  Perthshire,  53 
Cond6,  33 
Congleton,  33 
Connaught,  anc.  Conaichi,  the  territory 

of  the  descendants  of  Conn  of  the 

hundred  battles 
Connecticut,    Ind.     Qunnitukut,     the 

country  on  the  long  river 
Connemara,  144 
Constance,  Lake,  172 
Copeland  Isle,  47 
Copenhagen,  47 
Corbridge,  56 
Cork,  54 
Cornwall,  54 
Coromandel,  corrupt,  from  Choloman- 

dala,  the  district  of  the   Cholas,  a 


Corrientes,  Span,  the  currents 
Corryvreckan,  52 
Corsica,  the  woody 
Corunna,  corrupt,  from  Columna,  the 

pillars,   in  allusion   to   a  tower   of 


Cosenza,  Lat.  Cosentia,  the  confluence 
Cotswold  Hills,  52 
Cottian  Alps,   named   after  a   Celtic 

Coutance  and  Cotantin,   named  after 

the  Emperor  Constantius 
Coventry,  196 
Cowal,  in  Ayrshire,  named  after  King 


Cowes,  45 
Cracow,  the  town  of  Krak,   Duke  of 


Cramond,  38 

Crathie,  56 

Cremona,  anc.  Cremonensis-ager,  the 
field  named  from  a  tribe 

Crewe,  56 

Crewkerne,  56 

Crieff,  Gael.  Craobh,  a  tree 

Croagh- Patrick,  56 

Croatia,  109 

Cromar,  the  heart  of  Mar,  a  district 
in  Aberdeenshire 

Cronstadt,  118 

Croydon,  70 

CRUG,  as  prefix,  58 

Cuenpa,  Lat.  concha,,  a  shell 

Cueva-de-Vera,  45 

Culebra  R. ,  the  snake  river 

Cumberland,  122 

Cumbernauld,  53 

Cumbraes  Isles  and  Cumbrian  Moun- 
tains, named  after  the  Cymbri 

Cundinamarca,  named  after  an  Indian 

Cura9oa,  named  from  a  kind  of  bird 

Currie,  56 

Cuzeo,  the  centre,  in  Peru 

CWM,  as  prefix — v.  53,  at  COMBE 

Cyclades  Isles,  Grk.  kuklos,  a  circle 

Cyprus,  perhaps  named  from  the  herb 
kupros,  with  which,  it  abounded, 
called  by  the  Greeks  Cerastes,  the 

Czernowitz,  Sclav,  black  town 


DACCA,  Sansc.  Da-akka,  the  hidden 
goddess,  from  a  statue  of  Durga 
found  there 

Dantzic,  Danish  fort,  61 

Daventry,  196 

Daviot,  6 

Dax,  9 

Deal,  59 

Deccan,  Sansc.  Dakshina,  the  south 

Delft,  62 

Delhi,  Sansc.  dahal,  a  quagmire 



Denbigh,  64 

Denmark,  134 

Deptford,  54 

Derbend,  the  shut-up  gates  or  the 
difficult  pass 

Deny  or  Londonderry,  61 

Derwent  R.,  70 

Desaguadero  R. ,  Span,  the  drain 

Detmold,  64 

Detroit,  the  strait  between  Lake  St. 
Clair  and  Lake  Erie 

Devizes,  anc.  de  vies,  denoting  a  place 
where  two  ways  met 

Devonshire,  64 

Dhawalagiri  Mountain,  90 

Dieppe,  54 

Digne,  64 

Dijon,  69 

Dinan  and  Dinant,  54 

Dingle,  58 

Dingwall,  190 

Dinkelsbiihl,  33 

Dmitrov,  the  town  of  St.  Demetrius 

Dnieper  R. ,  i.e.  Don-ieper,  upper  river 

Dniester,  Don-tester,  lower  river  Don 

Doab,  2 

Dole,  59 

Dolgelly,  60 

Dominica  Isle,  so  named  because  dis- 
covered on  Sunday,  i.e.  Dies  Domi- 

Donagh,  as  prefix,  65 

Dondra  Head,  65 

Donegall,  69 

Donnybrook,  65 

Doon  R.,  14 

Dorchester,  44 

Dorking,  70 

Dornoch,  66 

Dorset,  173 

Dort  or  Dordrecht,  66 

Douglas,  91 

Douro  R.,  70 

Dover,  anc.  Dubris,  or  anc.  Brit.  Dufy- 

Dovrefield  Mountains,  78 

Downpatrick,  68 

Downs,  The,  69 

Drachenfels,  78 

Drenthe,  18 

Dresden,  Sclav.  Dresany,  the  haven 
Dreux,  named  from  the  Durocasses 
Drogheda,  66 

Drohobicz,  Sclav,  the  woody  place 
Droitwich,  209 
Dromore,  67 
Drontheim,  99 
Dry  burgh,  62 
Dubicza,  68 
Dublin,  126 
Dubro,  57 
Dumbarton,  68 
Dumfries,  68 
Dungeness,  145 
Dunkirk,  70 
Dunluce,  128 
Dunse,  now  Duns,  70 
Dunstable,  182 
Durham,  106 
Durrow,  62 
Dynevor,  64 

Dyrrachium,  Grk.  the  place  with  the 
dangerous  breakers,  Dus  and  rachia 
Dysart,  63 

EAGLESHAM,  church  hamlet 

Ecclefechan,  the  church  of  St.  Fechan 

Eccleshall,  72 

Ecija,  12 

Ecuador,  i.e.  on  the  equator 

Edessa,  73 

Edfou,  corrupt,  from  Atbo,  the  Coptic 

synonym  forffut,  the  throneof  Horus 
Edinburgh,  68 
Edom,  the  red  land 
Egripo  or  Negropont,  159 
Ehrenbreitstein,  181 
Eichstadt,  Ger.  oak  town 
Eiger,  the  giant,  in  Switzerland 
Eisenach,  74 
Eisenberg,  74 
Elbing,  named  from  the  river  on  which 

it  stands 
Elbceuf,  37 
Elche',  109 



Elgin,  named  after  Helgyn,  a  Nor- 
wegian chief,  about  A.D.  927 

Eli  mo  or  Elath,  the  trees 

Elizabeth,  county  in  New  York,  named 
from  the  daughter  of  James  I. 

Elizabethgrad,  94 

Elmina,  Ar.  the  mine 

Elphin,  Ir.  Aill-finn,  the  rock  of  the 
clear  spring 

Elsinore,  150 

Elster  R. ,  the  alder-tree  stream 

Elstow,  183 

Elvas,  anc.  Alba,  Basque,  the  place  on 
the  steep  hill,  alboa 

Ely,  71 

Emden,  69 

Empoli,  corrupt,  from  the  Lat.  empo- 
rium, the  market-place 

Enkhuizen,  75 

Ennis,  in 

Enniskillen,  in 

Eperies,  Hung,  the  place  of  strawberries 

Eperney,  anc.  aquce-perennes ,  the  ever- 
flowing  water 

Epinal,  177 

Epping,  no 

Epsom,  99 

Erekli,  anc.  Heraclea 

Erfurt,  83 

Erith,  105 

Erivan,  Pers.  JRewan,  named  after  its 

Erlangen,  75 

Erlaw,  75 

Errigal,  Ir.  Airegal,  a  small  church 

Erzeroom,  corrupt,  from  Arz-er-Room, 
the  fortress  of  the  Romans 

Eschwege,  ash-tree  road 

Eschweiller,  6 

ESGAIR — V.   SKAFR,   175 

Esk  R.,  198 

Essek  or  Ossick,  211 

Essex,  151 

Estepa,  12 

Estepona,  12 

Esthonia,  the  district  of  the  people  of 

the  East 
Estremadura,  Lat.  Estrema-Durii,  the 

extreme  limits  of  the  R.  Douro 

Etna,  corrupt,  from  attuna,  the  furnace 

Eton,  71 

Eubcea,  the  well-tilled  land 

Euho  or  Yuho  R. ,  105 

Euphrates  R.,  the  fruitful,  Ar.  Furat, 

sweet  water 
Europe,  Grk.  euros  and  ops,  the  broad 

Euxine,  Grk.  the  hospitable,  formerly 

axinos  the  inhospitable  sea 
Evesham,  76 
Evora,  the  ford,  in  Spain 
Evreux,  9 
Exeter,  44 

FAENZA,  Lat.  Faventia,  the  favoured 

Fair  Head  and  Fair  Island,  fromfarr, 
Scand.  a  sheep 

Falaise,  78 

Falkirk,  116 

Famars,  77 

Fano,  76 

Fareham,  76 

Farnham,  79 

Faroe  Islands,  71 

Faulhorn,  108 

Fazal,  the  beech-tree  island,  in  the 

Femern,  n 

Fermanagh,  Ir.   the  men  of  Monagh 

Fermoy,  the  men  of  the  plain 

Fernando  Po,  named  after  the  dis- 

Ferney,  77 

Ferns,  77 

Ferrara,  84 

Ferriby,  76 

Ferrol,  Span,  faro!,  the  beacon 

Fetlar  Isle,  72 

Fez,  Ar.  fertile 

Fife,  said  to  be  named  from  Feb.  a 
Pictish  chief 

Figueras,  Span,  the  fig-trees 

Finisterre,  Cape,  and  district,  190 

Finster-Aar-horn,  107 

Fintray  and  Fintry,  196 

Fishguard,  87 



Fiume,  81 

Flamborough  Head,  anc.  Fleamburgh, 

the  flame  hill  or  beacon  hill 
Fleche,  La,  named  from  the  lofty  spire 

of  the  church  of  St.  Thomas 
Fleetwood,  81 
Flintshire,  supposed  to  have  derived 

its   name  from   the   abundance   of 

quartz  in  the  country 
Flisk,  the  moist  place,  Gael,  fleasg 
Florence,  Lat.  Florentia,  the  flourish- 
Florida,  called  by  the  Spaniards  Pascua- 

Florida  because  discovered  on  Easter 

Flushing,  81 
Fochabers,  Gael.  Faichaber,  the  plain 

of  the  confluence,  but  more  anciently 

Beulath,  the  mouth  of  the  ford 
Foldvar,  81 
Folkstone,  the  people's  fortress,  Lat. 

Fondi,  8 1 
Fontenay,  81 
Fontenoy,  81 

Fordyce,  the  south  pasture 
Forfar,  supposed  to  have  been  named 

from  a  tribe,  the  Forestii 
Forli,  83 

Formentara,  abounding  in  grain 
Formosa,  Span,  the  beautiful 
Forth    R.,  Scot.    Frock,    and   Welsh 

Fossano,  81 
Frankenstein,  181 
Frankfort,  83 
Frankfurt,  83 
Fraubrunnen,  32 
Frederickshald,  98 
Freiburg,  84 
Friesland,  122 
Frische  Haff,  97 
Friuli,  84 
Fuentarrabia,  82 
Fiihnen  Isle  or  Odensey,  71 
Fulham,  100 
Funchal,  a  place  abounding  mfuncho, 

Port,  fennel 
Fiirth,  83 

GAINSBOROUGH,    the    town    of    the 

Ganii,  a  tribe 
Galapago  Isles,   Span,  the  islands  of 

the  water  tortoises 
Galashiels,  170 
Galatia,  108 
Galicia,  108 
Galilee,  Heb.  a  district 
Galle,   Point  de,  Cingalese,  the  rock 

promontory,  galle 
Galway,  named  from  Gaillimh,  rocky 

river,  86 
Ganges  R.,  86 
Garioch,  86 
Garonne  R.,  86 
Gateshead,  40 
Gaza,  Ar.  a  treasury 
Gebirge — v.  BERG,  24 
Genappe,  89 
Geneva,  89 
Genoa,  90 

Georgia,  named  after  George  III. 
Ghauts  Mountains,  88 
Ghent,  89 

Giant's  Causeway,  49 
Gibraltar,  89 

Giessbach,  the  rushing  brook 
Girgeh,  St.  George's  town,  on  the  Nile 
Girvan  R.,  the  short  stream 
Giurgevo,  St.  George's  town 
Glamorgan,    Welsh    Morganwg,    i.e. 

Gwlad  -  Morgan,     the    territory    of 

Morgan-Mawr,  its  king  in  the  tenth 

century,  143 
Glarus,  corrupt,  from  St.  Hilarius,  to 

whom  the  church  was  dedicated 
Glogau,  92 
Gloucester,  44 
Gmiind,  89 
Goat  Fell,  78 
Godalming,    Godhelm's    meadow,    in 


Goes  or  Ter-Goes,  at  the  R.  Gosa 
Gollnitz  and  Gollnow,  92 
Goole,  86 
Goritz,  93 
Gorlitz,  93 



Goslar,  122 

Gbttingen,  a  patronymic 

Gouda,  on  the  R.  Gouwe 

Gower,  Welsh  Gwyr,  a  peninsula  in 
Wales,  sloping  west  from  Swansea 
— it  may  signify  the  land  of  the 

Grabow,  93 

Gradentz,  94 

Gran,  on  the  R.  Gran 

Grasmere,  the  lake  of  swine 

Gratz,  94 

Gravelines,  93 

Gravesend,  93 

Greenland,  95 

Greenlaw,  123 

Greenock,  94 

Greenwich,  209 

Grenoble,  158 

Gretna  Green,  102 

Grisnez,  Cape,  gray  cape,  145 

Grisons,  Ger.  Graubiinden,  the  gray 
league,  so  called  from  the  dress 
worn  by  the  Unionists  in  1424 

Grodno,  94 

Grongar — v.  CAER,  38 

Groningen,  a  patronymic 

Grossenhain,  97 

Guadalquivir,  95 

Guadiana,  95 

Gttben,  Sclav,  dove  town 

Gueret,  Fr.  land  for  tillage 

Guienne,  corrupt,  from  Aquitania 

Gustrow,  Sclav,  guest  town 

Gwasanau,  corrupt,  from  Hosannah, 
a  place  in  North  Wales.  The  name 
was  given  in  allusion  to  the  Vic- 
toria-Alleluiatica,  fought  on  the 
spot  in  420,  between  the  Britons, 
headed  by  the  Germans,  and  the 
Picts  and  Scots 


Hadersleben,  124 
Haemus  Mountain,  18 
Hague,  The,  97 

Haguenau,  97 

Hainan,   Chinese,    south  of  the  sea, 

corrupt,  from  Hai  Lam 
Hainault,  88 
Halicarnassus,    Grk.    Halikarnassos, 

sea  horn  place 
Halifax,  103 
Halifax,  Nova  Scotia,  named  for  the 

Earl  of  Halifax 
Hall  and  Halle,  98 
Hamburg,  97 
Hameln,  99 
Hammerfest,  100 
Hampstead,  98 
Hankau   or   Hankow,   the   mouth  of 

commerce,  a  city  in  China 
Hanover,  150 
Harbottle,  27 
Harrogate,  88 
Hartlepool,  158 
Hartz  Mountains,  101 
Harwich,  100 
Haselt,  101 
Hastings,     A.S.      Haestinga-ceaster, 

the  camp   of  Hastings,    a   Danish 


Havana,  the  harbour 
Havre,  Le,  97 

Hawarden,  Welsh,  upon  the  hill 
Hawes,  97 
Heboken,  Ind.  the  smoked  pipe,  the 

spot   in   New  Jersey  at  which  the 

English  settlers  smoked  the  pipe  of 

peace  with  the  Indian  chiefs 
Hechingen,  a  patronymic 
Hedjas,  the  land  of  pilgrimage 
Heidelberg,  24 
Heilbron,  32 
Heiligenstadt,  103 
Heligoland,  103 
Helvellyn,  if  Celtic,  perhaps  El-velin, 

the  hill  of  Baal 
Hems,  probably  named  from  Hms,  the 

Egyptian  name  of  Isis 
Henly,  Cym.-Cel.  old  place 
Herat,   anc.   Aria-Civitas,   the  town 

on  the  Arius,  now  the  R.  Heri 
Hereford,  82 
Hermon,  the  lofty  peak 



Herstal,  180 

Hesse,  named  from  the  Catti  or  Chatti 

Himalaya  Mountains,  123 

Hinckley,  the  horse's  meadow 

Hindostan,  181 

Hindu  Koosh  Mountains,  i.e.  the 
Indian  Caucasus 

Hinojosa,  Span,  the  place  of  fennel 

Hirschberg,  105 

Hitchen,  100 

Hoang  Ho,  105 

Hobart  Town,  named  after  one  of  the 
first  settlers 

Hohenlinden,  106 

Holland,  106 

Holstein,  174 

Holt,  107 

Holyhead,  103 

Holy  Island,  103 

Holy  well,  103 

Holywood,  103 


Honduras,  Span,  deep  water 

Hong  Kong,  the  place  of  fragrant 

Hoorn,  107 

Hor,  the  mountain 

Horeb,  the  desert 

Horn,  Cape,  107 

Horncastle,  107 

Horsham,  99 

Howden,  102 

Howth  Head,  102 

Hudson  R. ,  named  after  Henry  Hud- 
son, who  ascended  the  river  A.D. 

Huelva,  Basque  Onoba,  at  the  foot  of 
the  hill ;  and  Ar.  Wuebban,  corrupt, 
to  Huelva 

Huesca,  anc.  Osca,  the  town  of  the 
Basques  or  Euscs 

Hull,  117 

Hungary,  Ger.  Ungarn,  the  country  of 
the  Huns  ;  Hung.  Magyar-  Orzag, 
the  country  of  the  Magyars 

Huntingdon,  hunter's  hill,  or  a  pat- 

Hurdwar,  70 

Huron,  Lake,  from  a  tribe 

Hurryhur,   named    from   the   goddess 

Hari  or  Vishnu 
Hurst,  101 
Hythe,  105 


Illinois,   named  after  the  tribe  Illini, 

i.e.  the  men  ;  and  ois,  a  tribe 
Imaus,  the  snowy  mountain 
Inch — v.  INNIS,  in 
Ingleborough  Mountain,  24 
Inkermann,  Turc.  the  place  of  caverns 
Innerleithen,  112 
Innsbruck,   at  the  bridge,   on  the  R. 


Interlachen,  119 
Inverness,  112 
lona  or  I,  108 
Iowa,  the  drowsy  ones,  a  tribe  name, 


Ipswich,  209 
Ireland  or  lerne,  108 
Irkutsk,  176 
Irrawadi,  the  great  river 
Iscanderoon,   named  after  Alexander 

the  Great 
Iserlohn,  130 
Isla,    in   the   Hebrides,    named   after 

Yula,  a  Danish  princess  who  was 

buried  there 

Ispahan,  Pers.  the  place  of  horses 
Issoire,  70 
Issoudun,  69 
Ithaca,  the  strait  or  steep 


JABALON  R.,  112 

Jaffa  or  Joppa,  Semitic,  beauty 

Jamaica,  corrupt,  from  Xaymaca,  the 

land  of  wood  and  water 
Jamboli,  Sclav,  the  city  in  the  hollow 
Janina,  Sclav.  John's  town 
Jaroslav,  named  after  its  founder 
Jassy,  Sclav,  the  marshy  place 
Jauer,  113 



Java,  65 

Jersey,  71 

Jersey,    in    U.  S. ,    so    named    by   Sir 

George    Carteret,    who    had    come 

from  the  Island  of  Jersey 
Jerusalem,     Semitic,     the     abode     of 


Joinville,  201 

Joppa — v.  Jaffa,  the  beautiful 
Jouare,    anc.   Ara-Jovis,  the  altar  of 

Juggernaut,  or  more  correctly  Jaggana- 

tha,  the  Lord  of  the  world — -jacat, 

Sansc.  the  world,  and  natha,  Lord 
Juliers,  109 
Jumna   R. ,    named  after   Yamuna,  a 

Jungfrau  Mountain,  Ger.  the  maiden 

or  the  fair  one,  so  called  from  its 

spotless  white 

Jura  Isle,  Scand.  Deor-oe,  deer  island 
Jiiterbogk,  named  for  the  Sclav,  god 

of  spring 
Jutland,  named  from  the  Jutes 


KAFFRARIA^AT.  the  land  of  the  Kafirs 

or  unbelievers 
Kaisarizeh,    the  mod.    name  of  anc. 


Kaiserlautern,  113 
Kalgan,  Tartar,  the  gate,  a  town  in 


Kampen,  35 
Kandy,  splendour 
Kansas,  a  tribe  name 
Karlsbad,  16 
Keith,  Gael,  the  cloudy,  from  ceath,  a 

cloud  or  mist 

Kel  and  Kil — v.  COILL  or  CILL 
Kells,  48 
Kelso,  38 
Kempen,  40 
Ken — v.  CEANN 
Kendal,  60 
Kenmare,  46 
Kensington,  the  town  of  the  Kensings 

Kent,  45 

Kentucky,  the  dark  and  bloodyground 

Kerry  Co. ,  Ir.  Ciarraidhe,  the  district 

of  the  race  of  Ciar 
Kettering,  a  patronymic 
Kew,  107 

Khartoum,  the  promontory 
Khelat,  114 
Kin — v.  CEANN 
Kinghorn,  45 
Kingsclere,  5 
King's  Co.,    named   after    Philip   II. 

of  Spain 
Kingston,  147 
Kingussie,  45 

Kirkillisia,  the  forty  churches  in  Turkey 
Kirkintilloch,  38 
Kirkwall,  115 

Kishon  R.,  i.e.  the  tortuous  stream 
Kissengen,  a  patronymic 
Klagenfurt,  84 
Knock — v.  CNOC 
Koniggratz,  the  king's  fortress 
Kordofan,  the  white  land 
Koros  R. ,  Hung,  the  red  river 
Koslin,  1 1 8 
Kothendorf,  47 
Kralowitz,  118 
Kraszna  R. ,  beautiful  river 
Kremenetz,  118 
Kremnitz,  118 
Krishna    or    Kistna    R.,    the    black 

stream,  in  India 
Kronstadt,  118 
Kulm,  47 
Kyle — v.  CAOL 

LA  HOGUE,  Cape,  102 

Laaland  Isle,  119 

Labuan  Isle,  Malay,  the  anchorage 

Laccadives,  65 

Laconia,  120 

Ladrone  Isles,  Span,   the  islands  of 


Lagnieu,  120 
Lagos,  120 
Laguna,  120 



Lahr,  123 

Lambeth,  105 

Lambride,  121 

Lamlash,  120 

Lampeter,  121 

Lamsaki,  anc.  Lampsacus,  the  passage 

Lanark,  121 

Land's  End — v.  PEN 

Landerneau,  121 

Langres,  anc.  Langone,  named  from  the 
Lingones,  a  tribe 

Languedoc,  named  from  the  use  of  the 
wordoc,  for  yes,  in  their  language,  i.e. 

Lannion,  121 

Laon,  130 

Larbert,  named  from  a  man  of  this 

Largo,  124 

Largs,  124 

Larissa,  named  after  a  daughter  of 

Lassa,  the  land  of  the  Divine  intelli- 
gence, the  capital  of  Thibet 

Latakia,  corrupt,  from  anc.  Laodicea 

Latheron,  103 

Lauder,  named  from  the  R.  Leader 

Lauffen,  123 

Launceston,  121 

Laval,  anc.  Vallis-Guidonis,  the  valley 
of  Guido 

Lawrence  R. ,  so  named  because  dis- 
covered on  St.  Laurence's  Day,  1535 

Laybach  or  Laubach,  15 

Learn  R.,  125 

Leamington,  125 

Lebanon  Mountain,  89 

Leeds,  125 

Leibnitz,  124 

Leighlin,  91 

Leighton-Buzzard,  21 

Leinster,  183 

Leipzig,  128 

Leith,  named  from  the  river  at  whose 
mouth  it  stands 

Leitrim,  67 

Lemberg,  24 

Leobschiitz,  the  place  of  the  Leubuzi, 
a  Sclavonic  tribe 

Leominster,  130 

Leon,  anc.  Legio,  the  station  of  the  yth 

Roman  Legion 
Lepanto,  Gulf  of,  corrupt,  from  Nau- 

pactus,  Grk.  the  ship  station 
Lerida,  anc.  Llerda,  Basque,  the  town 
Lesmahago,  128 
Letterkenny,  125 
Leuchars,  the  marshy  land 
Levant,  Lat.  the  place  of  the  sun-rising, 

as  seen  from  Italy 
Leven  R. ,  124 
Lewes,  Les  ewes,  the  waters 
Lewis  Island,  Scand.   Lyodhuus,  the 

Leyden,  69 

Liberia,  the  country  of  the  free,  colon- 
ised by  emancipated  slaves 
Lichfield,  77 
Lidkioping,  47 
Liege,  125 
Liegnitz,  130 
Lifford,  25 
Ligny,  a  patronymic 
Lille,  in 

Lilybaeum,  Phoen.  opposite  Libya 
Lima,  corrupt,  from  Rimce,  the  name 

of  the  river  on  which  it  stands  and 

of  a  famous  idol 
Limbourg,  126 
Limerick,    corrupt,   from  Lomnech,    a 

barren  spot  ;  lorn,  bare 
Limoges,  anc.  Lemovicum,  the  dwelling 

of  the  Lemovici 
Linares,  Span,  flax  fields 
Lincoln,  53 
Lindesnaes,  126 
Lindores,  in  Fife,  probably  a  corruption 

of  Lann-Tours,  being  the  seat  of  an 

anc.  Abbey  of  Tours,   founded  by 

David,  Earl  of  Huntingdon 
Linkioping,  47 
Linlithgow,  127 
Lisbellaw,  128 
Lisbon,  104 
Lisieux,  in  France,  Lat.  Ncrviomagus, 

the  new  field,  subsequently  named 

from  the  Lexovii 
Liskeard,  128 



Lissa,  125 
Liverpool,  158 

no>      I  named  from  the  Liefs,   a 
Livonia,   J       ^™  tribe 
Llanerch-y-medd,  the  place  of  honey, 

in  Wales 

Llanos,  Span,  the  level  plains 
Lochaber,  3 
Lockerby,  37 
Lodi,  anc.  Laus-Pompeii 
Logic,  1 20 
Lombardy,  the  country  of  the  Longo- 

bardi,    so    called    from   a   kind    of 

weapon  which  they  used 
London,  64 
Londonderry,  61 
Longford,  83 

Longniddrie — v.  LLAN,  122 
Loop  Head,  123 
Lorca,  109 
Loretto,  named  from  Lauretta,  a  lady 

who  gave  the  site  for  a  chapel  at  that 


L' Orient,  so  named  from  an  establish- 
ment of  the  East  India  Company  at 

the  place  in  1666 
Lorn,  Gael.  Labhrin,  named  after  one 

of  the  Irish  colonists  from  Dalriada 
Lossie  R.,  i 
Loughill,     Ir.    Leamchoil,    the    elm- 

Louisiana,  named  after  Louis  XIV.  of 


Louisville,  201 
Louth,  in  Lincoln,  named  from  the  R. 

Louth  Co.,  Ir.  Lugk  Magh,  the  field 

of  Lugh 
Lou  vain,  Ger.  Lowen,  the  lion,  named 

after  a  person  called  Leo 
Lowestoft,  192 
Lubeck,  128 
Luben,  128 
Lublin,  128 

Lucca,  anc.  Luca — v.  LUCUS 
Lucena,  Basque  Lucea,  the  long  town 
Lucerne,  named  from  a  lighthouse  or 

beacon,  lucerna,  formerly  placed  on 

a  tower  in  the  middle  of  the  R.  Rheus 
Lucknow,    corrupt,    from    the   native 

name  Laksneanauti ',  the  fortunate 
Ludlow,  123 
Ludwigslust,  131 
Lugano,  119 
Lugo,  130 
Lugos,  130 
Lund,  131 

Lurgan,  Ir.  the  low  ridge 
Luxembourg,  131 
Luxor,   corrupt,   from  El-Kasur,   the 


Lycus  R.,  Grk.  leukos 
Lyme,   in  Kent,   anc.  Kainos-limen, 

Grk.  the  new  haven 
Lyme-Regis,  on  the  R.  Lyme 
Lyons,  69 


MACAO,  in  China,  where  there  was  a 
temple  sacred  to  an  idol  named  Ama. 
The  Portuguese  made  it  Amagoa, 
the  bay  of  Ama,  corrupted  first  to 
Amacao  and  then  to  Macao 

Madeira,  Port,  the  woody  island 

Madras,  153 

Madrid,  anc.  Majetit,  origin  unknown, 
but  perhaps  from  Madarat,  Ar. 
a  city 

Maelawr,  from  mael,  Welsh,  mart, 
and  lawr,  ground,  a  general  name 
for  places  in  Wales  where  trade 
could  be  carried  on  without  any 
hindrance  from  diversity  of  races. — 
James's  Welsh  Names  of  Places 

Maestricht,  66 

Magdala,  Semitic,  a  watch-tower  in 

Magdala,  in  Saxe- Weimar,  on  the  R. 

Magor,  corrupt,  from  Magwyr,  Welsh, 
a  ruin,  the  name  of  a  railway  station 
near  Chepstow 

Maidenhead,  105 

Maidstone,  181 

Main  R.,  132 



Maine,    in  France,   named  from   the 

Mainland,  132 
Malabar  Coast,  or  Malaywar,  the  hilly 

Malacca,  named  from  the  tree  called 

Malaga,    Phcen.    malac,   salt,    named 

from  its  trade  in  salt 
Malakoff,  named  after  a  sailor  of  that 

name  who  established  a  public-house 


Maldives  Islands,  65 
Maldon,  69 
Mallow,  132 

Malpas,  Fr.  the  difficult  pass 
Malta,  Phosn.  Melita,  a  place  of  refuge 
Malvern,  139 
Mancha,  La,  Span,  a  spot  of  ground 

covered  with  weeds 
Manchester,  44 
Manfredonia,   named   after   Manfred, 

King  of  Naples,  by  whom  it  was  built 
Mangalore,    named    after  an   Indian 

Mangerton      Mountain,     in    Ireland, 

corrupt,  from  Mangartach,  i.e.  the 

mountain  covered  with  mang,  a  long 

hairlike  grass 

Mans,  Le,  named  after  the  Cenomani 
Mansorah,  in  Egypt,  the  victorious 
Mantinea,  Grk.  the  place  of  the  pro- 
phet or  oracle,  mantis 
Mantua,  133 
Manzanares,    Span,     the    apple-tree 


Maracaybo,  143 
Maranao,   Span,    a  place   overgrown 

with  weeds 
Marathon,  a  place  abounding  in  fennel, 

Marazion,  84 
Marburg,  134 
March,  134 

Marchena,  the  marshy  land 
Marengo,  136 

Margarita,  the  island  of  pearls 
Margate,  88 
Marienwerder,  205 

Marlow,  Great,  136 

Marmora,  Sea  of,  named  from  an 
adjacent  island,  celebrated  for  its 
marble,  marmor 

Marnoch,  Co.  Banff,  named  from  St. 

Maros  R.,  136 

Maros-Vasarhely,  103 

Marquesas  Isles,  named  after  Marquis 
Mendoza,  Viceroy  of  Peru,  who 
originated  the  voyage  through  which 
they  were  discovered 

Marsala,  135 

Maryland,  named  after  the  queen  of 
Charles  I. 

Mathern,  corrupt,  from  Merthyr,  the 
martyr,  the  name  of  a  church  near 
Chepstow,  built  in  memory  of 
Fewdrig,  King  of  Gwent,  who  died 
on  its  site  as  he  was  returning 
wounded  from  a  battle  against  the 

Mathravel,  the  land  of  apples,  one  of 
the  ancient  provinces  into  which 
Wales  was  divided 

Matlock,  130 

Mauritius,  discovered  by  the  Portuguese 
in  1505,  visited  by  the  Dutch  in 
1596,  who  named  it  after  Prince 
Maurice  of  the  Netherlands.  From 
1713  till  1810  it  belonged  to  the 
French,  who  called  it  Isle  of  France 

May  Island,  132 

Maynooth,  132 

Mayo,  the  plain  of  yew-trees 

Mazzara,  Phcen.  the  castle 

Mazzarino,  the  little  castle 

Mearns,  corrupt,  from  Maghgkerkkin, 
the  plain  of  Kerkin 

Meaux,  named  from  the  Meldi 

Mecklenburg,  137 

Medellin,  named  after  its  founder, 
Metellus,  the  Roman  consul 

Medina,  135 

Mediterranean  Sea,  138 

Meiningen,  132 

Meissen,  on  the  R.  Meissa 

Melbourne,  named  after  Lord  Mel- 
bourne in  1837 



Meldrum,  67 

Melrose,  139 

Melun,  69 

Memmingen,  a  patronymic 

Memphis    or     Memphe,    i.e.   Ma-m- 

Phthah,  the  place  of  the  Egyptian 

god  Phthah 

Menai  Strait,  anc.  Sruth-monena 
Menam,  the  mother  of  waters,  a  river 

of  Siam 
Mendip  Hills,  i.e.  mune-duppe,  rich  in 

Mentone,  It.  the  chin,   on  a  point  of 

Merida,   Lat.    Augusta  Emerita,  the 

town   of    the   emeriti   or   veterans, 

founded  by  Emperor  Augustus 
Merioneth,     named    after    Merion,    a 

British  saint 
Merthyr  -  Tydvil,     named     after    the 

daughter  of  an  ancient  British  king 
Meseritz,  138 
Meshed,  Ar.  the  mosque 
Mesolonghi  or  Missolonghi,  119 
Mesopotamia,  138 
Metz,  named  from  the  Meomatrici,  a 

Michigan   Lake,    Ind.  great   lake,   or 

the  weir,  or  fish-trap,  from  its  shape 
Middelburg,  138 
Midhurst,  138 
Miklos,  137 
Milan,  115 
Milton,  144 

Minnesota  R.,  the  sky-coloured  water 
Miramichi,  Ind.  happy  retreat 
Mirgorod,  138 
Mississippi    R. ,    Ind.    the    father    of 


Missouri,  Ind.  the  muddy  stream 
Mitrovicz  or  Mitrovitz,  152 
Mittau,  named  from  Mita,  a  Sclav,  deity 
Modena,    Lat.    Mutina,    the   fortified 


Moffat,  the  foot  of  the  moss 
Mogadore,  named  after  a  saint  whose 

tomb  is  on  an  island  off  the  coast 
Moguer,  Ar.  the  caves 
Mohawk  R.,  named  from  a  tribe 

Moidart  or  Moydart,  132 

Mola,    It.    the  mound,   anc.    Turres- 

Juliani,  the  town  of  Julian 
Mold,  142 
Monaghan,   Ir.   Muneachain,  a  place 

abounding  in  little  hills 
Monaster,  138 
Monasterevin,  138 
Monda,  142 
Mondego,  142 

Monena,  the  river  or  sea  of  Mona 
Monmouth,    at     the    mouth    of    the 

Mynwy,   i.e.  the  border  river,  from 

which  it  took  its  ancient  name 
Montgomery,  142 
Montrose,  168 
Moravia,  136 
Morayshire,  119 
Morbihan,  119 
Morecambe  Bay,  39 
Morocco,  the  country  of  the  Moors,  22 
Morpeth,  143 
Morven,  143 
Morvern,  143 
Moscow,  142 
Moulins,  141 
Mourne  Mountains,  142 
Moy,  Moyne,  132 
Muhlhausen,  141 
Mull  Island,  145 
Miinden,  140 
Munich,  140 

Munster,  in  Germany,  138 
Munster,  in  Ireland,  138 
Murcia,  134 
Murviedro,  145 
Muscat  or  Meschid,  Ar.  the  tomb  of 

a  saint 
Muthil,  143 
Mysore,  corrupt  from  Mahesh-Asura, 

the  name  of  a  buffalo-headed  monster, 

said  to  have  been  destroyed  by  the 

goddess  Kali 


NAAS,  Ir.  a  fair  or  place  of  meeting 
Nablous,  158 



Nagore,  na-gara,  Sansc.  a  city 

Nagpore,  160 

Nagy-Banja,  18 

Nagy-Koros,  146 

Nairn,  on  the  R.  Nairn,  anc.  Ainear- 
nan,  east-flowing  river 

Nancy,  146 

Nankin,  Chinese,  the  southern  capital 

Nantes,  146 

Nantwich,  146 

Naples,  158 

Narbonne,  named  from  iheNarbonenses 

Naseby,  the  town  on  the  cape 

Nashville,  named  from  Colonel  Nash 

Nassau,  146 

Natal,  Colony,  so  named  because  dis- 
covered on  Christmas  Day,  Dies- 
natalis,  by  Vasco  de  Gama  in  1498 

Natchez,  a  tribe  name 

Naumburg,  148 

Naupactus,  the  place  of  ships 

Nauplia,  a  sea -port,  from  the  Grk. 
naus,  a  ship,  and  pleos,  full 

Navan,  Ir.  ri ' Eamhain,  literally  the 
neck  brooch,  so  named  from  a  legend 
connected  with  the  foundation  of  an 
ancient  palace  there 

Navarre,  147 

Naxos,  the  floating  island 

Naze,  Cape,  145 

Nebraska,  Ind.  the  shallow  river 

Nedjed,  Ar.  the  elevated  country 

Negropont,  159 

Neilgherry  Hills,  90 

Nemours,  the  place  of  the  sacred  grove, 

Nenagh,  74 

Ness,  Loch  and  R. ,  73 

Neston,  73 

Netherlands,  147 

Neusatz,  148 

Neusohl,  148 

Neuwied,  148 

Nevada  Mountains — v.  SIERRA,  175 

Nevers,  anc.  Nivernum  and  Novio- 
dunum,  the  new  fort  or  the  R.  Nievre 

Neviansk,  on  the  R.  Neva 

Newark,  206 

Newcastle,  43 

Newport,  156        « 

New  Ross,  167 

Newry,   Ir.   lubhar-cinn-tragha,  the 

yew-tree  at  the  head  of  the  strand 
New  York,  named  after  the  Duke  of 

York,  brother  of  Charles  II. 
Niagara,  corrupt,  from  Oni-aw-ga-rah, 

the  thunder  of  waters 
Nicastro,  new  camp 
Nicopoli,  158 
Nijni  Novgorod,  148 
Nile  R. ,  native  name  Sihor,  the  blue, 

called  by  the  Jews  Nile,  the  stream 
Nimeguen,  133 
Nimes  or  Nismes,  147 
Ningpo,  the  repose  of  the  waves 
Niphon  Mount,  the  source  of  light 
Nippissing,  a  tribe  name 
Nogent,  149 
Noirmoutier,  138 
Nola,  148 
Nombre-de-dios,  the  name  of  God,  a 

city  of  Mexico 
Norrkoping,  47 
Northumberland,  149 
Norway,  149 
Nova  Scotia,  so  named  in  concession  to 

Sir  William  Alexander,  a  Scotsman, 

who   settled    there  in  the  reign  of 

James  II.     It  was  named  Markland 

by  its    Norse  discoverer,    Eric  the 


Nova  Zembla,  148 
Noyon,  anc.    Noviodunum,  the    new 


Nubia,  Coptic,  the  land  of  gold 
Nuneaton,  the  nun's  town,  on  the  R. 

Ea,  in  Warwickshire,  the  seat  of  an 

ancient  priory 
Nurnberg,  24 

Nyassa  and  Nyanza,  the  water 
Nyborg,  148 

Nykoping  or  Nykobing,  47 
Nystadt,  148 


Oban,  Gael,  the  little  bay 



Ochill  Hills,  198 

Ochiltree,  198 

Odensee,  71 

Oeta  Mount,  sheep  mountain 

Ofen  or  Buda,  33 

Ohio,   beautiful  river,    called   by  the 

French  La  Belle  riviere 
Oldenburg,  7 
Olekminsk,  176 

Olympus  Mountain,  the  shining 
Omagh,  Omeha,  named  from  a  tribe 
Omsk,  176 
Oosterhout,  107 
Oporto,  156 

Oppeln,  the  town  on  the  R.  Oppo 
Oppido,  Lat.  Oppidum 
Orange,  anc.  Arausione,  the  town  on 

the  R.  Araise 
Orange  R.  and  Republic,  named  after 

Maurice,  Prince  of  Orange 
Oregon  R.,  from  the  Span,  organa,  wild 


Orellana  R. ,  named  from  its  discoverer 
Orissa,  named  from  a  tribe 
Orkney  Islands,  in 
Orleans,   corrupt,   from  Aurelianum, 

named  after  the  Emperor  Aurelian 
Orme's  Head,  Norse  ormr,  a  serpent, 

from  its  shape 
Ormskirk,  125 
Orvieto,  199 
Osborne,  named  after  the  Fitz-Osborne 


Oschatz,  Sclav.  Osada,  the  colony 
Osimo,  199 
Osnabriick,  31 

Ossa  Mountain,  Grk.  the  watch-tower 
Ostend,  74 
Ostia,    Lat.   the  place  at   the  river's 

mouth,  Os 
Oswestry,  57 

Othrys,   the  mountain  with  the  over- 
hanging brow,  Grk.  othrus 
Otranto,    anc.    Hydruntum,    a    place 

almost  surrounded  by  water,   Mor, 


Ottawa,  a  tribe  name 
Ottawa  R. ,  a  tribe  name 
Oudenarde,  7 

Oudh  or  Awadh,  corrupt,  from  Ayodfia, 

the  invincible 
Oulart,   corrupt,   from  Abhalgort,  Ir. 

apple  field 
Oundle,  60 
Ouro-preto,  160 
Ouse  R.,  198 
Overyssel  R.,  150 
Oviedo  is  said  to  have   derived  this 

name  from  the  Rivers  Ove  and  Divo. 

Its  Latin  name  was  Lucus-Asturum, 

the  grove  of  the  Asturians 
Owyhee,  the  hot  place 


Padstow,  183 

Paestum,  anc.  Poseidonia,  the  city  of 
Poseidon  or  Neptune 

Palamcotta,  55 

Palermo,  corrupt,  from  Panormus,  Grk. 
the  spacious  harbour 

Palestine,  the  land  of  the  Philistines, 
strangers ;  from  Crete,  who  occupied 
merely  a  strip  of  the  country  on  the 
coast,  and  yet  gave  their  own  name 
to  the  whole  land 

Palma,  the  palm-tree 

Palmas,  Lat.  the  palm-trees 

Palmyra  or  Tadmor,  the  city  of  palms 

Pampeluna  or  Pamplona,  158 

Panama  Bay,  the  bay  of  mud  fish 

Panjab  or  Punjaub,  2 

Paraguay,  153 

Parahyba,  153 

Paramaribo,  144 

Parapamisan  Mountains,  the  flat- 
topped  hills 

Parchim,  153 

Paris,  130 

Parsonstown,  named  form  Sir  William 
Parsons,  who  received  a  grant  of  the 
land  on  which  the  town  stands,  with 
the  adjoining  estate,  from  James  I. 
in  1670 

Passau,  44 

Patagonia,  so  called  from  the  clumsy 
shoes  of  its  native  inhabitants 



Patna,  153 

Paunton,  159 

Pays  de  Vaud,  200 

Peebles,  anc.  Peblis,  Cym.-Cel.  the 
tents  or  sheds 

Peel,  153 

Peiho  R. ,  105 

Pe-king,  Chinese,  the  northern  capital 

Pe-ling  Mountains,  the  northern  moun- 

Pelion,  the  clayey  mountains, '  pelos, 
Grk.  clay 

Pella,  the  stony 

Pembroke,  30 

Penicuik,  154 

Pennsylvania,  named  after  William 
Penn,  whose  son  had  obtained  a 
grant  of  forest  land  in  compensa- 
tion for  ^16,000  which  the  king 
owed  to  his  father 

Pentland  Hills,  corrupt,  from  the 
Pictsland  Hills 

Penzance,  154 

Perekop,  the  rampart 

Perigord,  named  from  the  Petrocorii 

Perm,  anc.  Biarmaland,  the  country 
of  the  Biarmi 

Pernambuco,  the  mouth  of  hell,  so 
called  from  the  violent  surf  at  the 
mouth  of  its  harbour 

Pernau,  126 

Pershore,  150 

Perth,  19 

Perthddu,  Welsh,  the  black  brake  or 
brushwood,  in  Wales 

Perugia,  152 

Peshawur,  the  advanced  fortress 

Pesth,  150 

Peterhead,  112 

Peterwarden,  the  fortress  of  Peter  the 

Petra,  the  stony 

Petropaulovski,  the  port  of  Peter  and 

Pforzheim,  135 

Philadelphia,  the  town  of  brotherly 
love,  in  America 

Philippi,  named  after  Philip  of  Mace- 

Philippine  Isles,  named  after  Philip  II. 

of  Spain 
Philipstown,   in  Ireland,  named  after 

Philip,  the  husband  of  Queen  Mary 
Phocis,  the  place  of  seals 
Phoenice,  either  the  place   of  palms 

or  the  Phoenician  settlement 
Phoenix  Park,  in  Dublin,  80 
Piedmont,  the  foot  of  the  mountain 
Pietermaritzburg,    named    after    two 

Boer  leaders 
Pillau,  153 

Pisgah  Mountain,  the  height 
Pittenweem,  157 

Pittsburg,  named  after  William  Pitt 
Placentia,  Lat.  the  pleasant  place 
Plassy,  named  from  a  grove  of  a  cer- 
tain kind  of  tree 
Plattensee  or  Balaton,  173 
Plenlimmon    Mountain,    Welsh,     the 

mountain  with  five  peaks 
Plock,  or  Plotsk,  26 
Ploermel,  157 
Podgoricza,  157 

Poictiers,  named  from  the  Pictones 
Poland,  Sclav,  the  level  land 
Polynesia,  112 
Pomerania,  143 

Pondicherri,  Tamil,  the  new  village 
Pontoise,  159 
Poole,  158 
Popocatepetl  Mountain,  the  smoking 

Portrush,  168 
Portugal,  156 

Potenza,  Lat.  Potentia,  the  powerful 
Potsdam,  157 
Powys,  the  name  of  an  ancient  district 

in  North  Wales,  signifying  a  place 

of  rest 

Pozoblanco,  161 

Prague,  Sclav.  Prako,  the  threshold 
Prato-Vecchio,  160 
Prenzlow,    the   town   of  Pribislav,    a 

personal  name 
Presburg  or  Brezisburg,  the  town  of 

Prescot,  55 
Presteign  and  Preston,  194 



Privas,  anc.  Privatium  Castra,  the 
fortress  not  belonging  to  the  state, 
but  private  property" 

Prossnitz,  on  the  R.  Prosna 

Providence,  in  U.S.,  so  named  by 
Roger  Williams,  who  was  perse- 
cuted by  the  Puritan  settlers  in 
Massachusetts  because  he  preached 
toleration  in  religion,  and  was 
obliged  to  take  refuge  at  that  place, 
to  which,  in  gratitude  to  God,  he 
gave  this  name 

Prussia,  the  country  of  the  Pruezi 

Puebla,  Span,  a  town  or  village 

Puebla-de-los-Angelos,  the  town  of  the 
angels,  so  called  from  its  fine 

Puenta-de-la-Reyna,  159 

Puerto,  the  harbour 

Pulo-Penang,  161 

Puozzuoli,  161 

Puy-de-dome,  156 

Pwlhelli,  159 

Pyrenees  Mountains,  named  either 
from  the  Basque  pyrge,  high,  or 
from  the  Celtic  pyr,  a  fir-tree 

Pyrmont,  142 

QUANG-SE,  the  western  province,   in 


Quang-tung,  the  eastern  province 
Quatre-Bras,   Fr.   the  four  arms,    i.e. 

at  the  meeting  of  four  roads 
Quebec,     in    Canada,     named     after 

Quebec  in  Brittany,  the  village  on 

the  point 
Queensberry,  24 
Queen's  County,  named  after  Queen 


Queensferry,  76 
Queensland  and  Queenstown,  named 

after  Queen  Victoria 
Quimper,  53 
Quimper-16,  53 
Quita,  the  deep  ravine 



Radom  and  Radomka,    named  after 

the  Sclav,  deity  Ratzi 
Rajputana,  163 
Ramgunga,  86 
Ramnaggur,  ram's  fort 
Ramsgate,  88 
Randers,  162 
Raphoe,  163 

Rapidan  R. ,  named  after  Queen  Anne 
Rappahannock   R.,   Ind.  the  river  of 

quick-rising  waters 
Rastadt,  163 
Ratibor,  28 
Ratisbon,  Sclav,   the  fortress  on  the 

R.   Regen,   Ger.  Regena  Castra  or 

Ravenna,  79 
Rayne,   Gael,  raon,  a  plain,  a  parish 

in  Aberdeenshire 
Reading,  a  patronymic 
Redruth,   in   Cornwall,   in  old  deeds, 

Tre-Druith,    the    dwelling  of    the 


Reeth,  on  the  stream,  rith 
Rega  R.,  164 
Reichenbach,  15 
Reichenhall,  98 
Reigate,  88 
Reims    or    Rheims,    named    for    the 

Remi,  a  tribe 
Remscheid,  171 
Renaix,  corrupt,  from  Hrodnace,  the 

town  of  Hrodno 
Renfrew,  162 
Rennes,  named  from  the  Rhedoni,  a 


Resht,  Ar.  headship 
Resolven,  Welsh  Rhiw,  Scotch  maen, 

the    brow    of    the    stonehead,    in 

Reculver,     in     Kent,     corrupt,    from 

Regoluion,    the    point    against    the 


Retford,  166 

Reutlingen,  a  patronymic 
Revel,  named  from  two  small  islands 



near    the    town,    called    reffe,    the 

Reykjavik  or  Reikiavik,  209 

Rhine  R.  and  Rhone  R. ,  164 

Rhode  Island,  74 

Rhodes  and  Rosas,  in  Spain,  named 
from  the  Rhodians,  a  Grecian  tribe 

Rhyddlan  or  Rhuddlan,  Cym.  -tCel 
the  red  church 

Rhyl,  the  cleft,  a  watering-place  in 
North  Wales 

Rhymni,  the  marshy  land,  in  Mon- 
mouthshire, on  a  river  called  the 
Rhymni,  from  the  nature  of  the 
land  through  which  it  flows — v. 
Romney,  at  EA,  71 

Riga,  126 

Ringwood,  in  Hants,  the  wood  of  the 

Rio-de-Janeiro,  164 

Ripon,  167 

Ritzbuttel,  27 

Rive-de-Gier,  166 

Rivoli,  166 

Rochdale,  the  valley  of  the  R.  Roche 

Rochefort,  167 

Rochelle,  167 

Rochester,  167 

Roermonde,  140 

Romania  or  Roumilli,  109 

Romans,  anc.  Romanum-Monasterium, 
the  monastery  of  the  Romans, 
founded  by  St.  Bernard 

Rome,  perhaps  named  from  ihegroma, 
or  four  cross  roads  that,  at  the 
forum  formed  the  nucleus  of  the 

Romorantin,  166 

Roncesvalles,  200 

Roque,  La,  Cape,  the  rock 

Roscommon,  167 

Roscrea,  167 

Rosetta,  anc.  Ar.  Rasched,  headship 

Ross,  in  Hereford,  165 

Rossbach,  the  horse's  brook 

Ross-shire,  168 

Rothenburg,  165 

Rotherham,  165 

Rotherthurm,  165 

Rothesay,    the    isle    of    Rother,    the 

ancient  name  of  Bute 
Rotterdam,  60 
Rouen,  133 
Rousillon,    named   from   the   ancient 

town  of  Ruscino,  a  Roman  colony 
Roveredo,    Lat    Roboretum,    a    place 

planted  with  oaks,  in  Tyrol 
Row,  in  Dumbartonshire,  from  rubha, 

Gael,   a   promontory  running   into 

the  sea 

Roxburgh,  167 
Ruabon,  corrupt,  from  Rhiw-Mabon- 

Sant,  the  ascent  of  St.   Mabon,   in 

North  Wales 
Rudgeley  or  Rugely,  166 
Rugen,  named  from  the  Rugii 
Runcorn,  45 
Runnymede,  132 
Rushbrook  and  Rushford,  167 
Russia,  named  from  the  Rossi,  a  tribe 

of  Norsemen  in  the  ninth  century 
Ruthin  and  Rhuddlan,  165 
Rutland,  165 
Rybinsk,  168 
Ryde,  167 
Ryswick,  168 

SAALE  R. ,  169 

Saarbriick,  31 

Saar-Louis,  12 

Sabor,  28 

Sabor  R.,  28 

Saffron  Walden,  202 

Sagan,  Sclav,  behind  the  road 

Sahara,  176 

Saida  or  Sidon,  Semitic,  fish  town 

Saintes,  named  from  the  Santones 

Salamanca,  169 

Salem,    in    U.S.,     intended    by    the 

Puritans  to  be  a  type  of  the  New 

Salford,  169 
Salins,  169 
Salisbury,  35 

Salonica,  corrupt,  from  Thessalonica 
Salop,    contracted    from   Sloppesbury, 



the  Norman  corruption  of  Scrobbes- 

bury,  the  town  among  shrubs,  now 

Shrewsbury — v.  34 
Saltcoats,  55 
Salzburg,  169 
Samarcand,  said  to  have  been  named 

after  Alexander  the  Great 
Samaria,  the  town  of  Shemir 
Samos,  Phoen.  the  lofty 
Sandwich,  209 
Sangerhausen — v.  SANG 
Sanquhar,  172 
San  Salvador,   the  Holy  Saviour,  the 

first  land  descried  by  Columbus,  and 

therefore  named  by  him  from   the 

Saviour,  who  had  guarded  him  in  so 

many  perils 
San  Sebastian,  the  first  Spanish  colony 

founded  in  South  America 
Santa  Cruz,  57 
Santa  F6,  the  city  of  the  holy  faith, 

founded  by  Queen  Isabella  after  the 

siege  of  Granada 

Santander,  named  after  St.  Andrew 
Saragossa,     corrupt,      from     Ccesarea 

Augusta;    its     Basque    name  was 

Saluba,  the  sheep's  ford 
Sarawak,  Malay  Sarakaw,  the  cove 
Sarnow,  212 
Saskatchewan,  swift  current,  a  river  in 

British  North  America 
Saul,  in  Gloucester — v.  SALH,  169 
Saul,  Co.  Down — v.  SABHALL,  168 
Saumur,  anc.  Salmurium,   the  walled 

Saxony,  170 
Scala-nova,  39 
Scalloway,  170 
Scarborough,  175 
Scawfell  Mountain,  78 
Schaffhausen,  102 
Schemnitz,  114 
Schichallion  Mountain,  Gael.  Ti-chail- 

linn,  the  maiden's  pap 
Schleswick,  209 
Schmalkalden,  171 
Schotturen,    the     Scotch    Vienna,    a 

colony   of    Scottish    monks   having 

settled  there 

Schreckhorn  Mountain,  107 
Schweidnitz,    Sclav,    the  place  of  the 


Schweinfurt,  the  ford  of  the  Suevi 
Schwerin,  172 
Scilly  Islands,  the  islands  of  the  rock, 

Scinde,  the  country  of  the  R.  Indus  or 

Scratch  meal  Scar,   in  Cumberland — 

V.   SKAER,   175 

Scutari,     in    Albania,     corrupt,     from 

Scodra,  hill  town 
Scutari,    in    Turkey,    from    Uskudar, 

Pers.   a  messenger,  having  been  in 

remote  periods,  what  it  is  to  this  day, 

a  station  for  Asiatic  couriers 
Sebastopol,  158 
Sedlitz,  174 
Segovia,   anc.    Segubia,   probably  the 

plain  on  the  river-bend ;  ce,  a  plain, 

and  gubia,  a  bend 
Selby,  173 
Selinga,  173 
Semipalatinsk,  152 
Senlis,  173 

Sens,  named  from  the  Senones 
Seringapatam,  153 
Settle,  173 

Seville,  Phoen.  Sephala,  a  marshy  plain 
Sevres,    named   from    the    two    rivers 

which  traverse  it,  anc.  Villa  Savara 
Shamo,  Chinese,  the  desert 
Shan — v.  SEANN,  172 
Shanghai,  supreme  court 
Shansi,  west  of  the  mountain 
Shantung,  east  of  the  mountain 
Sherborne,  172 
Shetland  Islands,  104 
Shields,  170 
Shiraz,  174 
Shirvan,  said  to  have  been  named  after 

Nieshirvan,  a  king  of  Persia 
Shotover,   corrupt,   from  Chateauvert, 

green  castle 
Shrewsbury — v.  Salop 
Sicily,  named  from  the  Siculi,  a  tribe 
Sidlaw  Hills,  fairy  hills — v.  SIDH 
Sidon — v.  Saida,  in  Index, 


Silesia,  Sclav.  Zlezia,  the  bad  land 
Silhet  or  Sirihat,  the  rich  market 
Silloth  Bay,  perhaps  herring  bay,  sil, 

Norse,  a  herring,  and  lod,  a  bundle 

of  fishing  lines 
Sion  or  Sitten,  174 
Sion,  Mount,  the  upraised 
Skagen,  Cape,  176 
Skager-rack,  176 
Skaw  Cape,  176 
Skipton,  176 
Skye  Island,   Gael.   Ealan  -  skianach, 

the  winged  island 
Slamanan,  177 
Sligo,    named   from  the  R.    Sligeach, 

shelly  water 
Sluys,  171 
Slyne  Head,  46 
Snafell  Mountain,  78 
Snaith,  177 

Snowdon  Mountain,  70 
Socotra,  65 

Soissons,  named  from  the  Suessiones 
Sokoto,  the  market-place 
Soleure,    corrupt,    from    St.    Ours   or 

Ursinus,  to  whom  the  church  was 

Solway  Firth,   according  to  Camden, 

was  named  from  a  small  village  in 

Scotland  called  Solam 
Somerset,  173 

Sommariva,  the  summit  of  the  bank 
Somogy,   Hung,   the  place  of  cornel- 
Sophia,  Grk.  wisdom,  dedicated  to  the 

second  person  of  the  Trinity 
Sorbonne,  mamed  from  Robert  de  Sor- 

bonne,  almoner  of  St.  Louis 
Sost  or  Soest,  174 
Soudan — v.  BELED 
Southampton,  194 
Southwark,  206 
Souvigny,  173 
Spa,  82 
Spalatro,  152 
Sparta,    Grk.   the  sowed  land  or  the 

place  of  scattered  houses 
Spires    or    Speyer,    named    from    the 

R.  Speyerbach 

Spitzbergen,  156 

Spurn  Head,  the  look-out  cape,  from 
spyrian,  to  look  out 

St.  Alban's  Head,  corrupt,  from  St. 
Aldhelm's  Head 

St.  Andrews,  so  named  from  a  tradi- 
tion that  the  bones  of  St.  Andrew 
were  brought  to  that  place  by  St. 
Regulus :  formerly  called  Mucros, 
the  boar's  headland,  and  then  Kil- 
rymont,  the  church  or  cell  of  the 
king's  mount 

St.  Cloud  for  St.  Hloddwald 

St.  David's,  in  Wales,  Welsh  Ty- 
Ddewi — v.  TY 

St.  Heliers  for  St.  Hilarius 

St.  Omer  for  St.  Awdomar 

Stadel,  etc.,  179 

Staffa,  1 80 

Staines,  181 

Stamboul,  158 

Stanislaus,  named  after  Stanislaus  of 

Stantz,  1 8 1 

Stargard,  182 

Starodub,  182 

Startpoint,  182 

Stavropol,  158 

Stellenbosch,  36 

Stepney,  105 

Stetten,  Sclav.  Zytyn,  the  place  of  green 

Stirling,  Cym.-Cel.  Ystrevelyn,  the 
town  of  the  Easterlings,  from 

Stockholm,  106 

Stockport,  184 

Stockton,  184 

Stoke,  183 

Stolpe,  184 

Stonehaven,  97 

Stow-market,  183 

Stradbally,  184 

Stralsund,  185 

Strasbourg,  184 

Strehlitz,  184 

Striegau  or  Cziska,  Sclav,  the  place  on 
the  small  stream,  tschuga 

Stulweissenburg — v.  FEHER 



Stuttgard,  87 

Styria  or  Steyermark,  the  boundary 
of  the  R.  Steyer 

Sudetic  Mountains,  185 

Suez,  the  mouth  or  opening 

Suffolk,  185 

Sumatra,  corrupt,  from  Trimatra,  the 

Sunderbunds,  corrupt,  from  Sundari- 
vana,  so  called  from  the  forest, 
•uana,  of  Sundari-trees 

Sunderland,  186 

Surat,  i.e.  Su-rashta,  the  good  country 

Surrey,  164 

Susa,  a  city  of  ancient  Persia,  so 
called  from  the  lilies  in  its  neigh- 
bourhood ;  susa,  a  lily 

Sussex,  170 

Sutherlandshire,  185 

Sviatoi-nos,  146 

Swan  R. ,  so  named  from  the  number 
of  black  swans  seen  by  the  first  dis- 

Swansea,  71 

Sweden,  164 

Sydney,  named  after  a  governor  of 
the  colony 

Syria — v.  BELED,  20 

Szent-kercsyt,  186 

Szentes,  for  saint,  186 

TABRIZ,  anc.  Taurus,  the  mountain 

Tagus  or  Tejo  R.,  Phoen.  the  fish 

Tain,  190 

Takhtapul,  the  throne  city,  the  seat 
of  the  Turkish  Afghan  government 

Takht-i-Soliman,  the  throne  of  Solo- 
mon, being  the  highest  of  the  Solo- 
mon Mountains 

Talavera,  29 

Tamsai,  fresh  water  town,  in  China 

Tananarive,  the  city  of  one  thousand 
towns,  the  capital  of  Madagascar 

Tanderagee,  Ir.  Ton-legasitk,  the  place 

with  its  back  to  the  wind 
Tanjier,   Phosn.  the  city  protected  by 


Tanjore,     corrupt,     from     Tanjavur, 
derived    from     its     ancient    name 
Tanja-Nagaram,  the  city  of  refuge 
Tarazona,  199 

Tarifa,  named  after  a  Moorish  chief 
Tarnopol,  187 
Tarporley,  126 
Tarragona,     anc.      Tarraco,      Phoen. 

Tarchon,  the  citadel  or  palace 
Tarsus,  Phoen.  the  strong  place 
Tasmania,  named  after  Abel  Tasman, 
who  discovered  it  in  1642.     It  was 
called  Van  Diemen's  Land  in  honour 
of  the    Governor  -  General   of    the 
Dutch  East  India  Company 
Taurus  Mountain,  196 
Tavistock,  184 
Tay  R.,  187 
Tcherniz,  212 
Teflis,  ^89 

Teltown,   Ir.    Tailten,    where  Taillte, 
the  daughter  of  the  King  of  Spain, 
was  buried 
Temeswar,  Hung,  the  fortress  on  the 

R.  Temes 
Temisconata,  the  wonder  of  water,  a 

county  and  lake  in  Canada 
Temple,  a  parish  in  Mid-Lothian,  where 
there  was  an  establishment  for  the 
Templars  or    Red   Friars,    founded 
by  David  I. 
Tennessee  R.,  the  spoon-shaped  river, 

so  called  from  its  curve 
Tenterden,  62 
Teramo,  14 
Terni,  14 
Terranova,  189 
Texas,  Ind.  hunting  ground 
Tezcuco,    Mexican,    the  place  of  de- 

Thames  R.,  187 
Thannheim,  187 
Thapsus,  the  passage 
Thaxsted,  180 
Thebes,  in  Egypt,  Taba,  the  capital 



Thermia,    Grk.    the    place   of   warm 

springs,  in  Sicily 
Thermopylae,  the  defile  of  the  warm 

Thian-shan,     Chinese,    the    celestial 

Thian-shan-nan-loo,  the  country  south 

of  the  celestial  mountains 
Thian-shan-pe-loo,  the  country  north 

of  the  celestial  mountains 
Thibet,  supposed  to  be  a  corrupt,  of 

Thupo,  the  country  of  the  Thou,  a 

people  who  founded  an  empire  there 

in  the  sixth  century 
This  or  Abou-This,   i.e.    the  city  of 

This,  corrupted  by  the  Greeks  into 

Thouars,  12 

Thrace,  Grk.  the  rough  land,  trachus 
Thun,  69 
Thurgau,  88 
Thurles,  128 
Thurso,  i 
Tiber  R.,  192 
Tideswell,  161 
Tierra-del-Fuego,  189 
Tillicoultry,  198 
Tilsit  or  Tilzela,  at  the  conf.  of  the 

R.  Tilzele  with  the  Memel 
Tinnevelly,   corrupt,  from   Trinavali, 

one  of  the  names  of  Vishnu 
Tinto  Hill,  189 
Tipperary,  192 
Tiree  Island,  189 
Tiverton,  83 

Tlascala,  Mexican,  the  place  of  bread 
Tobermory,  192 
Tobolsk,  176 
Todmorden,   corrupt,  from    Todmare- 

dean,  the  valley  of  the  foxes'  mere 

or  marsh 
Tomantoul,  192 
Tomsk,  176 
Tongres,  186 

Tonquin,  Chinese  Tang-king,  the  east- 
ern capital 

Toome — v.  TUAIM,  197 
Toplitz,  Neu  and  Alt 
Torgau,  195 

Torquay,  195 

Torres   Straits,    named   after  one   of 

Magalhaen's  lieutenants 
Torres- Vedras,  195 
Torquemada,  195 
Tory  Island,  195 
Toul  and  Toulouse,  50 
Toulon,  anc.    Telonium  or  Telo  Mar- 
tins, named  after  its  founder 
Tourcoing,  195 
Tours,  196 
Towie  and  Tough,   parishes  in  Aber- 

deenshire,    from    Gael,    tuath,    the 


Trafalgar,  90 
Tralee,  196 
Tranent,  197 
Transylvania,  173 
Trapani,  anc.   Drafanum,  the  sickle, 

Grk.  drepanon 
Tras-os-Montes,  142 
Traun  R. ,  196 
Traunik,  196 
Traunviertel,  196 
Trave  R.,  196 
Trebizond,  Grk.  trapezus,  the  table,  so 

called  from  its  form 
Trent,   anc.    Civitas-Tridentium,    the 

town  of  the  Tridenti 
Troves,  named  from  the   Treviri,    a 

Trichinapalli,  the  town   of  the   giant 


Trim,  at  the  elder- tree,  197 
Trinidad,    so    named    by    Columbus 

from  its  three  peaks,  emblematic  of 

the  Holy  Trinity 
Tring,  a  patronymic 
Tripoli,  158 
Tripolitza,  158 
Trolhatta  Fall,  Goth,  the  abyss  of  the 

trolls  or  demons 
Trondhjem  or  Drontheim 
Troon,  178 

Troppau,  i.e.  Zur-Oppa,  on  the  R.  Oppa 
Troyes,  named  from  the  Tricasses 
Truro,  197 
Truxillo,     in    Spain,     corrupt,    from 

Turris-Julii ,  Julius's  tower 



Tuam,  197 

Tubingen,  anc.  Diawingen,  probably 
a  patronymic 

Tudela,  anc.  Tutela,  the  watch-tower 

Tullamore,  197 

Tulle,  anc.   Tutela,  the  watch-tower 

Tullow,  197 

Turin,  anc.  Augusta-  Taurinorum, 
named  from  the  Taurini,  i.e.  dwell- 
ers among  hills 

Tweed  R. ,  Brit,  tuedd,  a  border 

Tyndrum,  188 

Tynron,  188 

Tyre,  196 

Tyrnau,  on  the  R.  Tyrnau 

Tyrone,  189 

Tzerna  or  Czerna  R. ,  212 

Tzernagora,  212 


UDNY,    a    parish    in    Aberdeenshire, 

i.e.  Wodeney,  from  the  Saxon  god 

Uist,  North  and  South,  Scand.  Vist, 

an  abode 

Uj-hely,  Hung,  new  place 
Ukraine,  Sclav,  the  frontier  or  boundary 
Ulleswater,  206 

Ulm  or  Ulma,  the  place  of  elm-trees 
Ulster,  183 
Unst  Island,  anc.  Ornyst,  Scand.  the 

eagle's  nest 

Unyamuezi,  the  land  of  the  moon 
Upsala,  169 
Ural  Mountains  and  R.,  Tartar,  the 

belt  or  girdle 
Usedom,  the  Germanised  form  of  Huz- 

ysch,  Sclav,  the  place  of  learning 
Usk  R.,  198 
Utrecht,  66 


VALAIS,  199 
Valence,  in  France,  and 
Valencia,  in  Spain,  anc.  Valentia,  the 

Valenciennes  and  Valenza,  or  Valence, 

said  to  have  been  named  after  the 

Emperor  Valentinian 
Valentia     Island,     in     Ireland,     Ir. 

Dearbhre,  the  oak  wood 
Valetta,    in    Malta,    named   after   the 

Grand  Master  of  the  Knights  of  St. 

John  in  1566 
Valparaiso,  200 
Van  Diemen's  Land,  named  after 

Maria  Van  Diemen  by  Tasman 
Vannes,  named  from  the  Veneti 
Varna,  Turc.  the  fortress 
Varosvar,  200 
Vasarhely,  103 
Vaucluse,  200 
Vaud,  Pays  de,  200 
Velekaja  R. ,  200 
Vende"e,  La,  and 
Vendome,  named  from  the  Veneti 
Venezuela,  little  Venice,  so  called  from 

an    Indian    village    constructed   on 

piles,  discovered  by  the  Spaniards 
Venice,  79 
Venloo,  79 
Ventnor,  150 
Ventry,  196 
Verdun  and  Verden,  69 
Vermont,  green  mountain 
Vevey,  anc.  Vibiscum,  on  the  R.  Vip 
Viborg,  20 1 
Vick,  210 
Vienna,  Ger.   Wien,  on  the  R.  Wien, 

an  affluent  of  the  Danube 
Viesti,  named  from  a  temple  dedicated 

to  Vesta 
Vigo,  209 
Vimeira,  Port,  the  place  of  osiers, 


Vincennes,  anc.  Ad-Vicenas 
Virginia,  named  after  Queen  Elizabeth 
Vistula  or  Wisla,    the  west -flowing 

Vitre",  corrupt,  from  Victoriacum,  the 

Vitry,    the    victorious,    founded     by 

Francis  I. 
Vladimir,  founded  by  the  ducal  family 

of  that  name  in  the  twelfth  century 
Vogelberg,  the  hill  of  birds 



Volga,  the  great  water 

Volhynia,  Sclav,  the  plain 

Voorburg,  84 

Voralberg,  i.e.  in  front  of  the  Arlberg 

Vukovar,  the  fortress  on  the  R.  Vuka 



Walcherin  Island,  204 

Waldeck,  202 

Walden,  Saffron,  202 

Wales,  203 

Wallachia,  204 

Wallendorf,  204 

Wallenstadt,  204 

Wallingford,  203 

Walthamstow,  202 

Ware,  207 

Wareham,  207 

Warminster,  207 

Warrington,  a  patronymic 

Warsaw,  the  fortified  place — v.  VAR 

Warwick,  205 

Waterford,  80 

Waterloo,  130 

Weimar,  134 

Weissenfels,  207 

Weistritz  R. ,  the  swift,  straight  stream 

Well — v.  QUELLE 

Welland  R. ,  the  river  into  which  the 

tide  flows 

Wellingborough,  a  patronymic 
Wellington,  a  patronymic 
Weljs,  161 
Welshpool,     Welsh     Trallwng,     the 

Wem,  198 

Wemys,  uamk,  the  cave 
Werden,  205 
Wesely,  Hung,  pleasant 
Weser  R. ,  i 
Westeraas,  208 
Westphalia,  the  western  plain 
Wetterhorn,  108 
Wexford,  80 
Whitby,  37 

Whitehaven,  97 

Whi thorn,  n 

Wiborg,  20 1 

Wick,  209 

Wicklow,  209 

Wiesbaden,  16 

Wigan,  201 

Wight,  Isle  of,  anc.  Zuzo-yr-with,  the 

island  of  the  channel 
Wigton,  201 
Wiltshire,  173 
Wimbleton,  193 
Wimborne,  210 
Winchester,  44 
Windsor,  150 
Wirksworth,  208 
Wisbeach,  the  shore  of  the  R.  Ouse, 

uisge,  water 
Wisconsin,    Ind.    the    wild    rushing 

Wismar,  210 
Withey,  207 
Wittenberg,  207 
Wittstock,  210 

Wladislawaw,  the  town  of  Wladislav 
Wokingham,  5 
Wolfenbuttel,  27 
Wolga — v.  Volga 
Wolverhampton,  193 
Woodstock,  210 
Wooler,  211 
Woolwich,  104 
Worcester,    anc.    Huic-wara-ceaster, 

the  camp  of  the  Huieci 
Worms,  133 
Worm's   Head,   the    serpent's   head, 

ornr,  from  its  form 
Worthing,  211 
Wrath,   Cape,  Scand.  the  cape  of  the 

hvarf,  or  turning 
Wrietzen  or  Brietzen,  Sclav,  the  place 

of  birch-trees — v.  BRASA 
Wroxeter,  anc.  Uriconium 
Wurtemberg,  anc.  Wrtinisberk,  from 

a  personal  name 
Wurtzburg,  212 
Wycombe,  53 
Wyoming  Valley,  corrupt.  iromMaztgh- 

wauwame,  Ind.  the  large  plains 




XANTHUS  R.,  Grk.  the  yellow  river 
Xeres  de  la  Frontera,  anc.  Asta  Regia 

C<zsariana,  Caesar's  royal  fortress 
Xeres  de  los  Caballeros,  Cassar's 

cavalry  town 

YAKUTSK,  named  from  the  Yakuts,  a 

Tartar  tribe 
Yang-tse   Kiang  R.,   the  son  of  the 

great  water 
Yarra,    the   ever -flowing,    a  river    in 


Yeddo  or  Jeddo,  river  door 
Yell,  barren 

Yemen,  to  the  south  or  right 
Yeni- Bazaar,  212 
Yenisi  R.,  212 
Yeovil,  20 1 
York,  209 

Youghal,  anc.  Eochaill,  the  yew  wood 
Ypres  or  Yperen,  the  dwelling  on  the 


Ysselmonde,  140 
Yunnan,  the  cloudy  south  region,  in 

Yvetot,  192 
Yvoire,  9 

ZAB  R.,  212 

Zabern,  186 

Zambor,  Sclav,  behind  the  wood 

Zanguebar    or    Zanjistan,    Pers.   and 

Arab.,  the  land  of  the  Zangis  and 


Zaragossa — v.  Saragossa 
Zealand,     in     Denmark,     Sjvelland, 

spirit  land 

Zealand,    in    Netherlands,    land   sur- 
rounded by  the  sea 
Zeitz,    named    after    Ciza,    a    Sclav. 

Zell  or  Cell,  48 
Zerbst,    belonging    to     the    Wends, 


Zittau,  the  place  of  corn 
Zug,  anc.    Tugium,  named  from  the 

Tugeni,  a  tribe 
Zurich,   anc.    Thiouricum,    the   town 

of  the  Thuricii,  who  built  it  after  it 

had  been  destroyed  by  Attila 
Zutphen,  79 
Zuyder-Zee,  172 
Zweibriicken,  31 
Zwickau,    the    place  of   goats,    Ger. 

Zwolle,  anc.  Suole,  Old  Ger.  Sval,  at 

the  swell  of  the  water 


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and  Researches  of  recent  Historians.  Revised  Edition,  continued 
to  the  TREATY  OF  BERLIN,  1878.  By  the  late  Professor  J.  S. 

The  Work  may  also  be  obtained  in  Three  Divisions,  price  2s.  6d.  each. 

PART     I. — From  B.C.  55  TO  A. D.  1485. 
PART    II.— 1485-1688. 
PART  III.— 1688-1878. 

A  New  Volume.    Just  out. 


"Let  it  be  said  once  and  for  all  that  the  design  and  arrangement  are 
excellent.  The  work  makes  no  slight  demands  upon  the  author's  capacity 
for  clear  and  sensible  exposition.  To  such  demands  Mr.  Lodge  has  proved 
himself  fully  equal,  while  it  is  not  difficult  to  discover,  scattered  throughout 
the  book,  traces  of  higher  qualities. " — Saturday  Review. 

"  Mr.  Lodge  is  to  be  congratulated  on  the  excellence  of  his  arrangement 
and  on  the  discretion  he  has  shown,  both  as  regards  the  things  he  omits  and 
those  he  insists  on.  While  his  pages  abound  in  facts,  he  has  not  been  content 
to  give  a  mere  crowded  summary  of  events,  he  presents  us  with  many  sound 
and  thoughtful  remarks  on  the  tendencies  of  each  of  his  periods.  His  grasp 
is  firm,  and  he  never  loses  his  way  amidst  a  multitude  of  details. " — Journal 
of  Education. 

Also  the  following  Volumes,  7s.  6d.  each. 



SMITH.     With  Maps  and  Woodcuts. 

SMITH.     With  Maps  and  Woodcuts. 


MR.    MURRAY'S    STUDENTS'    MANUALS— Continued. 


A.  D.  30-1003.  11.1003-1614.  By  PHILIP  SMITH.  With  Woodcuts. 

596-1509.  II.  1509-1717.  By  Canon  PERRY. 

QUEST. By  Dr.  WM.  SMITH.  With  Coloured  Maps  and  Woodcuts. 

OF  THE  EMPIRE.  By  Dean  LIDDELL.  With  Coloured  Map  and 

EMPIRE.  Ey  EDWARD  GIBBON.  With  Woodcuts. 

SECOND  EMPIRE.  By  W.  H.  JERVIS.  With  Coloured  Maps  and 

With  Woodcuts. 

CAL, AND  DESCRIPTIVE.  By  Canon  BEVAN.  With  Woodcuts. 

AND  POLITICAL.  By  Dr.  GEORGE  SMITH.  With  Maps. 



By  T.  B.  SHAW. 





"  I  feel  strongly  the  great  importance  of  the  subject,  not  only  as  a  mental 
discipline  and  essential  .part  of  a  liberal  education,  but  as  more  especially 
necessary  for  Englishmen,  many  of  whom  will  be  called  upon  in  after  life  to 
turn  their  geographical  knowledge  to  practical  and  serious  account." — One  of 
the  opinions  of  Head  Master  of  English  Public  Schools  in  the  Report  of  the 
Royal  Geographical  Society  on  Geographical  Education,  1885. 



M.A.     New  and  Revised  Edition.     With.  150  Maps  and  Woodcuts. 

Post  8vo.     7s.  6d. 

"  Modern  geography  has,  up  to  quite  a  recent  date,  been  almost  entirely 
neglected  in  many  of  our  large  schools,  and  where  professedly  taught  has,  in 
too  many  instances,  been  made  the  most  repulsive  instead  of  the  most  fas- 
cinating of  studies.  Such  books  must  ever  be  not  less  welcome  to  teacher 
than  to  pupil." — Standard. 

RICHARDSON.     400  pp.     Post  8vo.     5s. 

"  After  a  careful  examination,  we  are  bound  to  say  that  it  is  the  most  com- 
prehensive, accurate,  and  methodical  geography  with  which  we  are  familiar, 
and  bears  on  every  page  unmistakable  traces  of  careful  and  industrious  re- 
search. It  fully  sustains  the  high  reputation  of  Mr.  Murray's  series  of 
Manuals,  and  we  venture  to  predict  for  it  a  wide  popularity.  Bearing  in 
mind  its  high  character,  it  is  a  model  of  cheapness. " — School  Guardian. 

RICHARDSON.     16mo.     2s.  6d. 

"We  frankly  acknowledge  that  we  have  never  seen  anything  of  its  kind, 
and  for  its  space,  at  all  approaching  to  this  Smaller  Geography. " — English 


"This  book  is  a  marvel  of  labour  and  condensation,  and  its  compiler 
states  that  he  has  prepared  himself  for  his  task  for  more  than  twenty  years." 
— Spectator. 


Canon  W.  L.  BEVAN,  M.A.     With  240  Maps  and  Woodcuts.     Post 

8vo.     7s.  6d. 

By  the  Same  Author. 

Woodcuts.     240  pp.     16mo.     3s.  6d. 

"A  valuable  addition  to  our  geographical  works.     It  contains  the  newest 
and  most  reliable  information  derived  from  the  researches  of  modern  travellers. 
No  better  text-book  can  be  placed  in  the  hands  of  scholars." — Journal  of 

RICHARDSON.     548  pp.     9s. 

' '  So  far  as  general  physical  geography  goes,  such  Manuals  as  those  of  ... 
Mrs.  Somerville  leave  little  to  be  desired." — Mr.  J.  S.  KELTIE'S  Report  on 
Geographical  Education.  



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